Thomas Wentworth, KB, PC (bapt. 2 February 1612 – 1 March 1665) was an English soldier and politician who supported King Charles I in the English Civil War. He served the king during two parts of the English Civil War and accompanied the young Prince Charles (later King Charles II) in exile.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements. The knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order". He did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never previously existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred.
The Privy Council of England, also known as HisMajesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, was a body of advisers to the sovereign of the Kingdom of England. Its members were often senior members of the House of Lords and the House of Commons, together with leading churchmen, judges, diplomats and military leaders.
Baptism is a Christian rite of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. The synoptic gospels recount that John the Baptist baptised Jesus. Baptism is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others. Baptism is also called christening, although some reserve the word "christening" for the baptism of infants. It has also given its name to the Baptist churches and denominations.
Wentworth was born in 1612, the eldest son of the 1st Earl of Cleveland and his first wife, Anne. His exact birthdate is unknown, but parish records show that he was baptised on 2 February 1612.
Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Cleveland was a Cavalier general who fought for Charles I during the English Civil War.
In 1640, he was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Bedfordshire to the Short Parliament in April and again to the Long Parliament in November. However, before he took his seat in November, he was called up to the House of Lords by writ of acceleration in his father's barony of Wentworth.
Bedfordshire was a United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency, which elected two Members of Parliament from 1295 until 1885, when it was divided into two constituencies under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885.
The Short Parliament was a Parliament of England that was summoned by King Charles I of England on 20 February 1640 and sat from 13 April to 5 May 1640. It was so called because of its short life of only three weeks.
The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660. It followed the fiasco of the Short Parliament which had convened for only three weeks during the spring of 1640, and which in turn had followed an 11-year parliamentary absence. In September 1640, King Charles I issued writs summoning a parliament to convene on 3 November 1640. He intended it to pass financial bills, a step made necessary by the costs of the Bishops' Wars in Scotland. The Long Parliament received its name from the fact that, by Act of Parliament, it stipulated it could be dissolved only with agreement of the members; and, those members did not agree to its dissolution until 16 March 1660, after the English Civil War and near the close of the Interregnum.
He was married by mid-March 1658 to Philadelphia Carey (d. 1696), daughter of Sir Ferdinando Carey (1590-1638), granddaughter of Sir Edmund Carey (1558-1637). Together they had one child: Henrietta Maria Wentworth was born on 11 August 1660.
Sir Edmund Carey was an English MP from 1584 to 1614.
Henrietta Maria Wentworth, 6th Baroness Wentworth was an English peer.
Honors awarded to Wentworth include the Order of the Bath (KB) and appointment to the Privy Council of England (PC).
Wentworth died at age 53 on 1 March 1665, thereby predeceasing his father by two years. He was buried six days later at Toddington. His daughter Henrietta succeeded to the barony upon her father's death; she would have an affair with James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth but no children. After her death at 26 the barony passed to her aunt, Anne Lovelace, 7th Baroness Wentworth, the wife of John Lovelace, 2nd Baron Lovelace.
James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Buccleuch, KG, PC was a Dutch-born English nobleman. Originally called James Crofts or James Fitzroy, he was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the eldest illegitimate son of Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his mistress Lucy Walter.
John Lovelace, 2nd Baron Lovelace was a British peer and Royal servant.
During the English Civil War, Wentworth was the Sergeant-Major-General of Horse and commanded the Prince of Wales's Regiment of Horse. He saw action at Tipton Green, Cropredy Bridge, and possibly at Newbury, all in 1644; at Langport in 1645; and at Worcester, the final battle of the English Civil War in 1651. He fought most battles alongside his father. When the Royalists were defeated, Lord Wentworth accompanied the court into exile. He raised a regiment (which later became the Grenadier Guards) at Bruges as a bodyguard to the exiled Charles II.
From 1639-40, Wentworth fought against the Scots in the Bishops' Wars.
At the outset of the civil war in 1642, Wentworth was with George Goring in Portsmouth. After the fall of that garrison, he joined the King's Main Field Army, and as Lord Wentworth, raised a company of dragoons. He fought at Marlborough, Wiltshire, in December 1642, and at Cirencester, Gloucestershire, in February 1643.
