Thomas Wentworth, 5th Baron Wentworth

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Thomas Wentworth, KB, PC (bapt. 2 February 1612 – 1 March 1665) was an English soldier and politician who supported King Charles I in the English Civil War. He served the king during two parts of the English Civil War and accompanied the young Prince Charles (later King Charles II) in exile.

Order of the Bath series of awards of an order of chivalry of the United Kingdom

The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements. The knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order". He did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never previously existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred.

Privy Council of England Body of advisers to the sovereign of the Kingdom of England

The Privy Council of England, also known as HisMajesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, was a body of advisers to the sovereign of the Kingdom of England. Its members were often senior members of the House of Lords and the House of Commons, together with leading churchmen, judges, diplomats and military leaders.

Baptism Christian rite of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water

Baptism is a Christian rite of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. The synoptic gospels recount that John the Baptist baptised Jesus. Baptism is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others. Baptism is also called christening, although some reserve the word "christening" for the baptism of infants. It has also given its name to the Baptist churches and denominations.

Contents

Private life

Wentworth was born in 1612, the eldest son of the 1st Earl of Cleveland and his first wife, Anne. His exact birthdate is unknown, but parish records show that he was baptised on 2 February 1612.

Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Cleveland was a Cavalier general who fought for Charles I during the English Civil War.

In 1640, he was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Bedfordshire to the Short Parliament in April and again to the Long Parliament in November. However, before he took his seat in November, he was called up to the House of Lords by writ of acceleration in his father's barony of Wentworth.

Bedfordshire was a United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency, which elected two Members of Parliament from 1295 until 1885, when it was divided into two constituencies under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885.

Short Parliament Parliament of England that was summoned by King Charles I of England

The Short Parliament was a Parliament of England that was summoned by King Charles I of England on 20 February 1640 and sat from 13 April to 5 May 1640. It was so called because of its short life of only three weeks.

Long Parliament English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660

The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660. It followed the fiasco of the Short Parliament which had convened for only three weeks during the spring of 1640, and which in turn had followed an 11-year parliamentary absence. In September 1640, King Charles I issued writs summoning a parliament to convene on 3 November 1640. He intended it to pass financial bills, a step made necessary by the costs of the Bishops' Wars in Scotland. The Long Parliament received its name from the fact that, by Act of Parliament, it stipulated it could be dissolved only with agreement of the members; and, those members did not agree to its dissolution until 16 March 1660, after the English Civil War and near the close of the Interregnum.

He was married by mid-March 1658 to Philadelphia Carey (d. 1696), daughter of Sir Ferdinando Carey (1590-1638), granddaughter of Sir Edmund Carey (1558-1637). Together they had one child: Henrietta Maria Wentworth was born on 11 August 1660.

Sir Edmund Carey was an English MP from 1584 to 1614.

Henrietta Wentworth, 6th Baroness Wentworth British Baroness

Henrietta Maria Wentworth, 6th Baroness Wentworth was an English peer.

Honors awarded to Wentworth include the Order of the Bath (KB) and appointment to the Privy Council of England (PC).

Wentworth died at age 53 on 1 March 1665, thereby predeceasing his father by two years. He was buried six days later at Toddington. His daughter Henrietta succeeded to the barony upon her father's death; she would have an affair with James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth but no children. After her death at 26 the barony passed to her aunt, Anne Lovelace, 7th Baroness Wentworth, the wife of John Lovelace, 2nd Baron Lovelace.

James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth English nobleman and soldier

James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Buccleuch, KG, PC was a Dutch-born English nobleman. Originally called James Crofts or James Fitzroy, he was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the eldest illegitimate son of Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his mistress Lucy Walter.

John Lovelace, 2nd Baron Lovelace was a British peer and Royal servant.

