Thomas White (Australian politician)

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Sir Thomas White

KBE , DFC , VD
Thomas White - Spencer Shier (cropped).jpg
Thomas White, Melbourne, c. 1930
Minister for Air and Civil Aviation
In office
19 December 1949 11 May 1951
Prime Minister Robert Menzies
Preceded by Arthur Drakeford
Succeeded by Philip McBride (Air)
Larry Anthony (Civil Aviation)
Minister for Trade and Customs
In office
14 January 1933 8 November 1938
Prime Minister Joseph Lyons
Preceded by Henry Gullett
Succeeded by John Perkins
Member of the Australian Parliament
for Balaclava
In office
3 August 1929 21 June 1951
Preceded by William Watt
Succeeded by Percy Joske
Personal details
Born(1888-04-26)26 April 1888
North Melbourne, Victoria
Died13 October 1957(1957-10-13) (aged 69)
South Yarra, Victoria
NationalityAustralian
Political party Nationalist (1929–1931)
United Australia (1931–1945)
Liberal (1945–1951)
Spouse(s)
Vera Deakin (m. 1920)
OccupationSoldier; company director
Awards Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Distinguished Flying Cross
Mentioned in Despatches (2)
Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration
Military service
AllegianceAustralia
Branch/service Citizen Military Forces (1902–1940)
Australian Flying Corps (1914–1920)
Citizen Air Force (1940–1944)
Years of service1902–1944
Rank Group Captain
Unit Mesopotamian Half Flight (1915)
Commands 6th Battalion (1926–1931)
Battles/warsFirst World War

Second World War

Sir Thomas Walter White, KBE , DFC , VD (26 April 1888 – 13 October 1957) was an Australian politician and First World War pilot. In 1914 he became one of the first airmen trained for the Australian Flying Corps (AFC), and the following year was among the first AFC members to see action when he was deployed to the Middle East with the Mesopotamian Half Flight. After carrying out several missions behind Turkish lines, he was captured in November 1915 but escaped in July 1918. White was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and twice mentioned in despatches for his war service. He married Vera Deakin, a Red Cross worker and daughter of former Australian Prime Minister Alfred Deakin, in 1920.

Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom) military decoration of the United Kingdom

The Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers, and since 1993 to other ranks, of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and other services, and formerly to officers of other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against the enemy".

Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers Decoration

The Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration, post-nominal letters VD, was established in 1899 as recognition for long and meritorious service as a part-time commissioned officer in any of the organized military forces of the British Colonies, Dependencies and Protectorates. It superseded the Volunteer Officers' Decoration for India and the Colonies in all these territories, but not in the Indian Empire.

Australian Flying Corps former aerial warfare branch of the Australian Army

The Australian Flying Corps (AFC) was the branch of the Australian Army responsible for operating aircraft during World War I, and the forerunner of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). The AFC was established in 1912, though it was not until 1914 that it began flight training.

Contents

White began his parliamentary career in 1929 when he was elected to the House of Representatives as the Member for Balaclava in Victoria. He served as Minister for Trade and Customs in Joseph Lyons' United Australia Party government from 1933 to 1938, but resigned when he was excluded from Lyons' inner cabinet. He joined the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) shortly after the outbreak of the Second World War and saw service in Australia and the United Kingdom. Returning to parliament as a member of the newly formed Liberal Party in 1945, he served as Minister for Air and Minister for Civil Aviation in Robert Menzies' government from 1949 to 1951. His term coincided with the commitment of RAAF squadrons to the Korean War and the Malayan Emergency. Australia's High Commissioner to the United Kingdom from 1951 to 1956, White was knighted in 1952 and died in October 1957.

House of Representatives (Australia) Lower house of Australia

The House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the upper house being the Senate. Its composition and powers are established in Chapter I of the Constitution of Australia.

The Division of Balaclava was an Australian electoral division in the state of Victoria. The division was proclaimed in 1900, and was one of the original 65 divisions to be contested at the first federal election. It was named for the suburb of Balaclava, which in turn was named for a battlefield of the Crimean War. It was based in the wealthy inner southern suburbs of Melbourne, including Brighton and Sandringham. It was always a safe seat for the conservative parties, being held successively by Protectionist Party, Nationalist Party, United Australia Party and Liberal Party members. It was abolished and replaced by the Division of Goldstein in 1984.

Victoria (Australia) State in Australia

Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Melbourne, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south, New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, and South Australia to the west.

