Thomas Walker Arnold

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Thomas Walker Arnold

Sir Thomas Arnold
Born(1864-04-19)19 April 1864
Died9 June 1930(1930-06-09) (aged 66)
Scientific career
Influenced Muhammad Iqbal

Sir Thomas Walker Arnold CIE (19 April 18649 June 1930) was a British orientalist and historian of Islamic art who taught at Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, [1] Aligarh Muslim University (then Aligarh College), and Government College University, Lahore. [2] He was a friend of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, and wrote his famous book "The preaching of Islam" at the insistence of Sir Syed. [3] He also taught poet-philosopher Muhammad Iqbal and Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, and was a very close friend of Shibli Nomani who was also a teacher at Aligarh. [4]

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Historical sovereign state from 1801 to 1921

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

Oriental studies academic field focus on Asian cultures

Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Middle Eastern studies and Asian studies. Traditional Oriental studies in Europe is today generally focused on the discipline of Islamic studies, while the study of China, especially traditional China, is often called Sinology. The study of East Asia in general, especially in the United States, is often called East Asian studies, while the study of Israel and Jews are called Israel studies and Jewish studies respectively, although they are often considered the same field.

Islamic art art associated with Muslim peoples

Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced in the Islamic world. Islamic art is difficult to characterize because it covers a wide range of lands, periods, and genres, including Islamic architecture, Islamic calligraphy, Islamic miniature, Islamic glass, Islamic pottery, and textile arts such as carpets and embroidery.



Arnold was born on 19 April 1864, and educated at the City of London School. [5] From 1888 he worked as a teacher at the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, Aligarh. In 1898, he accepted a post as Professor of Philosophy at the Government College, Lahore and later became Dean of the Oriental Faculty at Punjab University. [6] From 1904 to 1909 he was on the staff of the India Office as Assistant Librarian. In 1909 he was appointed Educational Adviser to Indian students in Britain. [7] From 1917 to 1920 he acted as Adviser to the Secretary of State for India. [8] He was Professor of Arabic and Islamic Studies at the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, from 1921 to 1930. [9] Arnold became the first English editor for the first edition of The Encyclopaedia of Islam . [10]

City of London School school in the City of London, England

The City of London School, also known as CLS and City, is an independent day school for boys in the City of London, England, on the banks of the River Thames next to the Millennium Bridge, opposite Tate Modern. It is a partner school of the City of London School for Girls and the City of London Freemen's School. All three schools receive funding from the City's Cash. It is a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference (HMC).

Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College was founded in 1875, initially as a primary school, with the intention of taking it to a college level institution, known as Muhammedan Anglo Oriental Collegiate School. Its given Urdu name was Madrasatul Uloom Musalmanan-e-Hind. It started operations on Queen Victoria's 56th birthday, 24 May 1875.

Aligarh City in Uttar Pradesh, India

Aligarh is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh that is famous for its lock industries. It is the administrative headquarters of the Aligarh district. It lies 307 kilometres (191 mi) northwest of Kanpur and is approximately 145 kilometres (90 mi) southeast of the capital, New Delhi. Notable as the seat of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh is the 8th largest city in Uttar Pradesh and 55th largest city in India.

He was invested as a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire in 1912, and in 1921 was invested as a knight.[ clarification needed ] He married Celia Mary Hickson in 1892. [11] He died on 9 June 1930. [12]


See also

Muhammad Iqbal Urdu poet

Sir Muhammad Iqbal, widely known as Allama Iqbal was a poet, philosopher and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement. He is called the "Spiritual Father of Pakistan." He is considered one of the most important figures in Urdu literature, with literary work in both Urdu and Persian.

Shibli Nomani Indian scholar

Shibli Nomani was an Islamic scholar from the Indian subcontinent during British Raj. He was born at Bindwal in Azamgarh district of present-day Uttar Pradesh. He is known for the founding the Shibli National College in 1883 and the Darul Mussanifin in Azamgarh. Shibli was a versatile scholar in Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Urdu. He was also a poet. He collected much material on the life of the Prophet of Islam, Muhammad but could write only first two volumes of the planned work the Sirat-un-Nabi. His disciple, Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, made use of this material and added to it and also wrote remaining five volumes of the work, the Sirat-un-Nabi after the death of his mentor.

Related Research Articles

Syed Ahmad Khan Indian educator and politician

Sir Syed Ahmad Taqvi bin Syed Muhammad Muttaqi KCSI, commonly known as Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, was a Muslim pragmatist, Islamic reformist, philosopher of nineteenth century British India. Born into a family with strong ties to the Mughal court, Syed studied the Quran and Sciences within the court. He was awarded honorary LLD from the University of Edinburgh.

Sulaiman Nadvi Indian academic

Sulaiman Nadvi was a Pakistani historian, biographer, littérateur and scholar of Islam. He co-authored Sirat-un-Nabi and wrote Khutbat-e-Madras.

Battle of the Bridge battle between Sasanians and Arab Muslims

The Battle of the Bridge or the Battle of al-Jisr was a battle at the bank of the Euphrates river between Arab Muslims led by Abu Ubaid al-Thaqafi, and the Persian Sasanian forces led by Bahman Jaduya. It is traditionally dated to the year 634, and was the only major Sassanian victory over the invading Muslim armies.

Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama is an Islamic institution at Lucknow, India, which draws large number of Muslim students from all over the world. Nadwatul Ulama fosters a diverse range of both scholars and students including Hanafis, Shafi'is and Ahl al-Hadith. Additionally it is one of very few institutes in the region to teach the Islamic Sciences completely in Arabic.

