Thomas Walter Warnes

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Thomas Walter Warnes FRCP (born 1938) was an English gastroenterologist.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

He graduated from the University of Manchester in 1962 and took the MD in 1975. He had a particular interest in liver disease. The major contributions in his M.D Thesis included 1) The development of new techniques to separate and identify Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzymes in blood and duodenal juice; 2) The first demonstration of a hormonal action on an enzyme from the same tissue (small intestine); 3) The first demonstration of an entero-hepatic circulation of a glycoprotein enzyme. He became Senior Physician in the University Department of Gastroenterology at Manchester Royal Infirmary where he founded the Liver Unit. He was president of the North of England Gastroenterology Society; Deputy Director of The British Liver Trust and Visiting Professor in the Department of Biomolecular Sciences at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST). [1]

Alkaline phosphatase InterPro Family

Alkaline phosphatase or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons. Each monomer contains five cysteine residues, two zinc atoms, and one magnesium atom crucial to its catalytic function, and it is optimally active at alkaline pH environments. ALP has the physiological role of dephosphorylating compounds. The enzyme is found across a multitude of organisms, prokaryotes and eukaryotes alike, with the same general function but in different structural forms suitable to the environment they function in. Alkaline phosphatase is found in the periplasmic space of E. coli bacteria. This enzyme is heat stable and has its maximum activity at high pH. In humans, it is found in many forms depending on its origin within the body – it plays an integral role in metabolism within the liver and development within the skeleton. Due to its widespread prevalence in these areas, its concentration in the bloodstream is used by diagnosticians as a biomarker in helping determine diagnoses such as hepatitis or osteomalacia.

Manchester Royal Infirmary Hospital in United Kingdom, England

Manchester Royal Infirmary is a hospital in Manchester, England, founded by Charles White in 1752. It is now part of Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, sharing buildings and facilities with several other hospitals.

British Liver Trust is a charitable organisation in The United Kingdom which has a focus in the health of the liver. Based in the town of Bournemouth, the Trust is made up of 14 employed members of staff who are supplemented by voluntary workers.

Over his career, he contributed to numerous publications on hepatic fibrosis; Oxidant stress in chronic liver disease; Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC); Portal hypertension; Development of new drug treatments for chronic liver disease (incl. the first trial of colchicine in PBC); Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes; Hepatitis B & C; Tumour markers of primary liver cancer; Occupational liver disease. He published in prestigious peer reviewed journals including: Journal of Hepatology; Hepatology (journal); Gut (journal); The American Journal of Human Genetics; The European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology; The Lancet; British Medical Journal; Gastroenterology (journal); The New England Journal of Medicine,...). [2]

Chronic liver disease in the clinical context is a disease process of the liver that involves a process of progressive destruction and regeneration of the liver parenchyma leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. "Chronic liver disease" refers to disease of the liver which lasts over a period of six months. It consists of a wide range of liver pathologies which include inflammation, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The entire spectrum need not be experienced.

Portal hypertension hypertension in the hepatic portal system, which are the portal vein and its branches, which drain from most of the intestines to the liver

Portal hypertension is hypertension in the hepatic portal system – made up of the portal vein and its branches, that drain from most of the intestine to the liver. Portal hypertension is defined as a hepatic venous pressure gradient. Cirrhosis is the most common cause of portal hypertension; other, less frequent causes are therefore grouped as non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. When it becomes severe enough to cause symptoms or complications, treatment may be given to decrease portal hypertension itself or to manage its complications.

Colchicine medication most commonly used to treat gout

Colchicine is a medication used to treat gout and Behçet's disease. In gout it is less preferred to NSAIDs or steroids. Other uses include the prevention of pericarditis and familial Mediterranean fever. It is taken by mouth.

Related Research Articles

Alcoholic liver disease

Alcoholic liver disease is a term that encompasses the liver manifestations of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis.

Hepatotoxicity implies chemical-driven liver damage. Drug-induced liver injury is a cause of acute and chronic liver disease.

Autoimmune hepatitis autoimmune disease of gastrointestinal tract that results in inflammation located in liver caused by the bodys immune system attacking the liver cells

Autoimmune hepatitis, formerly called lupoid hepatitis, is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the liver that occurs when the body's immune system attacks liver cells causing the liver to be inflamed. Common initial symptoms include fatigue or muscle aches or signs of acute liver inflammation including fever, jaundice, and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Individuals with autoimmune hepatitis often have no initial symptoms and the disease is detected by abnormal liver function tests.

Primary biliary cholangitis liver cirrhosis characterized by chronic and slow progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary cirrhosis, is an autoimmune disease of the liver. It results from a slow, progressive destruction of the small bile ducts of the liver, causing bile and other toxins to build up in the liver, a condition called cholestasis. Further slow damage to the liver tissue can lead to scarring, fibrosis, and eventually cirrhosis.

In medicine, specifically gastroenterology, the Child–Pugh score is used to assess the prognosis of chronic liver disease, mainly cirrhosis. Although it was originally used to predict mortality during surgery, it is now used to determine the prognosis, as well as the required strength of treatment and the necessity of liver transplantation.

Liver disease Human disease

Liver disease is a type of damage to or disease of the liver. Whenever the course of the problem lasts long, chronic liver disease ensues.

