Thomas Ward (April 13, 1652 – 1708) was an English author who converted to Catholicism.
Ward was born at Danby Castle near Guisborough in the North Riding of Yorkshire, just south of the River Tees, in 1652,as the son of a farmer and educated as a Presbyterian at Pickering School. Henry Wharton asserted that he had been a Cambridge scholar, but this is not certain.
Danby is a village and civil parish in the Scarborough district of North Yorkshire, England. According to the 2001 UK census, Danby parish had a population of 1,411, a reduction on the 2001 UK census figure of 1,515. The statistician Karl Pearson spent a lot of time there.
Guisborough is a market town and civil parish in the North East of England. It belongs to the unitary authority of Redcar and Cleveland and the Tees Valley region and is in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. The population of the Guisborough ward in the Redcar and Cleveland unitary authority at the 2011 census was 7,622. The civil parish of Guisborough, including the outlying villages of Upleatham, Dunsdale and Newton under Roseberry, had a population of 17,777.
The North Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions (ridings) of the English county of Yorkshire, alongside the East and West ridings. From the Restoration it was used as a lieutenancy area, having been part of the Yorkshire lieutenancy previously. The three ridings were treated as three counties for many purposes, such as having separate quarter sessions. An administrative county was created with a county council in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888 on the historic boundaries. In 1974 both the administrative county and the Lieutenancy of the North Riding of Yorkshire were abolished, being succeeded in most of the riding by the new non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire.
Having acted for a time as private tutor, he was led by his theological studies to become a Catholic.
He travelled in France and Italy, and for five or six years held a commission in the papal guard, seeing service against the Ottoman Turks. On the accession of James II Stuart in 1688 he returned to England and employed his learning in controversy.
He died at St-Germain, France, 1708.
His most popular work, England's Reformation, is a poem in four cantos in the metre of Hudibras . It first appeared posthumously in 1710, and since then in several editions.
Hudibras is an English mock-heroic narrative poem from the 17th century written by Samuel Butler.
His Errata to the Protestant Bible, based on Gregory Martin's work on the same subject, has been frequently republished since its appearance in 1688, once with a preface by Lingard (1810). Bishop John Milner wrote a pamphlet to defend it from one of the Protestant attacks which its republication early in the nineteenth century provoked.
The Reverend Father Gregory Martin was an English Catholic Priest, a noted scholar of his time, academic and Doctor of Divinity, and served as the chief translator of the Rheims and Douai Version of the Bible, the first full, official Catholic English Bible translation, translated from the Latin Vulgate.
His other works include: Speculum Ecclesiasticum 'Church mirror' (London, 1686?); Some Queries to the Protestants (London, 1687); Monomachia (London, 1678), written about Archbishop Tenison, as also was The Roman Catholic Soldier's Letter (London, 1688).
He also published in 1688 in two broadsheets an epitome of church history, under the title The Tree of Life.
The Controversy of Ordination truly stated (London, 1719) and Controversy with Mr. Ritschel (1819) were posthumous works.
He left two unpublished manuscripts on the Divine Office now in the British Museum, one on the pope's supremacy in the possession of Mr. Gillow, one of the history of England, and others.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law. William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascension to the throne as William III of England jointly with his wife, Mary II, James's daughter, after the Declaration of Right, leading to the Bill of Rights 1689.
Rev Dr John Lingard was an English Roman Catholic priest and historian, the author of The History of England, From the First Invasion by the Romans to the Accession of Henry VIII, an 8-volume work published in 1819. Lingard was a teacher at the English College at Douai, and at the seminary at Crook Hall, and later St. Cuthbert's College. In 1811 he retired to Hornby in Lancashire to continue work on his writing.
James Francis Edward Stuart, nicknamed The Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena. He was Prince of Wales from July 1688, until just months after his birth, his Catholic father was deposed and exiled in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. James II's Protestant elder daughter, Mary II, and her husband, William III, became co-monarchs and the Bill of Rights 1689 and Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Catholics from the British throne.
Anthony Ashley Cooper, PC, known as Anthony Ashley Cooper from 1621 to 1630, as Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, 2nd Baronet from 1630 to 1661, and as The Lord Ashley from 1661 to 1672, was a prominent English politician during the Interregnum and during the reign of King Charles II. A founder of the Whig party, he is also remembered as the patron of John Locke.
Thomas Morton was an English churchman, bishop of several dioceses. Well-connected and in favour with James I, he was also a significant polemical writer against Roman Catholic views. He rose to become Bishop of Durham, but despite a record of sympathetic treatment of Puritans as a diocesan, and underlying Calvinist beliefs shown in the Gagg controversy, his royalism saw him descend into poverty under the Commonwealth.
George Hickes was an English divine and scholar.
Henry Compton was the Bishop of London from 1675 to 1713.
Thomas Barlow was an English academic and clergyman, who became Provost of The Queen's College, Oxford, and Bishop of Lincoln. He was seen in his own times and by Edmund Venables in the Dictionary of National Biography to have been a trimmer, a reputation mixed in with his academic and other writings on casuistry. His views were Calvinist and strongly anti-Catholic, and he was among the last English bishops to dub the Pope Antichrist. He worked in the 1660s for "comprehension" of nonconformists, but supported the crackdown of the mid-1680s, and declared loyalty to James II of England on his accession, having strongly supported the Exclusion Bill, which would have denied it to him.
The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691), was a conflict between Jacobites and Williamites over who would be monarch of the three kingdoms of Ireland, England and Scotland. It is also called the Jacobite War in Ireland or the Williamite–Jacobite War in Ireland.
Whiggism is a historical political philosophy that grew out of the Parliamentarian faction in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651). The Whigs' key policy positions were the supremacy of Parliament, tolerance of Protestant dissenters and opposition to a "Papist" on the throne, especially James II or one of his descendants.
Richard Challoner (1691–1781) was an English Roman Catholic bishop, a leading figure of English Catholicism during the greater part of the 18th century. The titular Bishop of Doberus, he is perhaps most famous for his revision of the Douay–Rheims translation of the Bible.
Thomas William Marshall (1818–1877) was a Roman Catholic convert from Anglicanism during the Tractarian controversies. In 1847 he became the first inspector of Catholic Schools in Great Britain. He resigned in 1860 after a controversy due to a pamphlet he wrote critical of Anglican missionary work.
James II and VII was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland, his reign is now remembered primarily for struggles over religious tolerance. However, it also involved the principles of absolutism and divine right of kings and his deposition ended a century of political and civil strife by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown.
Michael Ellis was an English Benedictine monk who was a prelate of the Catholic Church. He served as the first Vicar Apostolic of the Western District of England and Wales, and subsequently Bishop of Segni in Italy.
Ralph Baines or "Bayne" was the last Roman Catholic Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, in England.
Robert Nelson was an English lay religious writer and nonjuror.
Robert Grove (1634–1696) was an English Bishop of Chichester.
Thomas Comber (1645–1699) was an English churchman, Dean of Durham from 1689.
William Clagett (1646–1688) was an English clergyman, known as a controversialist.
Thomas Lathbury was an English cleric known as an ecclesiastical historian.