On 2 February 1643, he became major-general of dragoons, in succession to Sir Arthur Aston. In the early part of the civil war, dragoons formed a substantial part of the mounted arm, although they were merely infantrymen set on ponies and other small horses initially regarded as unsuitable for cavalry troopers. As the war progressed, however, standards dropped and all riding horses went to the cavalry, irrespective of size or condition. This caused the dragoons to dwindle in both numbers and importance. All too often they simply discarded their muskets and started calling themselves troopers.
Consequently, Wentworth followed suit and on 5 February 1644, he succeeded Sir Thomas Byron as colonel of the Prince of Wales's Regiment of Horse. At the Battle of Cropredy Bridge (June 1644) he commanded a cavalry brigade. He was afterward appointed major-general of horse in succession to Lord Wilmot, when the latter was dismissed before the battle of Lostwithiel. However, on 14 November 1644, he relinquished this post in order to join Lord Goring's army in the west country.
After Goring's defeat at Langport and subsequent dismissal, Wentworth was appointed major-general of horse under the western army's new commander, Lord Hopton. Unfortunately Hopton was soon on bad terms with Wentworth and contrived to get himself badly beaten at Torrington on 14 March 1646. As a result, the already demoralized western army surrendered soon afterwards.
Wentworth escaped with Prince Charles in the spring of 1646. The prince's court went first to the Isles of Scilly and then to Jersey.
In 1649, Wentworth accompanied Charles to Paris.
The following year both Wentworth and his father, the earl of Cleveland, sailed with Charles to Scotland. Charles was compelled to subscribe to the Solemn League and Covenant as a condition of being recognized as King, but many of his followers neglected to do so including Wentworth and his father. Despite the defeat of the Scots army at Dunbar on 3 September 1650, both Wentworth and his father were, as non-subscribers, ordered out of the country on 17 October. Just as with the Earl of Forth and other prominent royalists, they ignored this edict and subsequently fought at Worcester on 3 September 1651. Although his father was afterwards captured, Wentworth got away safely.
Until the Restoration in 1660, Wentworth attended Charles II's émigré court.
In 1656 in Bruges, he was responsible for organizing and commanding a regiment of foot guards that served as a bodyguard unit to the exiled king. The regiment also served with the Spanish army at the Battle of the Dunes in June 1658, although there is some doubt as to whether Wentworth personally fought there.
After the Restoration Wentworth returned home to England. He brought the regiment of foot guards with him, where it became the 1st foot guards and afterwards the Grenadier Guards.
The Battle of Edgehill was a pitched battle of the First English Civil War. It was fought near Edge Hill and Kineton in southern Warwickshire on Sunday, 23 October 1642.
Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron, also known as Sir Thomas, Lord Fairfax, was an English nobleman, peer, politician, general, and Parliamentary commander-in-chief during the English Civil War. An adept and talented commander, Fairfax led Parliament to many victories, notably the crucial Battle of Naseby, becoming effectively military ruler of England, but was eventually overshadowed by his subordinate Oliver Cromwell, who was more politically adept and radical in action against Charles I. Fairfax became unhappy with Cromwell's policy and publicly refused to take part in Charles's show trial. Eventually he resigned, leaving Cromwell to control the country. Because of this, and also his honourable battlefield conduct and his active role in the Restoration of the monarchy after Cromwell's death, he was exempted from the retribution exacted on many other leaders of the revolution. His dark hair and eyes and a swarthy complexion earned him the nickname "Black Tom".
Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Burlington, 2nd Earl of Cork was an Anglo-Irish nobleman who served as Lord High Treasurer of Ireland and was a Cavalier.
The Battle of Cropredy Bridge was a battle of the English Civil Wars, fought on 29 June 1644 between a Parliamentarian army under Sir William Waller and the Royalist army of King Charles. After a Parliamentarian attack on the Royalist rearguard was repulsed, Waller's army became demoralised and ineffective, allowing the King to retrieve the Royalists' fortunes after other defeats during the earlier part of the year.
The Second Battle of Newbury was a battle of the English Civil War fought on 27 October 1644, in Speen, adjoining Newbury in Berkshire. The battle was fought close to the site of the First Battle of Newbury, which took place in late September the previous year.
