Thomas Watson-Wentworth, 1st Marquess of Rockingham

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Arms of Watson, of Rockingham Castle: Argent, on a chevron engrailed azure between three martlets sable as many crescents or WatsonRockinghamArms.svg
Arms of Watson, of Rockingham Castle: Argent, on a chevron engrailed azure between three martlets sable as many crescents or

Thomas Watson-Wentworth, 1st Marquess of Rockingham, KB, PC (I) (13 November 1693 – 14 December 1750) of Wentworth Woodhouse, Yorkshire was a British Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1715 until 1728 when he was raised to the Peerage as Baron Malton.

Order of the Bath Series of awards of an order of chivalry of the United Kingdom

The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements. The knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order". He did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never previously existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred.

The Privy Council of Ireland was an institution of the Kingdom of Ireland until 31 December 1800 and of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1801 to 1922. It performed a similar role in the Dublin Castle administration in Ireland to that of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom in the government of the United Kingdom.

Wentworth Woodhouse

Wentworth Woodhouse is a Grade I listed country house in the village of Wentworth, in the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham in South Yorkshire, England. It is currently owned by the Wentworth Woodhouse Preservation Trust. Considered to be the largest private residence in the United Kingdom, it has an east front of 606 feet (185 m); the longest country house façade in Europe. The house has more than 300 rooms, although the precise number is unclear, with 250,000 square feet (23,000 m2) of floorspace. It covers an area of more than 2.5 acres (1.0 ha), and is surrounded by a 180-acre (73 ha) park, and an estate of 15,000 acres (6,100 ha).

Contents

Early life

Wentworth Woodhouse Wentworth Woodhouse East Front.jpg
Wentworth Woodhouse

Watson-Wentworth was born at Tidmington, Worcestershire the only son and heir of the Hon. Thomas Watson (later Watson-Wentworth, the third son of Edward Watson, 2nd Baron Rockingham) and his wife, Alice Proby, a daughter of Sir Thomas Proby, 1st Baronet. He was admitted at St John’s College, Cambridge on 15 May 1707 and was awarded MA in 1708. [1] In 1708, he bought Hallfield House, near Sheffield. On 22 September 1716, he married Lady Mary Finch, a daughter of Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham, and his second wife, Ann Hatton. He succeeded his father to Wentworth Woodhouse in 1723, remodelling the house to its present form. [2]

Thomas Watson-Wentworth British politician

Hon. Thomas Watson, later known as Thomas Watson-Wentworth, of Wentworth Woodhouse in Yorkshire, was an English landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1701 and 1723.

Hallfield House

Hallfield House is a Grade II listed building situated in Bradfield Dale, 1.7 miles (2.74 km) west of the village of Low Bradfield, near Sheffield in England.

Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham English politician and noble

Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham, 7th Earl of Winchilsea PC, was an English Tory statesman during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

Career

At the 1715 general election, Watson-Wentworth was elected in a contest as Member of Parliament for the family borough of Malton. He was returned again unopposed at the 1722 general election. On the death of his father in 1723 he set himself up as leader of the Whigs in Yorkshire. In 1725, he was appointed a Knight of the Bath. At the 1727 general election he was returned unopposed as MP for Yorkshire instead. In 1728, he was created Baron Malton and vacated his seat in the House of Commons. [2]

1715 British general election

The 1715 British general election returned members to serve in the House of Commons of the 5th Parliament of Great Britain to be held, after the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707. In October 1714, soon after George I had arrived in London after ascending to the throne, he dismissed the Tory cabinet and replaced it with one almost entirely composed of Whigs, as they were responsible for securing his succession. The election of 1715 saw the Whigs win an overwhelming majority in the House of Commons, and afterwards virtually all Tories in central or local government were purged, leading to a period of Whig ascendancy lasting almost fifty years during which Tories were almost entirely excluded from office.

Malton, also called New Malton, was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England in 1295 and 1298, and again from 1640, then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885. It was represented by two Members of Parliament until 1868, among them the political philosopher Edmund Burke, and by one member from 1868 to 1885.

1722 British general election

The 1722 British general election elected members to serve in the House of Commons of the 6th Parliament of Great Britain. This was the fifth such election since the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707. Thanks to the Septennial Act of 1715, which swept away the maximum three-year life of a parliament created by the Meeting of Parliament Act 1694, it followed some seven years after the previous election, that of 1715.

At this time, now Lord Malton, he deliberately burned most of the manuscripts left by the 17th-century antiquary Richard Gascoigne; this act has been attributed to legal advice from his attorney. [3] He was admitted to the Privy Council of Ireland in 1733 and was Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire from 1733 to 1750. In 1734, he was created Earl of Malton, and in 1746, Marquess of Rockingham . He had inherited the Barony of Rockingham and Rockingham Castle from his cousin, Thomas Watson, 3rd Earl of Rockingham, earlier in 1746. [2]

This is a list of those who have held the position of Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire from its creation in 1660 to its abolition on 31 March 1974. From 1699 until 1974, all Lords Lieutenant were also Custos Rotulorum of the West Riding of Yorkshire. The incumbent Lord Lieutenant became in 1974 Lord Lieutenant of West Yorkshire, covering a smaller area.

