The Marquess of Wharton
|Lord Privy Seal|
|Preceded by||The Earl of Dartmouth|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Sunderland|
|Lord Lieutenant of Ireland|
|Preceded by||The Earl of Pembroke|
|Succeeded by||The Duke of Ormonde|
|Died||12 April 1715 (aged 66)|
Thomas Wharton,1st Marquess of Wharton PC (August 1648 – 12 April 1715) was an English nobleman and politician. A man of great charm and political ability[ according to whom? ],he was also notorious for his debauched lifestyle.
He was the son of Philip Wharton,4th Baron Wharton and his second wife,Jane Goodwin,only daughter of Colonel Arthur Goodwin of Upper Winchendon,Buckinghamshire,and heiress to the extensive Goodwin estates in Buckinghamshire,including Winchendon,Wooburn,Waddeston,Weston,and other properties.
In his long political career he was a Member of Parliament for seventeen yearsand spearheaded the Whig opposition to King James II's government,which later developed the two party political system under Queen Anne. Before the Glorious Revolution he was in close contact with a group of army officers conspiring against King James,including his brother Captain Henry Wharton.
In 1689 he was sworn of the Privy Council and made Comptroller of the Household by King William III,establishing the link between the royal position and government for the first time,although William is said to have distrusted him.
He went out of office in 1702,after the accession of Anne,who disliked him intensely,and took great pleasure in personally taking his staff of office from him, –1710. He was replaced by the Tory Duke of Ormonde when the Harley Ministry came to power.but in 1706,he was created Earl of Wharton and Viscount Winchendon in the Peerage of England. He served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1708
He supported the No Peace Without Spain motion in 1711. The following year he attacked the government's creation of Harley's Dozen,twelve new Tory peers in order to secure passage of their peace agreement.
Anne's antipathy to him was partly the product of her dislike for the Whig Junto,the "five tyrannising lords",which William III had shared to some extent,but owed far more to his debauched and irreligious character. Even by the standards of Restoration rakes,Wharton was considered a man "void of moral or religious principles". The most striking charge was that in 1682,when drunk,he had broken into the church in Great Barrington,Gloucestershire,urinated against the communion table and defecated in the pulpit. The story is probably true:certainly in 1705,during a debate on Church matters in the House of Lords,Wharton was left speechless when Thomas Osborne,1st Duke of Leeds reminded him of it.
Despite his faults he has been described as a man of immense charm,a fine public speaker and a "political organiser of genius".As the dominant politician in Aylesbury,he was partly responsible for the landmark constitutional case of Ashby v White ,which established the principle that for every wrong there is a remedy.
It is rumored that Wharton had taken Dorothy Townshend,née Walpole,as a lover prior to her marriage. Rumors suggest that her later husband,Charles Townshend,2nd Viscount Townshend may have either killed her or faked her funeral and hid her away at Raynham Hall. This rumor is based on the alleged infidelity of Dorothy during their marriage.She is also rumored to haunt Raynham,known as the Brown Lady of Raynham Hall.
Macaulay's History of England describes Wharton in prose:
His mendacity and his effrontery passed into proverbs. Of all the liars of his time he was the most deliberate, the most inventive and the most circumstantial. What shame meant he did not seem to understand. No reproaches, even when pointed and barbed with the sharpest wit, appeared to give him pain. Great satirists, animated by a deadly personal aversion, exhausted all their strength in attacks upon him. They assailed him with keen invective; they assailed him with still keener irony; but they found that neither invective nor irony could move him to any thing but an unforced smile and a goodhumoured curse; and they at length threw down the lash, acknowledging that it was impossible to make him feel. That, with such vices, he should have played a great part in life, should have carried numerous elections against the most formidable opposition by his personal popularity, should have had a large following in Parliament, should have risen to the highest offices of the State, seems extraordinary. But he lived in times when faction was almost a madness; and he possessed in an eminent degree the qualities of the leader of a faction.
Under George I of Great Britain, he returned to favour. In January 1715, he was created Marquess of Catherlough, Earl of Rathfarnham, and Baron Trim in the Peerage of Ireland, and in February 1715 Marquess of Wharton and Marquess of Malmesbury in the Peerage of Great Britain.
When he died in April 1715 he was buried in Upper Winchendon, Buckinghamshire. He is the author of the original lyrics of Lillibullero , which "rhymed King James out of England".
Wharton married firstly on 16 September 1673 Anne, or Nan, Lee (d 29 October 1685 aged 26), younger daughter of Sir Henry Lee, 3rd Bt. (d. 1659), an elder half-brother of the famous libertine poet John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester; she had some reputation as a poet and dramatist. They had no issue together. Her sister Eleanora Lee married James Bertie, Lord Norreys; their cousin was Edward Lee, 1st Earl of Lichfield. Although her husband may have infected her with syphilis, Anne Wharton left him her fortune. Her grandmother Anne St. John, Countess of Rochester tried to regain her fortune from the Whartons with little effect.
He married secondly Lucy Loftus, only daughter and heiress of Adam Loftus, 1st Viscount Lisburne and Lucy Brydges.They had one son Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton, and two daughters, Lucy Morice and Jane Holt. On his son's death without heirs, all his titles became extinct, except the Barony which passed to Jane Holt.
Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset, known by the epithet "The Proud Duke", was an English peer. He rebuilt Petworth House in Sussex, the ancient Percy seat inherited from his wife, in the palatial form which survives today. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, he was a remarkably handsome man, and inordinately fond of taking a conspicuous part in court ceremonial; his vanity, which earned him the sobriquet of "the proud duke", was a byword among his contemporaries and was the subject of numerous anecdotes; Macaulay described him as "a man in whom the pride of birth and rank amounted almost to a disease".
Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, was an English Whig statesman. He served for a decade as Secretary of State for the Northern Department, 1714–1717, 1721–1730. He directed British foreign policy in close collaboration with his brother-in-law, prime minister Robert Walpole. He was often known as Turnip Townshend because of his strong interest in farming turnips and his role in the British Agricultural Revolution.
Upper Winchendon or Over Winchendon is a village and civil parish in the Aylesbury Vale District of Buckinghamshire, England. It is about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south of Waddesdon and 4.5 miles (7 km) west of Aylesbury. A mid-air collision on 17 November 2017 between a plane and a helicopter just outside the village was referred to by much of the press as the "Waddesdon Manor air incident".
Marquess of Lansdowne is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain created in 1784, and held by the head of the Petty-Fitzmaurice family. The first Marquess served as Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Marquess Townshend is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain held by the Townshend family of Raynham Hall in Norfolk. The title was created in 1787 for George Townshend, 4th Viscount Townshend.
Baron Wharton is a title in the Peerage of England, originally granted by letters patent to the heirs male of the 1st Baron, which was forfeited in 1729 when the last male-line heir was declared an outlaw. The Barony was erroneously revived in 1916 by writ of summons, thanks to an 1844 decision in the House of Lords based on absence of documentation. As such, the current Barony of Wharton could more accurately be listed as a new Barony, created in 1916, with the precedence of the older Barony.
Earl of Bridgewater was a title that has been created twice in the Peerage of England, once for the Daubeny family (1538) and once for the Egerton family (1617). From 1720 to 1803, the Earls of Bridgewater also held the title of Duke of Bridgewater. The 3rd Duke of Bridgewater is famously known as the "Canal Duke", for his creation of a series of canals in North West England.
Robert Bertie, 1st Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven PC, styled17th Baron Willoughby de Eresby between 1666 and 1701, and known as 4th Earl of Lindsey between 1701 and 1706, and as 1st Marquess of Lindsey between 1706 and 1715, was a British statesman and nobleman.
John James Dudley Stuart Townshend, 6th Marquess Townshend, known as Viscount Raynham from 1866 to 1899, was a British peer.
Rear Admiral John Townshend, 4th Marquess Townshend, known as John Townshend until 1855, was a British nobleman, peer, politician, and naval commander.
John Villiers Stuart Townshend, 5th Marquess Townshend, known as Viscount Raynham from 1855 to 1863, was a British peer and Liberal Member of Parliament.
Philip Wharton, 4th Baron Wharton was an English soldier, politician and diplomat. He was a Parliamentarian during the English Civil War.
The Whig Junto is the name given to a group of leading Whigs who were seen to direct the management of the Whig Party and often the government, during the reigns of William III and Anne. The Whig Junto proper consisted of John Somers, later Baron Somers; Charles Montagu, later Earl of Halifax; Thomas Wharton, later Marquess of Wharton, and Edward Russell, later Earl of Orford. They came to prominence due to the favour of Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland and during the reign of Queen Anne, Sunderland's son, the 3rd Earl succeeded his father. Opponents gave them the nickname "the five tyrannising lords". Other figures prominent around the edges of the Junto include Sir John Trenchard and Thomas Tollemache.
The title Baron Ferrers of Chartley was created on 6 February 1299 for John de Ferrers, son of Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby. The daughter of the 6th Baron Ferrers of Chartley, Anne, married Walter Devereux who was summoned to parliament as Lord Ferrers in her right. Their descendants became Earls of Essex and the peerage was forfeited in 1601 on the attainder of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, but restored to his son Robert in 1604, on whose death in 1646 the peerage fell into abeyance. The abeyance was terminated in 1677 when Robert Shirley, a grandson of one of the sisters of the 3rd Earl of Essex, was summoned as Lord Ferrers of Chartley with precedence to the original creation. In 1711, Shirley was created the 1st Earl Ferrers, but the Earldom and Barony separated at his death, the barony going to Elizabeth Shirley, the daughter of his eldest son, while the earldom went to his second son. On the 1741 death of Elizabeth Shirley, 15th Baroness Ferrers of Chartley and wife of the Earl of Northampton, the peerage again briefly fell into an abeyance that was resolved in 1749 by the death of two of the three heiresses, leaving the surviving daughter, Charlotte Compton, wife of the Marquess Townshend, as 16th Baroness Ferrers of Chartley. The barony continued, merged with the marquessate, until the death of George Ferrars Townshend, 3rd Marquess Townshend in 1855, when it again fell into abeyance between his two sisters and their heirs. It remains in abeyance.
Arthur Goodwin of Upper Winchendon, Buckinghamshire was an English lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1621 and 1643. He supported the Parliamentary cause during the English Civil War.
Goodwin Wharton was an English Whig politician and autobiographer, as well as an avid mystic, alchemist and treasure hunter. His unpublished manuscript autobiography, in the British Library, "ranks high in the annals of psychopathology" according to the historian Roy Porter.
Charles George Townshend, 8th Marquess Townshend is a British peer. He is the elder son of George Townshend, 7th Marquess Townshend, and his first wife Elizabeth Pamela Audrey, daughter of Thomas Luby. He was styled Viscount Raynham until he succeeded his father on 23 April 2010.
Adam Loftus, 1st Viscount Lisburne was an Anglo-Irish peer and military commander.
Dorothy Townshend (Walpole), was an English aristocrat, born on 18 September 1686 at Houghton Hall. She was the thirteenth child born to Robert Walpole and Mary Burwell. Sometime before 25 July 1713, she married Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend and became his second wife. She died under mysterious circumstances or possibly of smallpox on 29 March 1726.