Thomas Warren

Last updated

Thomas Warren (fl. 1727–1767) was an English bookseller, printer, publisher and businessman.

Floruit, abbreviated fl., Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active. In English, the word may also be used as a noun indicating the time when someone flourished.

Warren was an influential figure in Birmingham at a time when it was a hotbed of creative activity, opening a bookshop in High Street, Birmingham around 1727. [1] From here he founded and published the Birmingham Journal – the town's first known newspaper; [2] he edited and published Samuel Johnson's first book – a translation of Jerónimo Lobo’s Voyage to Abyssinia [3] —and with Joshua Kirton sold Francis Godwin's The Man in the Moone . [4] He also financed the cotton mill established by John Wyatt and Lewis Paul in 1741. [5] This was the world's first mechanised cotton-spinning factory, and was to pave the way for Richard Arkwright's later transformation of the cotton industry during the Industrial Revolution. [6]

Birmingham Major city in the English Midlands, 2nd highest population of UK cities

Birmingham is the second-largest city and metropolitan area in England and the United Kingdom, with roughly 1.1 million inhabitants within the city area and 3.8 million inhabitants within the metropolitan area as of their most recent estimates, which also makes Birmingham the 17th largest city and 8th largest metropolitan area in the European Union. Although there has been noticeable attention towards the status of Manchester as a potentially more significant major city than Birmingham due to its growth and development in recent years, as well as Manchester having a larger urban area, Birmingham is still commonly referred to as the nation's "second city".

<i>Birmingham Journal</i> (eighteenth century) periodical literature

The Birmingham Journal was the first newspaper known to have been published in Birmingham, England. Little is known of it as few records remain, but a single copy survives in the Library of Birmingham: Number 28, dated Monday May 21, 1733. It is assumed from this that the first edition was probably published on 14 November 1732.

Samuel Johnson English poet, biographer, essayist, and lexicographer

Samuel Johnson, often referred to as Dr. Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, playwright, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor, and lexicographer. He was a devout Anglican. Politically, he was a committed Tory. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography describes Johnson as "arguably the most distinguished man of letters in English history". He is the subject of James Boswell's The Life of Samuel Johnson, described by Walter Jackson Bate as "the most famous single work of biographical art in the whole of literature".

The Paul-Wyatt cotton mill was not a financial success, however, and Warren declared bankruptcy in 1743. [1]

Related Research Articles

Industrial Revolution Transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the 18th-19th centuries

The Industrial Revolution, now also known as the First Industrial Revolution, was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system. The Industrial Revolution also led to an unprecedented rise in the rate of population growth.

Cotton mill factory housing powered spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton

A cotton mill is a building housing spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution in the development of the factory system.

Textile manufacture during the British Industrial Revolution early textile production via automated means

Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution in Britain was centred in south Lancashire and the towns on both sides of the Pennines. In Germany it was concentrated in the Wupper Valley, Ruhr Region and Upper Silesia, in Spain it was concentrated in Catalonia while in the United States it was in New England. The four key drivers of the Industrial Revolution were textile manufacturing, iron founding, steam power and cheap labour.

Textile industry economic sector

The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn, cloth and clothing. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry.

Cotton-spinning machinery machinery used to spin cotton

Cotton-spinning machinery refers to machines which process prepared cotton roving into workable yarn or thread. Such machinery can be dated back centuries. During the 18th and 19th centuries, as part of the Industrial Revolution cotton-spinning machinery was developed to bring mass production to the cotton industry. Cotton spinning machinery was installed in large factories, commonly known as cotton mills.

Lewis Paul English inventor

Lewis Paul was the original inventor of roller spinning, the basis of the water frame for spinning cotton in a cotton mill.

Rutland Mill

Rutland Mill was a cotton spinning mill on Linney Lane, in Shaw and Crompton, Greater Manchester, England. It was built by F. W. Dixon & Son in 1907 for the Rutland Mill Co. Ltd. It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s. By 1964, it was in the Courtaulds Group. In the late 1980s, as Courtaulds moved operations to other parts of the world, the mill was bought by Littlewoods who demolished it and replaced it with a new automated storage warehouse.

Magnet Mill, Chadderton

Magnet Mill, Chadderton is a cotton spinning mill in Chadderton, Oldham, Greater Manchester. It was built by the Magnet Mill Ltd. in 1902, but purchased by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s. It was later taken over by the Courtaulds Group. Ceasing textile production in December 1966, it was demolished soon after. A suburban residential estate now occupies this site. It was driven by a 2200 hp twin tandem compound engine by George Saxon & Co, Openshaw, 1903. It had a 27–foot flywheel with 35 ropes, operating at 64½ rpm.

