Thomas Westbrook

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Thomas Westbrook
Rale strongbox.PNG
Westbrook retrieved Father Rale's strong box
Born1675 [1]
Died11 February 1743/1744 (age 69)
Falmouth, Maine
OccupationCommander in the "East", Colonel of militia, King's mast agent, councilor, mill owner, speculator, innkeeper
Spouse(s)Mary Sherburne
ChildrenElizabeth (married Richard Waldron (Secretary))
Parent(s)John Westbrook and Martha Walford
Thomas Westbrook signature.PNG

Colonel Thomas Westbrook (16751743/44) was a senior New England militia officer in Maine during Father Rale's War. In addition to this senior militia role he was a scout, a colonial councillor, an innkeeper, a mill owner, a land speculator and a King's Mast Agent. [2] [3] He is the namesake of Westbrook, Maine.

New England Region of the United States

New England is a region composed of six states in the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. It does not contain New York. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively. The Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts. The largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston with nearly a third of the entire region's population, which also includes Worcester, Massachusetts, Manchester, New Hampshire, and Providence, Rhode Island.

Militia generally refers to an army or other fighting force that is composed of non-professional fighters

A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class. Generally unable to hold ground against regular forces, it is common for militias to be used for aiding regular troops by skirmishing, holding fortifications, or irregular warfare, instead of being used in offensive campaigns by themselves. Militia are often limited by local civilian laws to serve only in their home region, and to serve only for a limited time; this further reduces their use in long military campaigns.

Maine State of the United States of America

Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, and the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest respectively. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, and the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes. It is known for its jagged, rocky coastline; low, rolling mountains; heavily forested interior; and picturesque waterways, as well as its seafood cuisine, especially lobster and clams. There is a humid continental climate throughout most of the state, including in coastal areas such as its most populous city of Portland. The capital is Augusta.


Early years

Globe Tavern on the Plains in Portsmouth, New Hampshire Globetavernontheplainsofportsmouthnh.jpg
Globe Tavern on the Plains in Portsmouth, New Hampshire

During Queen Anne's War, Westbrook became a ranger in a small company of four (1704). [6]

Queen Annes War North American theater of the War of the Spanish Succession

Queen Anne's War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought in England's Thirteen American Colonies; in Europe, it is viewed as the North American theater of the War of the Spanish Succession. It was fought between France and England for control of the American continent, while the War of the Spanish Succession was primarily fought in Europe. The war also involved numerous American Indian tribes allied with each nation, and Spain was allied with France. It is also known as the Third Indian War or in France as the Second Intercolonial War. It was fought on three fronts:

  1. Spanish Florida and the English Province of Carolina attacked one another, and the English forces engaged the French based at Mobile, Alabama in a proxy war involving allied Indians on both sides. The southern war did not result in significant territorial changes, but it had the effect of nearly wiping out the Indian population of Spanish Florida, including parts of southern Georgia, and destroying the network of Spanish missions in Florida.
  2. The English colonies of New England fought against French and Indian forces based in Acadia and Canada. Quebec City was repeatedly targeted by British expeditions, and the Acadian capital Port Royal was taken in 1710. The French and Wabanaki Confederacy sought to thwart New England expansion into Acadia, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. Toward this end, they executed raids against targets in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, most famously the raid on Deerfield in 1704.
  3. English colonists based at St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador disputed control of the island with the French based at Plaisance. Most of the conflict consisted of economically destructive raids on settlements. The French successfully captured St. John's in 1709, but the British quickly reoccupied it after the French abandoned it.

In 1716 the General Assembly of the Province made a grant to Thomas Westbrook, to keep the only public house at the Plains, in consideration that he should lay out six acres of land for the accommodation of drawing up the militia of the town. [7] From at least 1720 he was the owner and proprietor. [8]

Father Rale's War

During the years 1721-3 Westbrook became a captain in the militia and, after the fall of Colonel Shadrack Walton from favour with Massachusett's acting Governor William Dummer, became the colonel in charge of the militia in the "East" (Maine) [9] [10] [11]

William Dummer Lieutenant Governor of colonial Massachusetts, acting governor during Dummers War, benefactor of The Governors Academy

William Dummer was a politician in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. He served as its lieutenant governor for fourteen years (1716–1730), including an extended period from 1723 to 1728 when he acted as governor. He is remembered for his role in leading the colony during what is sometimes called Dummer's War, which was fought between the British colonies of northeastern North America and a loose coalition of native tribes in what is now New Hampshire, Maine, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.

A focus during the Father Rale's War was the New England effort to apprehend Father Sebastien Rale, a Jesuit priest and French national who resided with and, the New Englanders thought, guided the natives to raid and kill or abduct New England colonists. The General Court of Massachusetts in December 1721 directed the militia to apprehend Rale and bring him to Boston to answer these charges. [12]

Priest person authorized to lead the sacred rituals of a religion (for a minister use Q1423891)

A priest or priestess is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of, a deity or deities. Their office or position is the priesthood, a term which also may apply to such persons collectively.