Early life

Thomas Walter White was born on 26 April 1888 at Hotham, North Melbourne. He was the son of Charles James White, a brass-finisher from England, and Emily Jane ( née Jenkins) of Victoria. [1] Educated at Moreland State School, White joined the Citizen Forces as a trumpeter in 1902. [1] [2] He served in artillery and engineering units for the next eight years. [3] In January 1911 he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 5th Australian Regiment. [1] [4] He was promoted to lieutenant in June 1912, and to captain in November 1913. [4]

North Melbourne, Victoria Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

North Melbourne is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 2 km north-west of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Melbourne. At the 2016 Census, North Melbourne had a population of 14,940.

Brass Alloy of copper and zinc

Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, in proportions which can be varied to achieve varying mechanical and electrical properties. It is a substitutional alloy: atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structure.

Australian Army Reserve military reserve force of Australia

The Australian Army Reserve is a collective name given to the reserve units of the Australian Army. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, the reserve military force has been known by many names, including the Citizens Forces, the Citizen Military Forces, the Militia and, unofficially, the Australian Military Forces. In 1980, however, the current name—Australian Army Reserve—was officially adopted, and it now consists of a number of components based around the level of commitment and training obligation that its members are required to meet.

First World War

In August 1914, two weeks after the outbreak of the First World War, White became one of the first four students to commence training at Point Cook as a pilot in the Australian Flying Corps (AFC). [1] [5] He was later described by a biographer as "pugnacious and impatient for success, with a disdain for authority and a suspicion of elites". [6] White recalled flying in the school's Bristol Boxkite: "The senses took the place of the instruments. One's eyes and ears did duty as engine counters; the rush of the air in the face told whether the climb or glide was at the right angle." [7] In September he crashed the Boxkite into Point Cook's hangar while attempting to land in a crosswind; the dent he made was never repaired, and came to be recognised as part of the base's history. [8] The Australian Aero Club held its inaugural meeting at Point Cook in October; White was the club's first secretary. [9] The following month, he graduated from his flying course with his fellow students, who included the future Chief of the Air Staff, Richard Williams. [10]

RAAF Williams airport

RAAF Williams is a Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) military air base set across two locations, at Point Cook and Laverton, located approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) south-west of the Melbourne central business district in Victoria, Australia. Both establishments previously existed as separate RAAF Bases until 1989 when they were amalgamated to form RAAF Williams. The name was chosen in honour of Air Marshal Sir Richard Williams, the 'father' of the RAAF.

Bristol Boxkite

The Boxkite was the first aircraft produced by the British and Colonial Aeroplane Company. A pusher biplane based on the successful Farman III, it was one of the first aircraft types to be built in quantity. As the type was used by Bristol for instruction purposes at their flying schools at Larkhill and Brooklands many early British aviators learned to fly in a Boxkite. Four were purchased in 1911 by the War Office and examples were sold to Russia and Australia. It continued to be used for training purposes until after the outbreak of the First World War.

The Royal Victorian Aero Club is an Australian aero club based at Moorabbin Airport in Melbourne. Originating in 1914 it is amongst the world's oldest Aviation organisations.

Captain White (second left) with Captain Henry Petre (far left) and Lieutenant George Merz (far right) of the Mesopotamian Half Flight at Basra, July 1915 A02253Petre1915.jpg
Captain White (second left) with Captain Henry Petre (far left) and Lieutenant George Merz (far right) of the Mesopotamian Half Flight at Basra, July 1915

In April 1915, White was appointed a captain in the Australian Imperial Force and adjutant of the Mesopotamian Half Flight, the first AFC unit to see active service. [1] [11] Based initially in Basra on the Shatt-el-Arab waterway and operating primitive Maurice Farman biplanes, the Half Flight assisted the Indian Army during the Mesopotamian campaign, conducting reconnaissance and sabotage missions against Turkish forces. The Farmans were only capable of top speeds of 50 miles per hour (80 km/h), while the desert wind could reach 80 miles per hour (130 km/h), meaning that the aircraft often made no headway or were simply blown backwards. [12]

First Australian Imperial Force Australian Army expeditionary force during World War I

The First Australian Imperial Force was the main expeditionary force of the Australian Army during World War I. It was formed on 15 August 1914, following Britain's declaration of war on Germany, initially with a strength of one infantry division and one light horse brigade. The infantry division subsequently fought at Gallipoli between April and December 1915, being reinforced by a second division which was later raised, as well as three light horse brigades. After being evacuated to Egypt the AIF was expanded to five infantry divisions, which were committed to the fighting in France and Belgium along the Western Front in March 1916. A sixth infantry division was partially raised in 1917 in the United Kingdom, but was broken up and used as reinforcements following heavy casualties on the Western Front. Meanwhile, two mounted divisions remained in the Middle East to fight against Turkish forces in the Sinai and Palestine.