Hamiduddin Farahi was an Indian Islamic scholar known for his work on the concept of nazm, or coherence, in the Qur'an. He was instrumental in producing scholarly work on the theory that the verses of the Quran are interconnected in such a way that each surah, or chapter, of the Qu'ran forms a coherent structure, having its own central theme, which he called umood. He also started writing his own exegesis, or tafsir of the Quran which was left incomplete on his death in 1930. The muqaddimah, or introduction to this is an important work on the theory of Nazm-ul-Quran.

Abdul Haq (Urdu scholar) Urdu scholar and linguist

Maulvi Abdul Haq was a scholar and a linguist, whom some call Baba-e-Urdu. Abdul Haq was a champion of the Urdu language and the demand for it to be made the national language of Pakistan.

Anjuman Taraqqī-yi-Urdū is an organization working for the promotion and dissemination of Urdu language, literature and culture in Pakistan and India. Anjuman-i Taraqqi- Urdu is the largest Urdu scholarly promotional association in South Asia.

The All India Muhammadan Educational Conference was an organisation promoting modern, liberal education for the Muslim community in India. It was founded by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, also the founder of the Aligarh Muslim University. All India Mumammadan Educational Conference was the origin of the All-India Muslim League. The Muslim League was born in the 20th session of All India Muhammadan Educational Conference, which was established by Syed Ahmed Khan in Aligarh in 1886. Muhammadan Educational Conference used to hold its annual meetings in various cities where, by the co-operation of local Muslims, steps were taken for the progress of education.


Sirat-un-Nabi is one of the most famous and authentic Sirah Rasul Allah (biographies) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, written in Urdu by Shibli Nomani and his student, Sulaiman Nadvi in 7 volumes.

Minto Circle, officially Syedna Tahir Saifuddin School , is a semi-residential high school under Aligarh Muslim University at Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. The school was established as Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental Collegiate School by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in 1875, which later evolved as Aligarh Muslim University. It is one of the five senior secondary schools run by the university.


Battoulah is a mask traditionally worn by Muslim Arab women in Arab states of the Persian Gulf, including Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Oman and Qatar, as well as in southern Iran. Origin of battoulah is unknown, but it is thought to have entered Eastern Arabian Peninsula from Gujarat in late 18th century.

Tehzeeb-ul-Ikhlaq was a journal published by the Muslim reformer Sir Syed Ahmed Khan between 1871 and 1897. The journal published alternative Muslim perspectives, written in plain language. It gave voice to the publisher's religious, social, and reforming opinions, and is credited with establishing him as one of the fathers of Urdu fiction. The same journal was restarted by Syed Hamid Vice-chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University in 1981; and since then it is being published regularly. There is now a separate office of Tehzeeb-ul-Ikhlaq.

Shibli Academy is a research academy based in Azamgarh, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Syed Salman Al Husaini Al Nadwi is a scholar and professor in the Islamic sciences. He is an author of numerous scholarly works in Arabic and Urdu. Salman Hussaini Nadwi is serving as the Dean of the Faculty of Dawah at the Darul-uloom Nadwatul Ulama madrasa in Lucknow. Besides these he is also serving as the chairman of the Dr. Abdul Ali Unani Medical College and Hospital, Chancellor of Darul Uloom Syed Ahmad Shaheed – Katoli, President of Jamiat Shabaab ul Islam. He is also a member of the All India Muslim Personal Law Board, member of the court of Aligarh Muslim University, a member of Rabita Adab Islami Alalami, a member of Islamic Fiqh Academy (India) and a member of many other Islamic organisations. In addition, he is a founding member of numerous medical, IT and engineering colleges in India. Shaykh Salman is also the editor and co-editor of thirteen different periodicals in English, Urdu, Persian and Arabic languages published in India and abroad.

Iqbal Ahmed Khan was born in 1884 in village Badhariya, Azamgarh, and died on 7 November 1955. He was a famous Urdu poet, writing under the takhallus, or pen name "Suhail", Islamic scholar, lawyer, educationist and a politician. He was a member of the executive committee of the Azamgarh Muslim Education Society, which manages Shibli National Post Graduate College and other institutions in Azamgarh, Uttar Pradesh. His poetry has been mentioned in many articles about Azamgarh. His work has been featured in the Encyclopedic Dictionary of Urdu Literature. edited by Shaikh Afzal azmi

The Sassanid reconquest of Yemen took place in 575 or 578 after Aksumite men killed Sayf ibn Dhi Yazan after a reign of some four years and took control of Yemen. The rising took place when the protecting Persian garrison withdrew from Yemen. The Sassanids, this time with a force of 4,000 men, managed to reconquer Yemen and install Sayf’s son, Maʿdī Kareb as ruler.

The Aligarh Movement was the push to establish a modern system of education for the Muslim population of British India, during the later decades of the 19th century. The movement′s name derives from the fact that its core and origins lay in the city of Aligarh in Northern India and, in particular, with the foundation of the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental Collegiate School in 1875. The founder of the oriental college, and the other educational institutions that developed from it, was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. He became the leading light of the wider Aligarh Movement.

Muslim University Riding Club (MURC) established as M.A.O. College riding school is a 130 year old club of the Aligarh Muslim University. The players of the club have also featured in the London magazine in 1974. MURC is the only riding club in a university in India. It also has a strong 19 member riding squad. The club is open for both the sexes.


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  11. Arnold, Thomas Walker (1 January 1913). The preaching of Islam : a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith. London : Constable.
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