Thomas Watson (poet)

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Thomas Watson (1555–1592) was an English poet and translator, and the pioneer of the English madrigal. His lyrics aside, he wrote largely in Latin, being the first to translate Sophocles' Antigone from the Greek. His incorporation of Italianate forms into English lyric verse influenced a generation of English writers, including Shakespeare, who was referred to in 1595 by William Covell as "Watson's heyre" [heir]. He wrote both English and Latin compositions, and was particularly admired for the ones in Latin. His unusual 18-line sonnets were influential, although the form was not generally imitated.

William Covell was an English clergyman and writer.

Contents

Early life

Thomas Watson was born in mid-1555, probably in the parish of St Olave, Hart Street, London, to a prosperous Shropshire couple, William Watson and Anne Lee. [1] His father’s death in November 1559 was followed by his mother's four months later, and Watson and his older brother went to live with their maternal uncle in Oxfordshire. From 1567, Watson attended Winchester College in Westminster, and later attended Oxford University without gaining a degree. [2] Sometime after his uncle's death in April 1572, Watson went to Europe, spending seven-and-a-half years in Italy and France, according to the preface of Antigone. When he returned he studied law in London. Though he often signed his works as "student of law", he never practised law, as his true passion was literature. [3] However, Roger Fisher has noted that "Watson's early legal training and associations have been downplayed by biographers in favour of his later image as a literary wit and reckless rake," but that he associated "with many well-known barristers in his day and frequented the Inns of Court." [4]

Winchester College school in Winchester, Hampshire, England

Winchester College is an independent boarding school for boys in the British public school tradition, situated in Winchester, Hampshire. It has existed in its present location for over 600 years. It is the oldest of the original seven English public schools defined by the Clarendon Commission and regulated by the Public Schools Act 1868.

University of Oxford Collegiate research university in Oxford, England

The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two 'ancient universities' are frequently jointly referred to as 'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

Watson's De remedio amoris, perhaps his earliest important composition, is lost, as is his "piece of work written in the commendation of women-kind", which was also in Latin verse. His earliest surviving work is a 1581 Latin version of Antigone (Sophocles)|Antigone dedicated to Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel. It also contains an appendix of Latin allegorical poems and experiments in classical metres.

Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel English nobleman and Catholic saint

Saint Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel was an English nobleman. He was canonised by Pope Paul VI in 1970, as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales. He is variously numbered as 1st, 20th or 13th Earl of Arundel.

English poetry

The following year Watson appears for the first time as an English poet in verses prefixed to George Whetstone's Heptameron, and in a far more important work, as the author of the Hekatompathia or Passionate Centurie of Love, dedicated to Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, who had read the poems in manuscript and encouraged Watson to publish them. Also entitled Watson's Passion the work, published in 1584, contains over 100 poems in French and Italian sonnet styles, including a number of translations. The technical peculiarity of these interesting poems is that, although they appear and profess to be sonnets, they are written in triple sets of common six-line stanza, and therefore have eighteen lines each.

George Whetstone was an English dramatist and author.

Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford 16th-century English peer and courtier

Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford was an English peer and courtier of the Elizabethan era. Oxford was heir to the second oldest earldom in the kingdom, a court favourite for a time, a sought-after patron of the arts, and noted by his contemporaries as a lyric poet and court playwright, but his reckless and volatile temperament precluded him from attaining any courtly or governmental responsibility and contributed to the dissipation of his estate. Since the 1920s he has been among the most popular alternative candidates proposed for the authorship of Shakespeare's works.

Sonnet form of poetry with fourteen lines; by the thirteenth century it signified a poem of fourteen lines that follows a strict rhyme scheme and specific structure

A sonnet is a poem in a specific form which originated in Italy; Giacomo da Lentini is credited with its invention.

He was recognised for his poetic "Methods and motifs" which occurred between 1580 and 1590. He was held in high regard by his contemporaries even though his style was very similar to those of his late 15th and early 16th-century Italian predecessors Sannazaro and Strozzi. He openly drew from Petrarch and Ronsard, with what Sidney Lee describes as "drops of water from Petrarch and Ronsard's fountains," and Serafino dell'Aquila has been identified as the source for twelve later sonnets. [5] Watson seriously desired to recommend his 18-line form to future sonneteers, but it attracted no imitators in that respect, although The Oxford Companion to English Literature notes that Watson's sonnets "appear to have been studied by Shakespeare and other contemporaries". [6]

Petrarch 14th-century Italian scholar and poet

Francesco Petrarca, commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists. His rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Renaissance. Petrarch is often considered the founder of Humanism. In the 16th century, Pietro Bembo created the model for the modern Italian language based on Petrarch's works, as well as those of Giovanni Boccaccio, and, to a lesser extent, Dante Alighieri. Petrarch would be later endorsed as a model for Italian style by the Accademia della Crusca.

Sidney Lee 19th/20th-century English biographer and critic

Sir Sidney Lee was an English biographer, writer and critic.

Serafino dellAquila Italian poet and improvisatore (1466-1500)

The Italian poet and musician Serafino dell'Aquila or Aquilano is alternatively named Serafino dei Ciminelli from the family to which he belonged. He was born in what was then the Neapolitan town of L'Aquila on 6 January 1466 and died of a fever in Rome on 10 August 1500. As a writer he was one of the foremost of the stylistic followers of Petrarch and his work was later influential on both French and English Petrarchan poets.

The little we have of Watson's prose is highly euphuistic. He was a friend of John Lyly at Oxford, and both continued their literary connection in London under the patronage of Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, himself an Oxford alumnus. [7]

Euphuism is a peculiar mannered style of English prose. It takes its name from a prose romance by John Lyly. It consists of a preciously ornate and sophisticated style, employing a deliberate excess of literary devices such as antitheses, alliterations, repetitions and rhetorical questions. Classical learning and remote knowledge of all kinds are displayed. Euphuism was fashionable in the 1580s, especially in the Elizabethan court.