Marquess of Rockingham

Marquess of Rockingham, in the County of Northampton, was a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1746 for Thomas Watson-Wentworth, 1st Earl of Malton. The Watson family descended from Lewis Watson, Member of Parliament for Lincoln. He was created a Baronet, of Rockingham Castle in the County of Northampton, in the Baronetage of England in 1621. In 1645 he was further honoured when he was raised to the Peerage of England as Baron Rockingham. The third Baron served as Lord-Lieutenant of Kent. In 1714 he was created Baron Throwley, Viscount Sondes and Earl of Rockingham in the Peerage of Great Britain. His eldest son Edward Watson, Viscount Sondes, predeceased him and he was succeeded by his grandson, the second Earl. The second Earl was Lord-Lieutenant of Kent before his early death in 1745. He was childless and was succeeded by his younger brother, Thomas. He had previously represented Canterbury in Parliament. He died in 1746, whereupon the barony of Throwley, viscountcy and earldom became extinct.

Rockingham Castle Grade I listed historic house museum in the United Kingdom

Rockingham Castle is a former royal castle and hunting lodge in Rockingham Forest approximately two miles north from the town centre of Corby, Northamptonshire.

Family

The Watson-Wentworth and Finch families (Charles Philips, c. 1732) The Watson-Wentworth and Finch Families, by Charles Philips (1708-1747).jpg
The Watson-Wentworth and Finch families (Charles Philips, c. 1732)

Lord Rockingham died on 14 December 1750, according to Walpole 'drowned in claret', [2] and was buried in York Minster. [1] He and his wife Mary had five children:

York Minster Church in York, England

The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York, commonly known as York Minster, is the cathedral of York, England, and is one of the largest of its kind in Northern Europe. The minster is the seat of the Archbishop of York, the third-highest office of the Church of England, and is the mother church for the Diocese of York and the Province of York. It is run by a dean and chapter, under the Dean of York. The title "minster" is attributed to churches established in the Anglo-Saxon period as missionary teaching churches, and serves now as an honorific title. Services in the minster are sometimes regarded as on the High Church or Anglo-Catholic end of the Anglican continuum.

Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham British Prime Minister

Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham,, styled The Hon. Charles Watson-Wentworth before 1733, Viscount Higham between 1733 and 1746, Earl of Malton between 1746 and 1750 and The Marquess of Rockingham in 1750 was a British Whig statesman, most notable for his two terms as Prime Minister of Great Britain. He became the patron of many Whigs, known as the Rockingham Whigs, and served as a leading Whig grandee. He served in only two high offices during his lifetime, but was nonetheless very influential during his one and a half years of service.

William FitzWilliam, 3rd Earl FitzWilliam MP was a British peer, nobleman, and politician.

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Hoober Stand

Hoober Stand is a 30-metre-high (98 ft) tower and Grade II* listed building on a ridge in Wentworth, South Yorkshire in northern England. It was designed by Henry Flitcroft for the Whig aristocrat Thomas Watson-Wentworth, Earl of Malton to commemorate the quashing of the 1745 Jacobite rebellion. It lies close to his country seat Wentworth Woodhouse. Its site is approximately 157 metres (515 ft) above sea level and from the top there are long-distance views on a clear day. It is open to the public 2–5 pm on Sundays and bank holiday Mondays from the spring bank holiday weekend until the last Sunday in September. Hoober Stand is one of several follies in and around Wentworth Woodhouse park; the others include Needle's Eye and Keppel's Column. Sidney Oldall Addy, the Sheffield author calls the structure Woburn Stand in his 1888 book, A glossary of words used in the neighbourhood of Sheffield.

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The Rockingham Mausoleum Historic mausoleum near Rotherham, England

The Rockingham Mausoleum, Wentworth, near Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England was commissioned in 1783 by William Fitzwilliam, 4th Earl Fitzwilliam when he inherited the estates of his uncle Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham who died without a direct male heir in 1782. The architect was John Carr of York, who had already built the stable block at Wentworth Woodhouse for Lord Rockingham himself. Carr was to do a great deal of work for Lord Fitzwilliam, notably alterations to the side pavilions and to the west elevation of Wentworth Woodhouse. He submitted a number of options for the monument, some of which were based on the concept of an obelisk. The three-storey design ultimately selected may have been inspired by the Mausoleum of the Julii at St Remy de Provence, Glanum near Arles, France. As executed, it is a combination of a cenotaph and a Temple of Friendship, housing within it a statue by Joseph Nollekens of Rockingham himself in Garter robes with upraised hand. The name by which the memorial is now known is in fact a misnomer, since Charles Watson-Wentworth is buried in York Minster. Eighteenth and nineteenth century sources refer to the edifice simply as "the Monument".

References

  1. 1 2 "Wentworth, Thomas (WNTT707T)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "WATSON WENTWORTH, Thomas (1693-1750), of Wentworth Woodhouse, Yorks". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
  3. Pearson, R. E. O. "Gascoigne, Richard". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/10423.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
William Palmes
Hon. Thomas Watson-Wentworth
Member of Parliament for Malton
1715–1727
With: Hon. Thomas Watson-Wentworth 1715–22
Sir William Strickland, Bt. 1722–24
Hon. Henry Finch 1724–27
Succeeded by
Hon. Henry Finch
Wardell Westby
Preceded by
The Viscount Downe
Cholmley Turner
Member of Parliament for Yorkshire
1727–1728
With: Cholmley Turner
Succeeded by
Cholmley Turner
Sir George Savile, Bt
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Burlington
Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire
1733–1750
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Rockingham
Custos Rotulorum of the North Riding of Yorkshire
1733–1750
Peerage of Great Britain
New creation Marquess of Rockingham
1746–1750
Succeeded by
Charles Watson-Wentworth
Earl of Malton
1734–1750
Baron Malton
1728–1750
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Thomas Watson
Baron Rockingham
1746–1750
Succeeded by
Charles Watson-Wentworth