Thomas Wentworth Higginson

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  1. Ash, Stephen V., Firebrand of Liberty: The Story of Two Black Regiments that Changed the Course of the Civil War. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2008.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Chisholm 1911.
  3. Wilson, J. G.; Fiske, J., eds. (1892). "Higginson, Stephen"  . Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography . New York: D. Appleton.
  4. Mary Thacher Higginson, Thomas Wentworth Higginson – The Story of His Life (Boston & New York, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1914) pp.2–3
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Wilson, Susan. Literary Trail of Greater Boston. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000: 119. ISBN   0-618-05013-2
  6. Edelstein, Tilden G., Strange Enthusiasm, p. 38.
  7. Edelstein, Tilden G., Strange Enthusiasm, p. 45.
  8. Edelstein, Tilden G., Strange Enthusiasm, pp. 77–78.
  9. Frederick T. McGill, Jr., Channing of Concord: A Life of William Ellery Channing II, Rutgers University Press, 1967.
  10. the family tree of Thomas Wentworth Higginson
  11. Broaddus, Dorothy C. Genteel Rhetoric: Writing High Culture in Nineteenth-Century Boston. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina, 1999: 70. ISBN   1-57003-244-0.
  12. Owen, Barbara. "History of the First Religious Society" Archived December 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine , First Religious Society (Unitarian Universalist), Newburyport, MA. Accessed on August 14, 2010.
  13. Beck, Janet Kemper. Creating the John Brown Legend: Emerson, Thoreau, Douglass, Child and Higginson in Defense of the Raid on Harpers Ferry. McFarland, April 7, 2009, p85-87
  14. Edelstein, Tilden G., Strange Enthusiasm, pp. 93–94.
  15. 1 2 3 Broaddus, Dorothy C. Genteel Rhetoric: Writing High Culture in Nineteenth-Century Boston. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina, 1999: 70–71. ISBN   1-57003-244-0.
  16. Edelstein, Tilden G., Strange Enthusiasm, p. 97.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 Faust, Drew Gilpin (December 2023). "The Men Who Started the War". The Atlantic : 82–89.
  18. Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, "A Ride Through Kanzas". Letters to the New York Tribune, 1856 (via
  19. Sanborn, F.B. "Thomas Wentworth Higginson (Tributes)" The Massachusetts Magazine , Vol. IV (1911), No. 3, p. 142 (via
  20. Manual for the Use of the General Court. Boston: Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 1880. p. 362.
  21. Manual for the Use of the General Court. Boston: Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 1881. p. 378. hdl:2452/40659.
  22. Million, Joelle, Woman's Voice, Woman's Place: Lucy Stone and the Birth of the Women's Rights Movement. Praeger, 2003. ISBN   0-275-97877-X, pp. 136–37, 173.
  23. Wendell Phillips, Harriet Hardy Taylor Mill, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Clarina I. Howard Nichols, Theodore Parker (1854). "Woman's Rights Tracts". Boston: Robert F. Wallcut via Internet Archive.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  24. "Women and the Alphabet, by Thomas Wentworth Higginson".
  25. Meyer, 2000, pp. 266–82.
  26. Million, 2003, p. 195.
  27. Stone, Lucy; Susan B. Anthony Collection (Library of Congress) DLC; National American Woman Suffrage Association Collection (Library of Congress) DLC (March 6, 2019). "The Woman's Right's Almanac for 1858. Containing Facts, Statistics, Arguments, Records of Progress, and Proofs of the Need of it". Worcester, Mass.: Z. Baker & Co. via Internet Archive.
  28. The Woman's Rights Almanac for 1858, Containing Facts, Statistics, Arguments, Records of Progress, and Proofs of the Need of It. Worcester, Mass: Z. Baker & Co.; Boston: R. F. Walcutt. [1857]
  29. "The Elective Franchise for Woman," National Anti-Slavery Standard, March 27, 1858, p. 3.
  30. New York Times, May 15, 1858, p. 4.
  31. Dubois, Ellen Carol, Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women's Movement in America, 1848–1869, Cornell University Press, (1978), p. 168.
  32. Merk, Lois Bannister, "Massachusetts and the Woman Suffrage Movement," Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 1958, Revised, 1961, pp. 16–17.
  33. "The Color of Bravery: United States Colored Troops in the Civil War." Retrieved September 29, 2019.
  34. Higginson, Thomas Wentworth (1900). Army Life in a Black Regiment. A new edition with notes and a supplementary chapter. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin.
  35. McPherson, James M. (April 18, 1996). Drawn With the Sword: Reflections on the American Civil War. Oxford University Press. p. 91. ISBN   9780199727834 . Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  36. Higginson, Thomas Wentworth (June 2, 1870). The Sympathy of Religions . First printed in The Radical (Boston, 1871). Retrieved from, 2018-05-05.
  37. 1 2 Schmidt, Leigh Eric (2005). Restless Souls: The Making of American Spirituality from Emerson to Oprah. New York: HarperCollins, pp. 134–135.
  38. Alexander K. McClure, ed. (1902). Famous American Statesmen & Orators. Vol. VI. New York: F. F. Lovell Publishing Company. p. 222.
  39. "MemberListH". American Antiquarian Society.
  40. Nichols, Richard E. (August 20, 2000). "THE MAGNIFICENT ACTIVIST The Writings of Thomas Wentworth Higginson". The New York Times . His radicalism never dimmed; in 1906, at the age of 83, he joined with Jack London and Upton Sinclair to form the Intercollegiate Socialist Society.
  41. Wilson, Susan. Literary Trail of Greater Boston. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000: 117. ISBN   0-618-05013-2
  42. "Massachusetts, Deaths, 1841–1915," Vol.1911/26 Death: Pg.402. State Archives, Boston.
  43. Edelstein, Tilden G., Strange Enthusiasm, p. 51.
  44. Christopher Looby, ed. (2000). The Complete Civil War Journal and Selected Letters of Thomas Wentworth Higginson. University of Chicago Press. ISBN   0-226-33330-2.
  45. Edelstein, Tilden G., Strange Enthusiasm, pp. 106–107.
  46. Higginson, Thomas W. "Views on Socialism". p. 9. I grew up in the Brook Farm and Fourierite period and have always been interested in all tendencies in that direction.
  47. Geller, William W., "Mount Katahdin — March 1853: the Mysteries of an Ascent" (2016). Maine History Documents. 119. Page 10 identifies Higginson as the anonymous author of "Going to Katahdin", omitting "Mount", but endnote 13 on page 19 makes clear that it is the same article as "Going to Mount Katahdin".

