Thomas Wentworth, 2nd Baron Wentworth

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Thomas Wentworth, 2nd Baron Wentworth

Thomas Wentworth, 2nd Baron Wentworth (1525 – 13 January 1584) was the eldest son of Thomas Wentworth, 1st Baron Wentworth and Margaret Fortescue. He studied at St John's College, Cambridge. [1]

Thomas Wentworth, 1st Baron Wentworth English baron

Thomas Wentworth, 1st Baron Wentworth and de jure6th Baron le Despencer, PC was an English peer and courtier during the Tudor dynasty.

St Johns College, Cambridge college of the University of Cambridge

St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge founded by the Tudor matriarch Lady Margaret Beaufort. In constitutional terms, the college is a charitable corporation established by a charter dated 9 April 1511. The aims of the college, as specified by its statutes, are the promotion of education, religion, learning and research. It is one of the larger Oxbridge colleges in terms of student numbers. For 2018, St. John’s was ranked 9th of 29 colleges in the Tompkins Table with over 30% of its students earning First-class honours.

Contents

Career

Thomas served with distinction under his relative the Lord Protector Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547; but in 1551 he was one of the peers who condemned Somerset to death on a charge of felony.

Lord Protector is a title that has been used in British constitutional law for the head of state. It is also a particular title for the British heads of state in respect to the established church. It is sometimes used to refer to holders of other temporary posts, for example, a regent acting for the absent monarch.

Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset Nobleman

Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, was Lord Protector of England during part of the Tudor period from 1547 until 1549 during the minority of his nephew, King Edward VI (1547–1553). Despite his popularity with the common people, his policies often angered the gentry and he was overthrown. He was the eldest brother of Queen Jane Seymour (d. 1537), the third wife of King Henry VIII.

Battle of Pinkie Cleugh Anglo-Scottish battle

The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, sometimes known as the Battle of Pinkie, took place on 10 September 1547 on the banks of the River Esk near Musselburgh, Scotland. The last pitched battle between Scottish and English armies, it was part of the conflict known as the Rough Wooing, and is considered to have been the first modern battle in the British Isles. It was a catastrophic defeat for Scotland, where it became known as Black Saturday. A highly detailed and illustrated English account of the battle and campaign authored by an eyewitness William Patten was published in London as propaganda four months after the battle.

He was a trusted counsellor of Mary I of England, who appointed him deputy of Calais. Wentworth was the last Englishman to hold this post, for on 7 January 1558 he was compelled to surrender Calais to Francis, Duke of Guise, his representations as to the defenceless condition of the fortress having been disregarded by the Privy Council some years earlier. He was judged harshly for his ineptitude and indecision during the final crisis, and was even accused of treason. In fact his passive behaviour was probably due to his certainty that the cause was hopeless.

Mary I of England Queen of England and Ireland

Mary I, also known as Mary Tudor, was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. She is best known for her aggressive attempt to reverse the English Reformation, which had begun during the reign of her father, Henry VIII. The executions that marked her pursuit of the restoration of Roman Catholicism in England and Ireland led to her denunciation as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant opponents.

Calais Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Calais is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Although Calais is by far the largest city in Pas-de-Calais, the department's prefecture is its third-largest city of Arras. The population of the metropolitan area at the 2010 census was 126,395. Calais overlooks the Strait of Dover, the narrowest point in the English Channel, which is only 34 km (21 mi) wide here, and is the closest French town to England. The White Cliffs of Dover can easily be seen on a clear day from Calais. Calais is a major port for ferries between France and England, and since 1994, the Channel Tunnel has linked nearby Coquelles to Folkestone by rail.

Siege of Calais (1558) 1558 battle between England and France

The Siege of Calais was fought in early 1558 during the Italian War of 1551–1559. The Pale of Calais had been ruled by England since 1347, during the Hundred Years' War. By the 1550s, England was ruled by Mary I of England and her husband Philip II of Spain. When the Kingdom of England supported a Spanish invasion of France, Henry II of France sent Francis, Duke of Guise, against English-held Calais, defended by Thomas Wentworth, 2nd Baron Wentworth. Following failure in mid-1557, a renewed attack captured the outlying forts of Nieullay and Rysbank and Calais was besieged.