The Civil War

During the English Civil War, Wentworth was the Sergeant-Major-General of Horse and commanded the Prince of Wales's Regiment of Horse. He saw action at Tipton Green, Cropredy Bridge, and possibly at Newbury, all in 1644; at Langport in 1645; and at Worcester, the final battle of the English Civil War in 1651. He fought most battles alongside his father. When the Royalists were defeated, Lord Wentworth accompanied the court into exile. He raised a regiment (which later became the Grenadier Guards) at Bruges as a bodyguard to the exiled Charles II.

Prelude: the Bishops' Wars

From 1639-40, Wentworth fought against the Scots in the Bishops' Wars.

First English Civil War

At the outset of the civil war in 1642, Wentworth was with George Goring in Portsmouth. After the fall of that garrison, he joined the King's Main Field Army, and as Lord Wentworth, raised a company of dragoons. He fought at Marlborough, Wiltshire, in December 1642, and at Cirencester, Gloucestershire, in February 1643.

On 2 February 1643, he became major-general of dragoons, in succession to Sir Arthur Aston. In the early part of the civil war, dragoons formed a substantial part of the mounted arm, although they were merely infantrymen set on ponies and other small horses initially regarded as unsuitable for cavalry troopers. As the war progressed, however, standards dropped and all riding horses went to the cavalry, irrespective of size or condition. This caused the dragoons to dwindle in both numbers and importance. All too often they simply discarded their muskets and started calling themselves troopers.

Consequently, Wentworth followed suit and on 5 February 1644, he succeeded Sir Thomas Byron as colonel of the Prince of Wales's Regiment of Horse. At the Battle of Cropredy Bridge (June 1644) he commanded a cavalry brigade. He was afterward appointed major-general of horse in succession to Lord Wilmot, when the latter was dismissed before the battle of Lostwithiel. However, on 14 November 1644, he relinquished this post in order to join Lord Goring's army in the west country.

After Goring's defeat at Langport and subsequent dismissal, Wentworth was appointed major-general of horse under the western army's new commander, Lord Hopton. Unfortunately Hopton was soon on bad terms with Wentworth and contrived to get himself badly beaten at Torrington on 14 March 1646. As a result, the already demoralized western army surrendered soon afterwards.

Exile with Prince Charles

Wentworth escaped with Prince Charles in the spring of 1646. The prince's court went first to the Isles of Scilly and then to Jersey.

In 1649, Wentworth accompanied Charles to Paris.

Third English Civil War

The following year both Wentworth and his father, the earl of Cleveland, sailed with Charles to Scotland. Charles was compelled to subscribe to the Solemn League and Covenant as a condition of being recognized as King, but many of his followers neglected to do so including Wentworth and his father. Despite the defeat of the Scots army at Dunbar on 3 September 1650, both Wentworth and his father were, as non-subscribers, ordered out of the country on 17 October. Just as with the Earl of Forth and other prominent royalists, they ignored this edict and subsequently fought at Worcester on 3 September 1651. Although his father was afterwards captured, Wentworth got away safely.

Exile with King Charles

Until the Restoration in 1660, Wentworth attended Charles II's émigré court.

In 1656 in Bruges, he was responsible for organizing and commanding a regiment of foot guards that served as a bodyguard unit to the exiled king. The regiment also served with the Spanish army at the Battle of the Dunes in June 1658, although there is some doubt as to whether Wentworth personally fought there.

Restoration

After the Restoration Wentworth returned home to England. He brought the regiment of foot guards with him, where it became the 1st foot guards and afterwards the Grenadier Guards.

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References

Wikisource-logo.svg  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : "Wentworth, Thomas (1613-1665)". Dictionary of National Biography . London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.

See also

Parliament of England
Preceded by
Parliament suspended since 1629
Member of Parliament for Bedfordshire
1640
With: Sir Oliver Luke
Succeeded by
Roger Burgoyne
Sir Oliver Luke
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Thomas Wentworth
Baron Wentworth
(writ of acceleration)

16401665
Succeeded by
Thomas Wentworth
Military offices
Preceded by
Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester
Colonel of Lord Wentworth's Regiment
16561660
Succeeded by
Hon. John Russell