John Lyly 16th/17th-century English writer, poet, dramatist, and courtier

John Lyly was an English writer, poet, dramatist, and courtier, best known during his lifetime for his books Euphues: The Anatomy of Wit (1578) and Euphues and His England (1580), and perhaps best remembered now for his plays. Lyly's mannered literary style, originating in his first books, is known as euphuism.

Latin poetry

As his reputation grew, Watson's name he became associated with such literary powers as Christopher Marlowe, George Peele, Matthew Roydon and Thomas Achelley. He also gained a following of younger writers like Barnfield and Thomas Nashe, who regarded him as the best Latin poet in England. In 1585 he published his first Latin epic Amyntas, eleven days of a shepherd's mourning for the death of his lover, Phyllis. [8] Watson's epic was afterwards translated into English by Abraham Fraunce, without the permission of the author (1587), and uncredited. [9] Fraunce's translation was highly criticised. "His sins of translation result generally from an excess of zeal rather than a failure to understand his author's intention." Although a relationship to Torquato Tasso's Aminta is often supposed, in fact there is none. In the fourth reprint of his English version in 1591 Fraunce also printed his own translation of the Tasso work, and it is this that has given rise to the confusion. To forestall any further sub-standard English translations, Watson published his 1590 poem Melibœus, an elegy on the death of Sir Francis Walsingham, in both Latin and English.

Plays

Though no plays are extant, Watson was also a playwright. According to his employer William Cornwallis, devising "twenty fictions and knaveryes in a play" was his "daily practyse and his living" (Hall, p. 256), and Francis Meres in 1598 lists him as among "our best for Tragedie". [10]

Late and posthumous publications

Related to music, he wrote a laudatory poem about John Case's The Praise of Music (1586). In 1590 he authored The First Set of Italian Madrigals. This was published by Thomas Este, and mainly consisted of compositions by the influential madrigal composer Luca Marenzio, whose work had become popular in England through Musica Transalpina of 1588 (also published by Thomas Este). Following the example of the earlier publication, Watson provided the madrigals with English lyrics. He was less literal in his approach to the Italian originals than Musica Transalpina, writing as he put it, "not to the sense of the originall dittie, but after the affection of the Noate". [11] Like the earlier collection, The First Set of Italian Madrigals contains music by William Byrd, in this case two settings of an original English text, "This sweet and merry month of May", presumably by Watson. [12]

Of the remainder of Watson's career nothing is known, save that on 26 September 1592 he was buried in the church of St Bartholomew the Less, and that a month later his second Latin epic "Amintae Gaudia" was seen through the press by his friend "CM," possibly Marlowe. This tells the story of Amyntas' love, and eventual winning, of Phyllis, and is therefore chronologically the first part of the earlier epic. In the following year his last book, The Tears of Fancie, or Love Disdained (1593), was posthumously published under the initials T. W. This is a collection of sixty sonnets, regular in form, so far at least as to have fourteen lines each. Spenser is supposed to have alluded to the untimely death of Watson in Colin Clouts Come Home Again, when he says: "Amyntas quite is gone and lies full low, Having his Amaryllis left to moan".

Reputation

He is mentioned by Francis Meres in company with Shakespeare, Peele and Marlowe among "the best for tragedie", but no dramatic work of his except the translations above mentioned is extant today. It is certain that Watson enjoyed a great reputation in his lifetime, and that he was not without a direct influence upon the youth of Shakespeare. He was the first, after the original experiment made by Wyat and Surrey, to introduce the pure imitation of Petrarch into English poetry. "He shows his inventiveness by his variety of treatment.... It is the number of different ways in which he can introduce these devices in this matter than measures his success as a poet." He was well read in Italian, French and Greek literature.

In modern literature

Watson plays a prominent part in the novel A Dead Man in Deptford by Anthony Burgess, in which he is a close friend of Christopher Marlowe. In the book, Watson introduces Marlowe to Sir Francis Walsingham and contributes to several of Marlowe's plays. He is a key character in The Marlowe Papers by Ros Barber.

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References

  1. Alhiyari, Ibrahim. "Thomas Watson: New Birth Year and Privileged Ancestry." Notes and Queries 53, no. 1 (2006), pp. 35–40.
  2. The Oxford Companion to English Literature 7th e., ed. Dinah Birch (Oxford: OUP, 2009), p. 1050.
  3. "Watson, Thomas". British Authors Before 1800: A Biographical Dictionary. 1952.
  4. Roger S Fisher, "The Use(S) of Memory in Thomas Watson’s Compendium Memoriae Localis " in The languages, literatures and cultures conference (University of Kentucky, Lexington: https://kflc.as.uky.edu/2014/node/1467, 2014).
  5. Dictionary of National Biography 1900
  6. W. Ron Hess, The Dark Side of Shakespeare, Writers Club Press 2002, p.88
  7. Dover Wilson, John. John Lyly, Macmillan and Bowes, Cambridge, 1905.
  8. Dickey, Franklin M., and Walter F. Staton, eds. Amyntas & The Lamentations of Amyntas, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967. Print.
  9. "Watson, Thomas". The Cambridge Guide to English Literature, 1983. Print.
  10. Hall, Hubert. "An Elizabethan Poet and His Relations." The Athenaeum 3278 (1890).
  11. Thomas Watson: The first set of Italian madrigals Englished. Retrieved December 2013
  12. Owens, Jessie Ann. Italian Madrigals Englished (1590). Notes. Music Library Association, Inc. 2004. Accessed via HighBeam Research 18 December 2013 <http://www.highbeam.com> (subscription required).
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