A Direct North View of Sydney Cove, 1794
by Thomas Watling
|Born||19 September 1762|
|Occupation||Landscape and natural history artist, author and convict|
Thomas Watling (19 September 1762 - 1814?), was an early Australian painter and illustrator, notable for his natural history drawings and landscapes.
Born in Dumfries, Scotland, he was raised by his maiden aunt, Marion Kirkpatrick, after both parents died in his infancy. Art featured in his education and he went on to form his own “academy” where he taught drawing to "Ladies and Gentlemen".In Glasgow he worked briefly as a coach and chaise painter before being charged with forgery, in Dumfries on 27 November 1788.
Dumfries is a market town and former royal burgh within the Dumfries and Galloway council area of Scotland. It is located near the mouth of the River Nith into the Solway Firth. Dumfries is the traditional county town of the historic county of Dumfriesshire. Dumfries is nicknamed Queen of the South. People from Dumfries are known colloquially in the Scots language as Doonhamers. The nickname has also given name to the town's professional football club.
Watling was charged with having forged 1 guinea promissory notes of the Bank of Scotland, and sentenced to fourteen years' transportation to New South Wales on 14 April 1789. He was held at Plymouth in the prison ship Dunkirk, before being transferred to the convict transport Pitt.Departing on the Pitt with 410 convicts in July 1791, Watling escaped while docked at Cape Town. He was later arrested and transferred to the East Indiaman Royal Admiral, finally arriving in Sydney on 7 October 1792.
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.
East Indiaman was a general name for any sailing ship operating under charter or licence to any of the East India Companies of the major European trading powers of the 17th through the 19th centuries. The term is used to refer to vessels belonging to the Danish, Dutch (Oostindiëvaarder), English, French, Portuguese, or Swedish (ostindiefarare) East India companies.
Royal Admiral was an East Indiaman, launched in 1777 on the River Thames. She made eight trips for the East India Company (EIC) before she was sold. She then continued to trade. She made two trips carrying convicts from England to Australia, one as an East Indiaman in 1791, and a second in 1800. On this second voyage as a convict transport she was present at a notable naval action.
Thomas Watling is thought to be the first professional artist to arrive in New South Wales.
In Sydney Watling worked with John White, the colony's Surgeon General, copying natural history illustrations. In 1796 he was given a conditional pardon by the colony's second governor, John Hunter, made absolute on 5 April 1797.
John White was an Irish surgeon and botanical collector.
Thomas Watling painted many of the early colonial pictures of Australia and made a prolific number of sketches of birds, fish, mammals, plants, landscapes and Aboriginal people.
One painting that was attributed to him, A direct north general view of Sydney Cove 1794, is the earliest known oil painting of Sydney.The identity of the artist of this oil painting has long been debated. The inscription on the reverse clearly identifies Watling, however, he is not known to have painted in oils. The canvas is dated 1794 and there is no record of any colonial artist using oils until 1812, by which time Watling had received a pardon and returned to Britain. It is now believed this work was painted in Britain, possibly based on sketches made by Watling in Sydney. This work now belongs to the Dixson Gallery, State Library of New South Wales.
Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney, PC was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1754 to 1783 when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Sydney. He held several important Cabinet posts in the second half of the 18th century. The cities of Sydney in Nova Scotia, Canada, and Sydney in New South Wales, Australia were named in his honour, in 1785 and 1788, respectively.
Major General Lachlan Macquarie, CB was a British Army officer and colonial administrator from Scotland. Macquarie served as the fifth and last autocratic Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821, and had a leading role in the social, economic and architectural development of the colony. He is considered by historians to have had a crucial influence on the transition of New South Wales from a penal colony to a free settlement and therefore to have played a major role in the shaping of Australian society in the early nineteenth century. In 1816 Macquarie gave orders that led to the Appin Massacre of Gundungurra and Dharawal people.
