Thomas W. Sherman

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Thomas West Sherman

TWSherman.jpg

Thomas W. Sherman
Nickname(s) Tim
Born(1813-03-26)March 26, 1813
Newport, Rhode Island
Died December 31, 1879(1879-12-31) (aged 66)
Newport, Rhode Island
Place of burial Island Cemetery,
Newport, Rhode Island
Allegiance United States of America
Union
Service/branch United States Army
Union Army
Years of service 18361870
Rank Union army brig gen rank insignia.jpg Brigadier General
Union Army major general rank insignia.svg Brevet Major General
Commands held 3rd U.S. Artillery Regiment
1st Division, Army of the Ohio
2nd Division, XIX Corps
Battles/wars

Second Seminole War
Mexican-American War

American Civil War

Thomas West Sherman (March 26, 1813 December 31, 1879) was a United States Army officer with service during the Mexican-American War and the American Civil War. While some contemporaries mistakenly identified him as the brother of the more famous General William T. Sherman, modern scholarship notes that the two were not closely related. [1]

American Civil War Civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865

The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U.S. history. Primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

Contents

Early career

Sherman, known to his friends as "Tim", was born in Newport, Rhode Island, the son of Elijah and Martha (West) Sherman. His desire to attend the United States Military Academy at West Point was so strong that he walked from Newport to Washington, D.C. to secure a Congressional appointment.

Newport, Rhode Island City in Rhode Island, United States

Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, located approximately 33 miles (53 km) southeast of Providence, Rhode Island, 20 miles (32 km) south of Fall River, Massachusetts, 73 miles (117 km) south of Boston, and 180 miles (290 km) northeast of New York City. It is known as a New England summer resort and is famous for its historic mansions and its rich sailing history. It was the location of the first U.S. Open tournaments in both tennis and golf, as well as every challenge to the America's Cup between 1930 and 1983. It is also the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport, which houses the United States Naval War College, the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, and an important Navy training center. It was a major 18th-century port city and also contains a high number of buildings from the Colonial era.

United States Military Academy U.S. Armys federal service academy in West Point, New York

The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy, or simply The Point, is a four-year federal service academy in West Point, New York. It was originally established as a fort that sits on strategic high ground overlooking the Hudson River with a scenic view, 50 miles (80 km) north of New York City. It is one of the four U.S. military service academies, and one of the five U.S. service academies.

Sherman graduated from West Point on July 1, 1836 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery Regiment. Sherman would serve the bulk of his career with the 3rd Artillery and eventually became its commander.

His early career included service in the Florida War against the Seminoles from 1836‑38 and in the Cherokee Nation in 1838 while transferring the Native Americans to the West.

The Seminole are a Native American people originally from Florida. Today, they principally live in Oklahoma with a minority in Florida, and comprise three federally recognized tribes: the Seminole Tribe of Oklahoma, the Seminole Tribe of Florida, and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida, as well as independent groups. The Seminole nation emerged in a process of ethnogenesis from various Native American groups who settled in Florida in the 18th century, most significantly northern Muscogee (Creeks) from what is now Georgia and Alabama. The word "Seminole" is derived from the Creek word simanó-li, which may itself be derived from the Spanish word cimarrón, meaning "runaway" or "wild one".

Cherokee Nation Domestic dependent nation

The Cherokee Nation, also known as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is the largest of three Cherokee federally recognized tribes in the United States. It was established in the 20th century and includes people descended from members of the Old Cherokee Nation who relocated from the Southeast due to increasing pressure to Indian Territory and Cherokee who were forced to relocate on the Trail of Tears. The tribe also includes descendants of Cherokee Freedmen and Natchez Nation. Over 299,862 people are enrolled in the Cherokee Nation, with 189,228 living within the state of Oklahoma. According to Larry Echo Hawk, former head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), the current Cherokee Nation is not the historical Cherokee tribe but instead a "successor in interest".

Indigenous peoples of the Americas Pre-Columbian inhabitants of North, Central, and South America and their descendants

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North, Central and South America and their descendants.

He was promoted to first lieutenant on March 14, 1838. He served again in the Florida War from 1838 to 1842 and on recruiting service in 1842.

He served at Fort Moultrie, South Carolina from 1842 to 1844 and was again on recruiting service from 1844 to 1846. He was promoted to captain on May 28, 1846.

Fort Moultrie historic district in the United States

Fort Moultrie is a series of fortifications on Sullivan's Island, South Carolina, built to protect the city of Charleston, South Carolina. The first fort, formerly named Fort Sullivan, built of palmetto logs, inspired the flag and nickname of South Carolina, as "The Palmetto State". The fort was renamed for the U.S. patriot commander in the Battle of Sullivan's Island, General William Moultrie. During British occupation, in 1780–1782, the fort was known as Fort Arbuthnot.

Mexican-American War

During the War with Mexico he took a distinguished part in the Battle of Buena Vista on February 23, 1847, leading his battery in a defensive action helping to stop the Mexican attack, and was brevetted to major "for Gallant and Meritorious Conduct" during the battle.

Battle of Buena Vista

The Battle of Buena Vista, also known as the Battle of Angostura, saw the United States Army use artillery to repulse the much larger Mexican Army in the Mexican–American War. Buena Vista, a village in the state of Coahuila, is seven miles (12 km) south of Saltillo, in Mexico.

In many of the world's military establishments, a brevet was a warrant giving a commissioned officer a higher rank title as a reward for gallantry or meritorious conduct but without conferring the authority, precedence, or pay of real rank. An officer so promoted was referred to as being brevetted. The promotion would be noted in the officer's title.

He was assigned to Fort Trumbull in New London, Connecticut in 1848 and then to Fort Adams in Newport from 1849 to 1853.