Wentworth himself remained in France as a prisoner of war for more than a year, and on his return to the Kingdom of England in 1559 he was sent to the Tower of London for having surrendered Calais. He was eventually acquitted of treason. He died on 13 January 1584.

Prisoner of war Person who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict

A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether a combatant or a non-combatant, who is held captive by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1610.

Kingdom of England Historic sovereign kingdom on the British Isles (927–1649; 1660–1707)

The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Tower of London A historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London

The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, which is separated from the eastern edge of the square mile of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill. It was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The White Tower, which gives the entire castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078 and was a resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by the new ruling elite. The castle was used as a prison from 1100 until 1952, although that was not its primary purpose. A grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence. As a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion, mainly under kings Richard I, Henry III, and Edward I in the 12th and 13th centuries. The general layout established by the late 13th century remains despite later activity on the site.

Wentworth appears as a minor character in the novel The Two Dianas by Alexandre Dumas.

The Two Dianas is a historical novel published in 1846-7 under the name of Alexandre Dumas but mostly or entirely written by his friend and collaborator Paul Meurice. The "two Dianas" of the title are Diane de Poitiers and her supposed daughter Diana de Castro. The novel's setting is earlier than Dumas's better known "Valois trilogy". The principal character is Gabriel, comte de Montgomery; other characters include Martin Guerre, Catherine de Médicis and Ambroise Paré. When Meurice later published a dramatisation of the novel, a letter supposedly written by Dumas was attached as a preface, stating that he had never even read the book and that Meurice was the real author. Nevertheless, it has been argued that Dumas was at least somewhat involved in its composition. According to F. W. J. Hemmings, The Two Dianas is "entirely lacking in Dumas's usual deftness of touch".

Alexandre Dumas French writer and dramatist

Alexandre Dumas, also known as Alexandre Dumas père, was a French writer. His works have been translated into many languages, and he is one of the most widely read French authors. Many of his historical novels of high adventure were originally published as serials, including The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers, Twenty Years After, and The Vicomte of Bragelonne: Ten Years Later. His novels have been adapted since the early twentieth century for nearly 200 films. Dumas' last novel, The Knight of Sainte-Hermine, unfinished at his death, was completed by scholar Claude Schopp and published in 2005. It was published in English in 2008 as The Last Cavalier.

Children

His eldest son William Wentworth married Elizabeth Cecil (b. 1 July 1564), a daughter of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, but predeceased his father on 7 November 1582. The peerage consequently passed to his second son Henry Wentworth, 3rd Baron Wentworth (1558–1593), who was one of the judges of Mary, Queen of Scots, at Fotheringay in 1586. Henry was married to Anne Hopton and was father to Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Cleveland.

William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley English statesman

William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, was an English statesman, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign, twice Secretary of State and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. Albert Pollard wrote, "From 1558 for forty years the biography of Cecil is almost indistinguishable from that of Elizabeth and from the history of England."

Mary, Queen of Scots Queen of Scotland

Mary, Queen of Scots, also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.

Fotheringay band

Fotheringay was a short-lived British folk rock group, formed in 1970 by singer-songwriter and musician Sandy Denny on her departure from Fairport Convention. The band drew its name from her 1968 composition "Fotheringay" about Fotheringhay Castle, in which Mary, Queen of Scots had been imprisoned. The song originally appeared on the 1969 Fairport Convention album, What We Did on Our Holidays, Denny's first album with that group. The original Fotheringay released one, self-titled album but disbanded at the start of 1971 as Denny embarked on a solo career. Forty-five years later, a new version of the band re-formed featuring the three original surviving members together with other musicians, and toured in 2015 and 2016.

Notes

  1. "Wentworth, Thomas (WNTT525T)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.

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References

Peerage of England
Preceded by
Thomas Wentworth
Baron Wentworth
1529–1551
Succeeded by
Henry Wentworth