Australian art is any art made in or about Australia, or by Australians overseas, from prehistoric times to the present. This includes Aboriginal, Colonial, Landscape, Atelier, early-twentieth-century painters, print makers, photographers, and sculptors influenced by European modernism, Contemporary art. The visual arts have a long history in Australia, with evidence of Aboriginal art dating back at least 30,000 years. Australia has produced many notable artists of both Western and Indigenous Australian schools, including the late-19th-century Heidelberg School plein air painters, the Antipodeans, the Central Australian Hermannsburg School watercolourists, the Western Desert Art Movement and coeval examples of well-known High modernism and Postmodern art.
Admiralty House is the Sydney official residence of the Governor-General of Australia. It is located in the suburb of Kirribilli, on the northern foreshore of Sydney Harbour. This large Victorian Regency and Italianate sandstone manor, completed in stages based on designs by James Barnet and Walter Liberty Vernon, occupies the tip of Kirribilli Point. Once known as "Wotonga", it has commanding views across Sydney Harbour to the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the Sydney Opera House.
Pittwater is a semi–mature tide dominated drowned valley estuary, located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of the Sydney central business district, New South Wales, Australia; being one of the bodies of water that separate greater Metropolitan Sydney from the Central Coast.
John William Lewin was an English-born artist active in Australia from 1800. The first professional artist of the colony of New South Wales, he illustrated the earliest volumes of Australian natural history.
George Raper was a Royal Navy officer who accompanied the First Fleet to Australia. He is known today for his watercolour illustrations, including the first depictions of the birds and flowers of Sydney Cove.
John Eyre, a pardoned convict, was an early Australian painter and engraver.
Joseph Lycett was a portrait and miniature painter, active in Australia. Lycett specialised in topographical views of the major towns of Australia, and some of its more dramatic landscapes.
Albert Henry Fullwood was an Australian artist who made a significant contribution to art in Australia. He painted with Heidelberg school artists around Melbourne and moved with Tom Roberts and Arthur Streeton to live and paint at their camp in Sirius Cove, Sydney. Fullwood was the Australian official war artist to the 5th Division in the First World War.
William Charles Piguenit was an Australian landscape painter.
Richard Browne (1771–1824) was an early Australian convict artist and illustrator who was transported from Ireland to the new colony of New South Wales. After his sentence was completed in Newcastle in 1817 he lived in Sydney selling watercolour illustrations of natural history subjects and of the Aborigines.
Lieutenant Ralph Clark was a British officer in the Royal Marines, best known for his diary spanning the early years of British settlement in Australia, including the voyage of the First Fleet.
The Sydney punchbowls, made in China during Emperor Chia Ch'ing's reign in 1796–1820, are the only two known examples of Chinese export porcelain hand painted with Sydney scenes and dating from the Macquarie era. The bowls were procured in Canton about three decades after the First Fleet's arrival at Port Jackson where the British settlement at Sydney Cove was established in 1788. They also represent the trading between Australia and China via India at the time. Even though decorated punchbowls were prestigious items used for drinking punch at social gatherings during the 18th and 19th centuries, it is not known who originally commissioned these bowls or what special occasion they were made for.
Charles Rodius was a German-born artist, printmaker and architect. Trained in France before moving to England, he was transported as a convict to the Australian penal colony of New South Wales for theft in 1829.
Richard Read Sr. was a British-born artist who was sent to Australia as a convict. He is known as Richard Read senior to differentiate him from another Richard Read, thought to be his son, who painted in Sydney at the same time.
Sydney - Capital of New South Wales, c 1800 is in the collection of the State Library of New South Wales, located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is one of the first oil paintings depicting Sydney town from what is now East Circular Quay.
Fitzroy Terrace is a heritage-listed residence located at 6-18 Pitt Street in the inner western Sydney suburb of Redfern in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by James Hume. It is also known as Fitzroy Crescent. The property is privately owned. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.
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