He was then on frontier duty at Fort Snelling, Minnesota from 1853 to 1857 and was in command of expedition to Yellow Medicine, Minnesota in 1857. He was involved in quelling the Kansas Border Disturbances in 1857 to 1858 and the Artillery School for Practice at Fort Ridgely, Minnesota from 1858 to 1861, except while in command of the expedition to Kettle Lake, Dakota in 1859.

Family

In 1858, Sherman married Mary Hannah Shannon, the daughter of Wilson Shannon, who had served as Governor of Ohio and Governor of Kansas Territory. They were the parents of a son, Wilson Shannon Sherman (1860-1936). Mary Shannon Sherman died from surgical complications just four days before her husband's death.

News stories in 1910 indicated that Wilson Sherman had not been heard from since the early 1890s, and that attorneys and police in Washington, DC and Newport were attempting to locate him. The effort to locate Wilson Sherman was undertaken because he was the only heir to his parents' estate, a large part of which had been held for him since their deaths. By the time of his death in 1936, he was living at the Masonic Home in Charlton, Massachusetts.

Civil War

At the start of the Civil War, Sherman was serving as a major in the 3rd Artillery when President Abraham Lincoln appointed him to the grade of brigadier general of volunteers on August 6, 1861, to rank from May 17, 1861. [2] Sherman's nomination to the grade of brigadier general of volunteers was sent by President Abraham Lincoln to the United States Senate on July 31, 1861 and the Senate confirmed the appointment on August 3, 1861. [2] He assumed command of the ground forces in the Port Royal Expedition. Sherman and the naval force under Flag Officer Samuel F. du Pont captured Port Royal in a combined Army/Navy operation.

After briefly commanding the Department of the South, Sherman was sent to the Western Theater. He took command of Major General George H. Thomas's division during the Siege of Corinth when the latter assumed command of the Right Wing of Major General Henry W. Halleck's army group. After that he commanded the Defenses of New Orleans before taking command of a division in Major General Nathaniel P. Banks's army, which he led into action at the Siege of Port Hudson.

During the May 27, 1863 attack on Port Hudson, Sherman was severely wounded, which led to the amputation of his right leg. His injuries were so severe that he was not expected to live, and the newspaper in his hometown of Newport, Rhode Island, printed an extensive obituary for him. For the rest of the war he held administrative commands in Louisiana. Sherman was mustered out of the volunteers on April 30, 1866. [2]

In recognition of his heroism and services, President Andrew Johnson nominated Sherman for appointment to the grade of brevet major general of volunteers to rank from March 13, 1865 and the United States Senate confirmed the appointment on March 12, 1866. [3] On June 30, 1866, President Johnson nominated Sherman to be appointed to the rank of brevet major general of the United States Army (i.e. Regular Army), to rank from March 13, 1865, and the Senate confirmed the appointment on July 25, 1866. [4]

Post war

On February 5, 1868, Sherman was elected as a First Class Companion of the Pennsylvania Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States and was assigned insignia number 643. He was also, most probably, a member of the Grand Army of the Republic.

After Sherman was mustered out of volunteer service on April 30, 1866, he reverted to his Regular Army grade of colonel and was placed in command of the 3rd Artillery Regiment.

He served in command of his regiment and the post of Fort Adams, in Newport from July 29, 1866, to February 1869. He was in temporary command of the Department of the East from January to July 16, 1868. His final assignment was in command of his regiment and Fort Taylor in Key West, Florida from February 1869 to November 29, 1870.

Sherman retired from active service on December 31, 1870, as a major-general for "Disability caused by the Loss of a Leg in Battle". [5]

Sherman lived at his home named "Twin Beeches" on Catherine Street in Newport until he died there on March 16, 1879, at the age of 66. He is buried in the Island Cemetery in Newport.

Legacy

In 2017, Major General Thomas West Sherman Camp 1 was chartered by the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War (SUVCW). Camp 1 serves as the local chapter of the SUVCW in Newport County, Rhode Island.

Dates of rank

Insignia Rank Component Date
No insignia Cadet United States Military Academy 1 July 1832
Union 2nd lt rank insignia.svg Second Lieutenant 3rd Artillery 1 July 1836
Union army 1st lt rank insignia.jpg First Lieutenant 3rd Artillery 14 March 1838
Union army cpt rank insignia.jpg Captain 3rd Artillery 28 May 1846
Union army maj rank insignia.jpg Major Brevet 23 February 1847
Union army maj rank insignia.jpg Major 3rd Artillery 27 April 1861
Union army lt col rank insignia.jpg Lieutenant Colonel 5th Artillery 14 May 1861
Union army brig gen rank insignia.jpg Brigadier General Volunteers 17 May 1861
Union Army colonel rank insignia.png Colonel 3rd Artillery 1 June 1863
Union army brig gen rank insignia.jpg Brigadier General Brevet 13 March 1865
Union army maj gen rank insignia.jpg Major General Brevet (Volunteers) 13 March 1865
Union army maj gen rank insignia.jpg Major General Brevet 13 March 1865
Union Army colonel rank insignia.png Colonel 3rd Artillery 30 April 1866
(Mustered out of Volunteers,
reverted to permanent rank.)
Union army maj gen rank insignia.jpg Major General Retired list 31 December 1870

See also

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References

  1. Symonds, Craig L., Lincoln and His Admirals, New York: Oxford University Press, 2008, P. 65n, ISBN   0-1997-5157-9.
  2. 1 2 3 Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN   978-0-8047-3641-1. p. 728.
  3. Eicher, 2001, p. 714.
  4. Eicher, 2001, p. 709.
  5. Sherman, Thomas West
  6. Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, 1789-1903. Francis B. Heitman. Vol. 1. pg. 882.