Thomas Wentworth (Recorder of Oxford)

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Thomas Wentworth (c. 1568 by September 1627 [a] ) was an English lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1604 and 1626. He was a vocal if imprudent defender of the rights of the House of Commons.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

House of Commons of England parliament of England up to 1707

The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain. In 1801, with the union of Great Britain and Ireland, that house was in turn replaced by the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.

Wentworth was the third son of Peter Wentworth of Lillingstone Lovell in Oxfordshire, a prominent Puritan leader in Parliament during the reign of Elizabeth I. He was educated at University College, Oxford and became a member of Lincoln's Inn where he was called to the bar in 1594. [1]

Sir Peter Wentworth (1529–1596) was a prominent Puritan leader in the Parliament of England. He was the elder brother of Paul Wentworth and entered as member for Barnstaple in 1571. He later sat for the Cornish borough of Tregony in 1578 and for the town of Northampton in the parliaments of 1586–7, 1589, and 1593. Wentworth was the chief critic of Queen Elizabeth I, and Wentworth's 1576 Parliament address has been regarded as the sign of a new era in English Parliament politicking. Recorded speeches and parliament sessions, jotted in the diaries of MPs like those of Thomas Cromwell, began to proliferate around this time, when public interest embraced political affairs and when issues such as freedom of speech took root in parliamentary politics. For these reasons, Wentworth is often regarded as the first celebrated English parliamentarian.

Lillingstone Lovell farm village in the United Kingdom

Lillingstone Lovell is a village and civil parish within Aylesbury Vale district in Buckinghamshire, England. It is located around 4 miles (6.4 km) north of Buckingham and 8 miles (13 km) west of Milton Keynes, and around 5 miles (8 km) south of Towcester in the neighbouring county of Northamptonshire. Silverstone Circuit is located just over 2 miles (3.2 km) north-west of Lillingstone Lovell.

Oxfordshire County of England

Oxfordshire is a county in South East England. The ceremonial county borders Warwickshire to the north-west, Northamptonshire to the north-east, Buckinghamshire to the east, Berkshire to the south, Wiltshire to the south-west and Gloucestershire to the west.

Wentworth was elected Member of Parliament MP for Oxford in 1604. In Parliament he was an ardent and sometimes violent opponent of the Crown and of the abuse of royal prerogatives. He opposed the projected union of England and Scotland when it was discussed in 1607. He was appointed Recorder of Oxford in 1607 and held the post until 1623. He fell out with Oxford University, both for his activities in Parliament and his conduct as Recorder of Oxford, in particular his support for the City's desire to establish a police force to patrol the streets at night. This led to his being discommonsed (suspended from membership of the University) by the Vice-Chancellor in 1611 as a "malicious and implacable fomentor of troubles", although the authorities relented in 1614. He was appointed Lent Reader of his Inn in 1612. [1]

Oxford was a parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom. It comprised the city of Oxford in the county of Oxfordshire, and elected two members of parliament from its creation in 1295 until 1885 when its representation was reduced to one member by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885.

The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions. Legally ill-defined, the term has different meanings depending on context. It is used to designate the monarch in either a personal capacity, as Head of the Commonwealth, or as the king or queen of his or her realms. It can also refer to the rule of law; however, in common parlance 'The Crown' refers to the functions of government and the civil service.

The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government. It is the means by which some of the executive powers of government, possessed by and vested in a monarch with regard to the process of governance of the state, are carried out.

In 1614 Wentworth was re-elected MP for Oxford and he spoke in Parliament against the imposition of illegal taxes, in which he argued that the Spanish loss of the Netherlands and the recent assassination of Henry IV of France were the "just reward" for such impositions; for this inflammatory speech he was imprisoned after the dissolution of Parliament, chiefly to appease the French ambassador. [1]

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Spanish Netherlands Historical region of the Low Countries (1581-1714)

Spanish Netherlands was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown from 1556 to 1714. This region comprised most of the modern states of Belgium and Luxembourg, as well as parts of northern France, southern Netherlands, and western Germany with the capital being Brussels.

Henry IV of France first French monarch of the House of Bourbon

Henry IV, also known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.

Wentworth was re-elected MP for Oxford in 1621 and in that parliament he opposed the proposed marriage of the Prince of Wales to a Spanish princess, and when the King angrily wrote to the Speaker that the Commons should not interfere with such matters of state, he boldly stated that he "never yet read of anything that was not fit for the consideration of a parliament". In 1624 he was re-elected MP for Oxford and in that parliament he was a strong advocate of declaring war on Spain. He was re-elected MP for Oxford in 1625 and 1626. He was dead by September 1627, and was succeeded by his eldest son Thomas Wentworth, who sat for Oxford in 1628. [2]

Wentworth married Dorothy Keble, daughter of Thomas Keble of Newbottle in Northamptonshire, and they had six sons and at least three daughters. [2]

Newbottle, Northamptonshire a village located in South Northamptonshire, United Kingdom

Newbottle is a civil parish and largely deserted village in South Northamptonshire, about 4 miles (6.4 km) west of the market town of Brackley. It is close to the Oxfordshire county boundary and about 4.5 miles (7.2 km) south-east of the town of Banbury.

Northamptonshire County of England

Northamptonshire, archaically known as the County of Northampton, is a county in the East Midlands of England. In 2015 it had a population of 723,000. The county is administered by Northamptonshire County Council and by seven non-metropolitan district councils. It is known as "The Rose of the Shires".

Notes

a. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography has a death year of 1628, based on his apparent return for parliament for Oxford that year. But the History of Parliament records this is the result of confusion with his son, also named Thomas Wentworth. [2]

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Wikisource-logo.svg  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : "Wentworth, Thomas (1568?-1628)". Dictionary of National Biography . London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  2. 1 2 3 "Wentworth, Thomas I (c.1568-1627), of Lincoln's Inn and Henley, Oxon". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
Parliament of England
Preceded by
Sir Francis Leigh
George Calfield
Member of Parliament for Oxford
1604–1626
With: Sir Francis Leigh 1604–1611
Sir John Astley 1614
Sir John Brooke 1621–1622
John Whistler 1624–1626
Succeeded by
John Whistler
Thomas Wentworth