Boston Capital city of Massachusetts, United States

Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles (124 km2) with an estimated population of 694,583 in 2018, making it also the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999. The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area (CSA), this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States.

The Strong Box

In January 1722 Colonel Westbrook led a group of militia that, unable to find Rale, seized a strongbox containing his correspondence with Marquis de Vaudreuil, the French Governor in Quebec, and a hand written dictionary of the native Abenaki language. In the minds of New Englanders of the day, the letters proved French complicity in urging Native American tribes to attack New England settlements, and they were conveyed to authorities in Boston. [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]

The Abenaki are a Native American tribe and First Nation. They are one of the Algonquian-speaking peoples of northeastern North America. The Abenaki live in Quebec and the Maritimes of Canada and in the New England region of the United States, a region called Wabanahkik in the Eastern Algonquian languages. The Abenaki are one of the five members of the Wabanaki Confederacy.

He was present at the December 15, 1725 Falmouth peace treaty with the Indians, "Dummer's Treaty", which ended the hostilities, apparently his last act as a militia officer. [21]

Falmouth, Maine

He moved to Falmouth (near modern Portland, Maine) "as early as 1719" to enter the lucrative business of providing masts to the British navy as a private contractor. He was one of only a few European-descended residents there at that time. [22]

He was appointed as King's Mast Agent in 1727 and moved the "King's mast business" from Portsmouth to Falmouth. [23] The mast agent was charged by the Crown with marking, protecting and providing trees which were suitable for ship's masts in the Royal Navy. [24]

Westbrook "became a citizen" of Falmouth in August 1727. [25] He built his "splendid seat" [26] of "Harrow House" with garrisons on the south side of Stroudwater River on a 69-acre (280,000 m2) property. [27] It was likely at this home that Westbrook entertained Governor Belcher and other guests. [28]

He built two mills, a gristmill whose stones still survive [29] [30] as markers of other historical sites, and a papermill. [31] Native chief Polin travelled to the governor to protest Col. Westbrook's failure to provide a way for spawning fish to get past his mill. [32]


As early as 1710 [15] he was part of the King's Council appointed by the governor, and held his post (though often absent) until 1730 when he resigned voluntarily. [33] [34] In 1733 he was briefly in Boston as a representative to the council from Falmouth and courted by Governor Jonathan Belcher to be a supporter of the Massachusetts government. He showed little interest in these duties and was fined for being absent. [35]


With the young [1] Brigadier General [15] Samuel Waldo (pictured at right) he became a land speculator of as much as 15,000 acres [31] in the Falmouth area (near present-day Portland, Maine). The two partners prospered until, for reasons that are not entirely clear, Waldo "[who had] led him into large land speculations ... then struck upon him in an unfortunate time." [36] "Waldo by unscrupulous or ruthless means divested Westbrook of his lands and much of his wealth by 1743..." [15]

"In 1743, Waldo recovered judgement against him for ten thousand five hundred pounds, which he levied upon his property, and swept it nearly all away." [37]

A copy of one of his later letters, desperately seeking a loan, survived and was transcribed near the end of Trask's Letters of Colonel Thomas Westbrook. Unlike most of his letters, this one was probably not dictated and captures Westbrook's choice of spelling as well as his desperation.

July 29, 1740.

Sir my desterse is so grat I know not how to Turn myself for Want of money. If you cold any Ways helpe me I shall tack it as a favor. Mr. Robrds is going to Portsmouth, and I want to send sum money to Plastd. Pray consider the hard case of your frind and sarvant ... THO. WESTBROOK. [38]


He died heavily in debt [15] on 11 February 1743/1744 "of a broken heart caused by Waldo's Acts". [39] He expired in a smaller cottage adjacent to his beloved Harrow House, which had been lost to his creditors. Despite his bankruptcy his estate was valued at seven thousand, three hundred and two pounds. [40] In contrast, his probate inventory totalled £1052/14/5 and included a house, a pew in Rev Smith's meetinghouse, and books. [41] His Globe Tavern later appears among the property owned by his grandson Thomas Westbrook Waldron though the date of transfer of this property and of his son in law's house is unknown.

"[H]is family was forced to spirit his body away in the middle of a nighttime snowstorm in order to prevent the Waldo family from claiming Westbrook's remains and holding them "hostage" until debts were paid". [1] The burial location was unknown [42] [43] until the 1976 bicentennial celebrations except to descendants of his sister Mary (Westbrook) Knight. [44] The gravesite, located at Smiling Hill Farm, has been marked by the Daughters of Colonial Wars in Maine and is pictured on the Knight family farm's website. [45]


Then-Secretary of State Clinton honours Consul Thomas Westbrook Waldron (a great great grandson) and others Clinton cropped.JPG
Then-Secretary of State Clinton honours Consul Thomas Westbrook Waldron (a great great grandson) and others

Born in 1675, [1] he was the son of John Westbrook and Martha Walford of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. His siblings included Mary who married Nathan Knight, [46] and whose family continues to own and operate the "Smiling Hill" farm. [47] [48]