Lieutenant-General Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, known as The Lord Wilmot between 1643 and 1644 and as The Viscount Wilmot between 1644 and 1652, was an English Cavalier who fought for the Royalist cause during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
Lord Wentworth's Regiment was a regiment of infantry raised during the exile of King Charles II during the Interregnum. Formed as the Royal Regiment of Guards in 1656 at Bruges under the command of the Earl of Rochester, it was made up of men who remained loyal to the King and had followed him into exile. When Rochester died in February 1658 command passed to Thomas Wentworth, 5th Baron Wentworth. The regiment served as part of the Spanish Army during the Franco-Spanish War and the concurrent Anglo-Spanish War in the Spanish Netherlands and saw action at the Battle of the Dunes (1658) under the command of Wentworth, before accompanying the King back to England to reclaim the throne at the Restoration in 1660. In 1665, the regiment was amalgamated with John Russell's Regiment of Guards to form the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards.
The Carabiniers was a cavalry regiment of the British Army. It was formed in 1685 as the Lord Lumley's Regiment of Horse. It was renamed as His Majesty's 1st Regiment of Carabiniers in 1740, the 3rd Regiment of Horse (Carabiniers) in 1756 and the 6th Regiment of Dragoon Guards in 1788. After two centuries of service, including the First World War, the regiment was amalgamated with the 3rd Dragoon Guards to form the 3rd/6th Dragoon Guards in 1922.
The Battle of Cheriton was an important Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War. It took place on 29 March 1644 and resulted in the defeat of a Royalist army, which threw King Charles I onto the defensive for the remainder of the year.
The Battle of Langport was a Parliamentarian victory late in the First English Civil War which destroyed the last Royalist field army and gave Parliament control of the West of England, which had hitherto been a major source of manpower, raw materials and imports for the Royalists. The battle took place on 10 July 1645 near the small town of Langport, which lies south of Bristol.
Baron Wentworth is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1529 for Thomas Wentworth, who was also de jure sixth Baron le Despencer of the 1387 creation. The title was created by writ, which means that it can descend via female lines.
The 4th Royal Irish Dragoon Guards was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1685 as the Earl of Arran's Regiment of Cuirassiers. It was renamed as the 4th Dragoon Guards in 1788 and service for two centuries, including the First World War, before being amalgamated with 7th Dragoon Guards, to form the 4th/7th Dragoon Guards in 1922.
Sir Allen Apsley (1616–1685) was a leading Royalist in the English Civil War. He was the son of Sir Allen Apsley (1582–1630), and brother of Lucy Hutchinson (1620–1681).
The Royal Dragoons was a mounted infantry and later a heavy cavalry regiment of the British Army. The regiment was formed in 1661 as the Tangier Horse. It served for three centuries and was in action during the First and the Second World Wars. It was amalgamated with the Royal Horse Guards to form The Blues and Royals in 1969.
Henry Mordaunt, 2nd Earl of Peterborough was an English soldier, peer and courtier.
The 3rd Dragoon Guards was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1685 as the Earl of Plymouth's Regiment of Horse. It was renamed as the 3rd Regiment of Dragoon Guards in 1751 and the 3rd Dragoon Guards in 1765. It saw service for two centuries, including the First World War, before being amalgamated into the 3rd/6th Dragoon Guards in 1922.
The 5th Dragoon Guards was a British army cavalry regiment, officially formed in January 1686 as Shrewsbury's Regiment of Horse. Following a number of name changes, it became the 5th Regiment of Dragoon Guards in 1804, before being amalgamated with The Inniskillings in 1922 to form the 5th/6th Dragoons.
The English Army existed while England was an independent state and was at war with other states, but it was not until the Interregnum and the New Model Army that England acquired a peacetime professional standing army. At the restoration of the monarchy, Charles II kept a small standing army, formed from elements of the Royalist army in exile and elements of the New Model Army, from which the most senior regular regiments of today's British Army can trace their antecedence. Likewise, Royal Marines can trace their origins back to the formation of the English Army's "Duke of York and Albany's maritime regiment of Foot" at the grounds of the Honourable Artillery Company on 28 October 1664.
The Siege of Chester was a siege of the First English Civil War, between February 1645 and January 1646, with an intermission during the summer of 1645.
|Parliament of England|
Parliament suspended since 1629
| Member of Parliament for Bedfordshire |
With: Sir Oliver Luke
Sir Oliver Luke
|Peerage of England|
| Baron Wentworth |
(writ of acceleration)
Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester
| Colonel of Lord Wentworth's Regiment |
Hon. John Russell