Liver biopsy

Liver biopsy is the biopsy from the liver. It is a medical test that is done to aid diagnosis of liver disease, to assess the severity of known liver disease, and to monitor the progress of treatment.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fatty liver disease characterized by the storing of excess fat in liver cells which is is not caused by heavy alcohol use

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is excessive fat build-up in the liver due to causes other than alcohol use. There are two types: non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Non-alcoholic fatty liver usually does not progress to liver damage or NASH. NASH includes both a fatty liver and liver inflammation. It may lead to complications such as cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver failure, or cardiovascular disease.

Liver failure

Liver failure is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology. Two forms are recognised, acute and chronic. Recently a third form of liver failure known as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is increasingly being recognized.

Ischemic hepatitis

Ischemic hepatitis, also known as ischemic hepatopathy or shock liver, is a condition defined as an acute liver injury caused by insufficient blood flow to the liver. The decreased blood flow (perfusion) to the liver is usually due to shock or low blood pressure. However, local causes involving the hepatic artery that supplies oxygen to the liver, such as a blood clot in the hepatic artery, can also cause ischemic hepatitis.

Hashem B. El-Serag is a Palestinian-American physician and medical researcher best known for his research in liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the hepatitis C virus.

Sanjiv Chopra American medical academic

Sanjiv Chopra, M.B.B.S, M.A.C.P, is an Indian-born American physician, Professor of Medicine and former Faculty Dean for Continuing Medical Education at Harvard Medical School, Senior Consultant in Hepatology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and author.

Cirrhosis Chronic disease of the liver, characterized by fibrosis

Cirrhosis, also known as liver cirrhosis or hepatic cirrhosis, is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage. This damage is characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue by scar tissue. Typically, the disease develops slowly over months or years. Early on, there are often no symptoms. As the disease worsens, a person may become tired, weak, itchy, have swelling in the lower legs, develop yellow skin, bruise easily, have fluid build up in the abdomen, or develop spider-like blood vessels on the skin. The fluid build-up in the abdomen may become spontaneously infected. Other serious complications include hepatic encephalopathy, bleeding from dilated veins in the esophagus or dilated stomach veins, and liver cancer. Hepatic encephalopathy results in confusion and may lead to unconsciousness.

Elevated alkaline phosphatase condition where alkaline phosphatase exceeds normal levels in the blood

Elevated alkaline phosphatase occurs when levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) exceed the reference range. This group of enzymes has a low substrate specificity and catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate esters in a basic environment. The major function of alkaline phosphatase is transporting across cell membranes. Alkaline phosphatases are present in many human tissues, including bone, intestine, kidney, liver, placenta and white blood cells. Damage to these tissues causes the release of ALP into the bloodstream. Elevated levels can be detected through a blood test. Elevated alkaline phosphate is associated with certain medical conditions or syndromes. It serves as a significant indication for certain medical conditions, diseases and syndromes.

Scott L. Friedman American physician

Scott L. Friedman is an American scientist, professor and physician who works in the field of hepatology. Friedman has conducted pioneering research into the underlying causes of scarring, or fibrosis, associated with chronic liver disease, by characterizing the key fibrogenic cell type, the hepatic stellate cell His laboratory has also discovered a novel tumor suppressor gene, KLF6 that is inactivated in a number of human cancers including primary liver cancer. Friedman is the Fishberg Professor of Medicine, and Chief of the Division of Liver Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. Friedman has two children, a son, Leor Friedman, and a daughter, Yael Friedman.

Detlef Schuppan is a German biochemist and physician. He focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of coeliac disease and wheat sensitivity, fibrotic liver diseases and the immunology of chronic diseases and cancer. He is the director of the Institute of Translational Immunology and a professor of internal medicine, gastroenterology, and hepatology at the Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz in Germany. He directs the outpatient clinic for coeliac disease and small intestinal diseases. He is also a professor of medicine and senior visiting scientist at Harvard Medical School.

Badri Nath Tandon is an Indian gastroenterologist, hepatologist, medical researcher and academic, and the Chairman and Senior Consultant of Gastroenterology, at Metro Hospitals and Heart Institute, Noida. He is a former Professor and Head of Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition Unit at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi (AIIMS) and a former Director and Senior Consultant of Hepatology and Gastroenterology at Pushpawati Singhania Research Institute for Liver, Renal and Digestive Diseases, New Delhi. He is a recipient of several awards including Sasakawa WHO Health Prize and Jubilee Medal of the RAMS. The Government of India awarded him the third highest civilian honour of the Padma Bhushan, in 1986, for his contributions to medicine.

Shiv Kumar Sarin is an Indian gastroenterologist, hepatologist, medical researcher and writer and a former chairman of the Board of Governors of the Medical Council of India. He is the director of Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences (ILBS), the first dedicated institution for advanced research on liver diseases and a deemed university under G. B. Pant Hospital, New Delhi. His contributions are reported behind the founding of the School of Hepatology of the Asian Pacific Association for study of Liver (APASL), which is housed at ILBS campus. He is a recipient of the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize, the highest Indian award in the science category. The Government of India awarded him the third highest civilian honour of the Padma Bhushan, in 2007, for his contributions to Indian medicine.

Paolo Caraceni is an Italian Associate Professor of internal medicine and rheumatology at the University of Bologna.


  1. "Thomas Walter Warnes, b 1938". Manchester Medical Collection. Manchester University. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  2. Thomas Walter Warnes publications indexed by Google Scholar