Thomas married Mary Sherburne, daughter of the mariner John Sherburne and his wife Mary Cowell. [49] The restored Sherburne house at Portsmouth, New Hampshire's Strawbery Banke, has been identified as theirs. Their only child, Elizabeth, married Richard Waldron (Secretary) of a prominent colonial New Hampshire family. [25] [26]

Though he had no sons, he was the namesake for several descendants all bearing the name "Thomas Westbrook Waldron". A great-great-grandson of this name, [50] a US consul who died in 1844 at Macau, was commemorated in a May 1, 2009 Washington DC ceremony by then-Secretary of State Clinton. [51] The names "Thomas Westbrook" or merely "Westbrook" as given names were in use among descendants well into the twentieth century. [52] [53]


Letters of Colonel Westbrook Title page of Letters of Colonel Westbrook Letters of Colonel Thomas Westbrook and others.JPG
Letters of Colonel Westbrook Title page of Letters of Colonel Westbrook

In 1814 the town of Stroudwater was created from Falmouth. Within a couple of months, the town was renamed Westbrook in honour of the Colonel. [55] [56] "...[I]t was a member of the Knight family -the descendants of Westbrook['s sister] who were holding the secret of his burial place - who proposed naming the town after him." [1]

His reports of activities as a militia captain and colonel to Governor Dummer were a series in the New England Historic & Genealogical Register (including vol 44, 1890 to vol 45, 1895) and then published in a book: Letters of Colonel Thomas Westbrook and others relative to Indian affairs in Maine, 1722-1726. [57] This work is often cited as a primary source in histories of that time.

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  1. 1 2 3 4 5 John Ballentine, "American Journal", "Q and A - Westbrook History Matters to Andrea Vasquez", (posted May 26, 2010) At: accessed August 22, 2010
  2. Aileen B. Agnew, "Big Timber: the Mast Trade", My Maine Memory accessed 26 December 2010
  3. Letter, Thomas Westbrook to William Pepperell, 25 May 1734 Maine Memory accessed December 26, 2010
  4. "Globe Tavern at the Plains, Portsmouth, New Hampshire" at:
  5. C.S. Gurney, Portsmouth, Historic and Picturesque, (1902), p.59 at:
  6. Dan L. Thrapp (ed)., "Thomas Westbrook", In: Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography, p.1536 at accessed August 22, 2010
  7. C. S. Gurney, Portsmouth, Historic and Picturesque, (1902), p.59 at:
  8. "Globe Tavern at the Plains - Portsmouth New Hampshire", accessed August 21, 2010
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  11. William Goold, Portland in the past (1886), p.197 at: accessed August 21, 2010
  12. William Goold, Portland in the past (1886), p.177 at: accessed August 21, 2010
  13. Rev. T. J. Campbell, SJ, Pioneer Priests of North America 1642-1760, (1911) vol.3, pp.299-300 accessed August 23, 2010. "It is alleged that in the strongbox were found very compromising letters from Vaudreuil. As the Governor of Quebec had to do his best to keep the Indians attached to the French, and as the limitation of territory had not yet been officially made, it might very easily happen that an Englishman would find Vaudreuil's letters very inflammatory without involving any culpibility on the part of the Governor. It all depends in the point of view, and no good can result in discussing the tenor of the letters."
  14. William Goold, Portland in the past (1886), p.181 at: accessed August 21, 2010
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 The dictionary is now in Harvard University's Houghton Library. Dan L. Thrapp (ed)., "Thomas Westbrook", In: Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography, p.1536
  16. The strongbox was retained by Westbrook and descended through his family and through the Massachusetts Historical Society until his descendant the Catholic Reverend E.Q.S. Waldron willed it to the Maine Historical Society. (See George E. Hodgdon, Reminiscences and Genealogical Record of the Vaughan Family of America, (1918) pp.6-8 at: accessed September 5, 2010
  17. ""Proceedings at May Meeting, 1886", In: Collections of the Maine Historical Society Collections of the Maine ... By Anonymous, Maine Historical Society, p. 331 at: accessed September 6, 2010
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  20. "Maine" In: Historical Magazine and Notes and Queries Covering the ..., vol 5, p.76 which recounts the reading of Rev. Waldron's letter within the Maine Historical Society's January 24, 1861 meeting.
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  22. Southgate, History of Scarborough, cited In: William Goold, Portland in the past (1886), p.198 at: accessed August 21, 2010
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  28. Goold
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  45. "Smiling Hill Farm History" accessed August 21, 2010
  46. Myrtle Kittridge Lovejoy, Earle G. Shettleworth, and William David Barry, This was Stroudwater: 1727-1860, (1985) p.5 as cited by Craig Bryant at accessed August 23, 2010
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  48. "Our 12th Generation" accessed August 21, 2010
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  50. C.H. Cutts Howard, Genealogy of the Cutts Family of America, (1892), entry 1390, p.123 at accessed August 22, 2010 has an entry on this individual who can be followed back to Colonel Westbrook (entry 108) on p.34
  51. "American Foreign Service Association's Memorial Plaque Ceremony" Hillary Clinton, Secretary of State, C Street Lobby, Washington, DC, May 1, 2009 at:
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  53. Rootsweb page
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