Col. Thomas Walcot (1625 – July 20, 1683) born in Warwickshire, the fourth son of Charles Walcot and Elizabeth Games, a Puritan and Lt. Col. in the Parliamentary Army. Thomas married Jane Blayney, (daughter of Thomas Blayney, niece of Edward Blayney, 1st Baron Blayney and grand-niece of Adam Loftus (bishop)) purchased Ballyvarra Castle in 1655, and in 1659 was at Dunmurry. He settled at Croagh, Co. Limerick, Ireland where he had an estate of £800 per annum. He also had lands at Amogan in the Barony of Lower Conneloe. He was offered the Governorship of Province of Carolina, but declined it. Arrested in 1672 on allegation of planning a Dutch invasion of Ireland. Spent eight months in Tower of London before being exonerated.
Edward Blayney, 1st Baron Blayney, also Blainey or Blaney (1570-1629) was a Welsh soldier and politician in Ireland. He became Baron Blayney of Monaghan in the Peerage of Ireland. He gave his name to the town of Castleblayney, which he founded in about 1611.
Adam Loftus was Archbishop of Armagh, and later Dublin, and Lord Chancellor of Ireland from 1581. He was also the first Provost of Trinity College, Dublin.
The Province of Carolina was an English and later a British colony of North America. Carolina was founded in what is present-day North Carolina. Carolina expanded south and, at its greatest extent, nominally included the present-day states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee and Mississippi, and parts of modern Florida and Louisiana.
Arrested on July 8 or 10, 1683 for his part in the Rye House Plot, a conspiracy to assassinate Charles II and his brother, James, Duke of York, as they traveled from the Newmarket races to London past Rye House in Hertfordshire.
Stood trial on July 12, 1863 at the Sessions-House in the Old Bailey London for High Treason Walcot was hanged, drawn and quartered on July 20, 1683 at Tyburn Hill (Marble Arch) in London and head exhibited on spike at Aldgate. Walcot was the last man in England to undergo this punishment.
Tyburn was a village in the county of Middlesex close to the current location of Marble Arch and the southern end of Edgware Road in present-day London. It took its name from the Tyburn Brook, a tributary of the River Westbourne. The name Tyburn, from Teo Bourne meaning 'boundary stream', is quite widely occurring, and the Tyburn Brook should not be confused with the better known River Tyburn, which is the next tributary of the River Thames to the east of the Westbourne.
William Russell, Lord Russell, cousin of Thomas Walcot, was also convicted and executed. Algernon Sidney, was convicted on weaker evidence by Judge George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys, who was brought in as Lord Chief Justice in September 1683.
William Russell, Lord Russell, was an English politician. He was a leading member of the Country Party, forerunners of the Whigs, who laid the groundwork opposition in the House of Commons of England to the concept of a reign of an openly Catholic King during the reign of King Charles II but ultimately resulted in his execution for treason, almost two years before King Charles died and James acceded to the throne.
Algernon Sidney or Sydney was an English politician and member of the middle part of the Long Parliament. A republican political theorist, colonel, and commissioner of the trial of King Charles I of England, he opposed the king's execution. Sidney was later charged with plotting against Charles II, in part based on his most famous work, Discourses Concerning Government, used by the prosecution as a witness at his trial. He was executed for treason. After his death, Sidney was revered as a "Whig patriot–hero and martyr".
Thomas Walcot was exonerated by the reversal of attainder in 1696 in favor of his eldest son, John under William III of England.
In English criminal law, attainder or attinctura was the metaphorical "stain" or "corruption of blood" which arose from being condemned for a serious capital crime. It entailed losing not only one's life, property and hereditary titles, but typically also the right to pass them on to one's heirs. Both men and women condemned of capital crimes could be attainted.
William III, also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is sometimes informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy".
George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys of Wem, PC, also known as "the Hanging Judge", was a Welsh judge. He became notable during the reign of King James II, rising to the position of Lord Chancellor. His conduct as a judge was to enforce royal policy, resulting in a historical reputation for severity and bias.
Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex, PC, also spelled Capel, of Cassiobury House, Watford, Hertfordshire, was an English statesman.
The Rump Parliament was the English Parliament after Colonel Thomas Pride purged the Long Parliament, on 6 December 1648, of those members hostile to the Grandees' intention to try King Charles I for high treason.
Anthony Ashley Cooper, PC, known as Anthony Ashley Cooper from 1621 to 1630, as Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, 2nd Baronet from 1630 to 1661, and as The Lord Ashley from 1661 to 1672, was a prominent English politician during the Interregnum and during the reign of King Charles II. A founder of the Whig party, he is also remembered as the patron of John Locke.
The Rye House Plot of 1683 was a plan to assassinate King Charles II of England and his brother James, Duke of York. The royal party went from Westminster to Newmarket to see horse races and were expected to make the return journey on 1 April 1683, but because there was a major fire in Newmarket on 22 March, the races were cancelled, and the King and the Duke returned to London early. As a result, the planned attack never took place.
Earl of Shaftesbury is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1672 for Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Baron Ashley, a prominent politician in the Cabal then dominating the policies of King Charles II. He had already succeeded his father as second Baronet of Rockbourne in 1631 and been created Baron Ashley, of Wimborne St Giles in the County of Dorset, in 1661, and he was made Baron Cooper, of Paulett in the County of Somerset, at the same time he was given the earldom.
The Good Old Cause was the name given, retrospectively, by the soldiers of the New Model Army, to the complex of reasons that motivated their fight on behalf of the Parliament of England.
A lord proprietor is a person granted a royal charter for the establishment and government of an English colony in the 17th century. The plural of the term is "lords proprietors" or "lords proprietary".
Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester was an English diplomat and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1614 and 1625 and then succeeded to the peerage as Earl of Leicester.
John Hampden, the second son of Richard Hampden, and grandson of Ship money tax protester John Hampden, returned to England after residing for about two years in France, and joined himself to William Russell and Algernon Sidney and the party opposed to the arbitrary government of Charles II. With Russell and Sidney he was arrested in 1683 for alleged complicity in the Rye House Plot, but more fortunate than his colleagues his life was spared, although as he was unable to pay the fine of £40,000 which was imposed upon him he remained in prison. Then in 1685, after the failure of Monmouth's rising, Hampden was again brought to trial, and on a charge of high treason was condemned to death. But the sentence was not carried out, and having paid £6000 he was set at liberty. In the Convention Parliament of 1689 he represented Wendover, but in the subsequent parliaments he failed to secure a seat. It was Hampden who in 1689 coined the phrase "Glorious Revolution". He died by his own hand on 12 December 1696. Hampden wrote numerous pamphlets, and Bishop Burnet described him as "one of the learnedest gentlemen I ever knew".
Events from the year 1683 in England.
Sir Thomas Armstrong was an English army officer and Member of Parliament executed for treason. His father, Colonel Sir Thomas Armstrong fought in the 30 Years War in the Netherlands, was a royalist soldier during the English Civil War, and was twice imprisoned in the Tower of London by Oliver Cromwell during the Commonwealth.
William Howard, 3rd Baron Howard of Escrick (1626?–1694) was an English Parliamentarian soldier, nobleman, and plotter.
Sir Samuel Barnardiston, 1st Baronet (1620–1707) was an English Whig Member of Parliament and deputy governor of the East India Company, defendant in some high-profile legal cases and involved in a highly contentious parliamentary election.
Sir Thomas Walcot SL was an English judge and politician.