Hawk Mill, Shaw

Hawk Mill, Shaw was a cotton spinning mill in Shaw, Oldham, Greater Manchester. It was built in 1908. It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1931 and passed to Courtaulds in 1964. The machinery was scapped in 1964c, and the mill demolished in 1991.

Blackridings Mill, Oldham

Blackridings Mill, Oldham was a cotton waste mill lying off Block Lane in the Werneth area of Oldham, Greater Manchester. It was built before 1861 and ceased spinning between 1875 and 1880. It was then used for flock manufacture and processing cotton waste. It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964. Production finished in 1973, demolished in 1975.

Fox Mill, Hollinwood

Fox Mill, Hollinwood is a cotton spinning mill in Hollinwood, Oldham, Greater Manchester. It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964.

Manor Mill, Chadderton

Manor Mill, Chadderton is an early twentieth century, five storey cotton spinning mill in Chadderton, Oldham, Greater Manchester. It was built in 1906. It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964. Production finished in 1990.

Newby Mill, Shaw

Elm Mill, is a four storey cotton spinning mill in Shaw and Crompton, Greater Manchester. It was built in 1890 for the Elm Spinning Company Ltd., and closed in 1928, when it was revived by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation (1929) and called Newby Mill. LCC and all their assets passed to Courtaulds in 1964. Production at Newby finished in 1970, and it was used for warehousing. Subsequently, now named Shaw No 3 Mill, it became part of Littlewood's Shaw National Distribution Centre.

Orme Mill, Waterhead

Orme Mill, Waterhead is a cotton spinning mill in Waterhead, Oldham, Greater Manchester. It was built in 1908. It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and production finished in 1960. The mill was passed on to Ferranti in 1964, and is now in multiple usage.

Majestic Mill, Waterhead

Majestic Mill, Waterhead is a cotton spinning mill in Waterhead, Oldham, Greater Manchester. It was built in 1903. It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964, converted to ring spinning in 1971. Production finished in 1982. Still standing in other use.

The Upper Priory Cotton Mill, opened in Birmingham, England in the summer of 1741, was the world's first mechanised cotton-spinning factory or cotton mill. Established by Lewis Paul and John Wyatt in a former warehouse in the Upper Priory, near Paul's house in Old Square, it was the first of the Paul-Wyatt cotton mills that used the roller spinning machinery that they had developed and that had been patented by Paul in 1738, that for the first time enabled the spinning of cotton "without the aid of human fingers". Wyatt had realised that this machinery would enable several machines to be powered from a single source of power: foreseeing the development of the factory system, he envisaged "a kind of mill, with wheels turned either by horses, water or wind."

Marvels Mill

Marvel's Mill or Marvell's Mill on the River Nene in Northampton, England, was the world's second factory for spinning cotton, the first to be operated as a water mill, and the first to be driven by an inanimate power-source. Opened by Edward Cave in 1742, it was one of the Paul-Wyatt cotton mills that used the roller spinning machinery invented by Lewis Paul and John Wyatt, which had first been used in their Upper Priory Cotton Mill in Birmingham in the summer of 1741.

Paul-Wyatt cotton mills

The Paul-Wyatt cotton mills were the world's first mechanised cotton spinning factories. Operating from 1741 until 1764 they were built to house the roller spinning machinery invented by Lewis Paul and John Wyatt. They were not very profitable but they span cotton successfully for several decades.

Pinsley Mill, also known as Etnam Street Mill, is a former watermill in Leominster, Herefordshire, England.

Samuel Touchet was an English cotton merchant, manufacturer and politician.

References

  1. 1 2 Fleeman, J.D. (2 March 2000). A Bibliography of the Works of Samuel Johnson: 1731–59 Vol 1 (PDF). Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 3. ISBN   0-19-812269-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2011.
  2. "Johnson in Birmingham". Revolutionary Players of Industry and Innovation. Museums, Libraries and Archives – West Midlands. Archived from the original on 22 March 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2008.
  3. "Johnson Collection". Birmingham City Council. 19 December 2007. Archived from the original on 4 November 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2008.
  4. Lawton, H. W. (1931), "Bishop Godwin's Man in the Moone", The Review of English Studies , 7 (25): 23–55, doi:10.1093/res/os-vii.25.23, JSTOR   508383
  5. James Thomson (2004). "Invention in the Industrial Revolution: the case of cotton". In Leandro Prados de la Escosura (ed.). Exceptionalism and Industrialisation: Britain and Its European Rivals, 1688–1815. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 135. ISBN   0-521-79304-1 . Retrieved 29 December 2007.
  6. Wadsworth, Alfred P.; De Lacy Mann, Julia (1931). "The First Cotton Spinning Factories". The Cotton Trade and Industrial Lancashire, 1600–1780. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 431–447.