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Further reading

  • Bauch, Marc A. Extending the Canon: Thomas Wentworth Higginson and African-American Spirituals. Munich, Germany: Grin, 2013.
  • Edelstein, Tilden G. Strange Enthusiasm: A Life of Thomas Wentworth Higginson. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968.
  • Kytle, Ethan J. "An American Romantic Goes to War," The New York Times, April 15, 2011.
  • Meyer, Howard N. Colonel of the Black Regiment: The Life of Thomas Wentworth Higginson. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc., 1967.
  • Meyer, Howard N., ed. The Magnificent Activist: The Writings of Thomas Wentworth Higginson, 1823–1911. DaCapo Press, 2000.
  • Wells, Anna Mary. Dear Preceptor: The Life and Times of Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1963.
  • Wilson, Edmund. Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War, New York, Oxford University Press, 1962, pp. 247–256.
  • Wineapple, Brenda, White Heat: The Friendship of Emily Dickinson and Thomas Wentworth Higginson. New York: Knopf, 2008. ISBN   978-1-4000-4401-6. plus Author Interview at the Pritzker Military Library on February 20, 2009.


  • Muccigrosso, Robert, ed. Research Guide to American Historical Biography (1988) 5:2543-46

Primary sources

  • Meyer, Howard N. (ed.) The Magnificent Activist: The Writings of Thomas Wentworth Higginson (1823–1911). Cambridge: Da Capo Press, 2000. ISBN   0-306-80954-0.
  • Masur, Louis P. (ed.) "... the real war will never get in the books": Selections from Writers During the Civil War. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. ISBN   0-19-506868-8. Pages 181–195 include four of Higginson's writings: (1) Letter to Louisa Higginson; (2) "The Ordeal by Battle," in The Atlantic Monthly (July 1861); (3) "Regular and Volunteer Officers," in The Atlantic Monthly (Sept. 1864); (4) "Leaves from an Officer’s Journal," in The Atlantic Monthly (Nov. 1864, Dec. 1864, Jan. 1865).


Thomas Wentworth Higginson
Member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from the 1st Middlesex district
In office
January 7, 1880 January 4, 1882
ServingwithGeorge W. Park (1880) and Henry W. Muzzey (1881)