Adjutant military rank

Adjutant is a military appointment given to an officer who assists the commanding officer with unit administration, mostly the management of human resources in army unit. The term adjudant is used in French-speaking armed forces as a non-commissioned officer rank similar to a staff sergeant or warrant officer but is not equivalent to the role or appointment of an adjutant.

Mesopotamian Half Flight

The Mesopotamian Half-Flight (MHF), or Australian Half-Flight, was the first Australian Flying Corps (AFC) unit to see active service during World War I. Formed in April 1915 at the request of the Indian Government, the half-flight's personnel were sent to Mesopotamia where they were equipped with a small number of outdated and barely serviceable aircraft. They later operated in the Tigris Valley in support of British and Indian forces under the command of Major General Charles Townshend. The unit's operations came to an end in December 1915 and the following month the flight was subsumed into other units of the AFC which were being formed in Egypt. It was officially disbanded in October 1916.

White carried out several reconnaissance and bombing operations behind enemy lines. [1] [13] On a mission in October 1915, he was forced to land owing to engine trouble and, rather than risk attempting repairs, taxied the aircraft some twenty-four kilometres (fifteen miles) past enemy troops while his observer, Captain Francis Yeats-Brown, kept watch with his rifle at the ready; the "Keystone Cops adventure", as historian Alan Stephens described it, culminated in the engine finally powering up and allowing White to take off and fly to the safety of the Australian base. [14] [15] White himself touted the feat as "a taxi-ing record". [16] The following month, he undertook a search for Major General George Kemball, whose seaplane had gone missing between Kut and Aziziyeh; White located the missing plane near a large Arab encampment, and despite being fired on by the tribesmen was able to rescue the general and transport him to Aziziyeh. [17]

Taxiing Movement of an aircraft on the ground, under its own power

Taxiing, also sometimes written "taxying", is the movement of an aircraft on the ground, under its own power, in contrast to towing or push-back where the aircraft is moved by a tug. The aircraft usually moves on wheels, but the term also includes aircraft with skis or floats.

Francis Yeats-Brown British army officer and author

Major Francis Charles Claypon Yeats-Brown, DFC was an officer in the British Indian army and the author of the memoir The Lives of a Bengal Lancer, for which he was awarded the 1930 James Tait Black Memorial Prize.

Keystone Cops group of fictional characters

The Keystone Cops were fictional, humorously incompetent policemen, featured in silent film slapstick comedies produced by Mack Sennett for his Keystone Film Company between 1912 and 1917.

On 13 November 1915, White was captured on a mission to cut telegraph wires near Baghdad. After damaging their aircraft on landing, White and Yeats-Brown were fired on by Arabs and Turks; Yeats-Brown succeeded in destroying the wires while White held off their attackers with rifle fire. The men attempted to taxi their aircraft away but were overpowered and beaten by Arabs before being handed over to Turkish troops. [14] [18] White was mentioned in despatches in July 1916. [19] He was initially imprisoned in Mosul, then in Afion Kara Hissar, enduring harsh conditions. In July 1918 he was being transported by rail to Constantinople when his train was wrecked and he escaped. Disguising himself as a Turk, he hid in a Ukrainian cargo ship berthed in Constantinople harbour. After a month the ship sailed for Odessa, where White remained another month using a fake Russian passport. [20] His experience of the Soviets in Odessa helped inform his subsequent anti-communism. [1] He then stowed away on a hospital ship bound for Bulgaria, and made his way to London in December. [1] [20] White was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross in June 1919. [21] That December, he was again mentioned in despatches, for "valuable services whilst in captivity". [22] He subsequently published an account of his wartime exploits as Guests of the Unspeakable. [1] [23]

Early parliamentary career

Thomas Walter White TW White (cropped).jpg
Thomas Walter White

While in London, White met Vera Deakin, a Red Cross worker and daughter of former Australian Prime Minister Alfred Deakin, and soon became engaged to her. Departing Britain in September 1919, White returned to Australia via the United States and was discharged from the AIF in January 1920. He married Vera on 22 March at St John's Church of England in Toorak, despite the opposition of some of the Deakin family, including her brother-in-law Herbert Brookes. [1] [24] White, whose sympathies tended towards small business, considered Brookes a "business bully", hiding behind "the protection of capital". [1] Also in 1920, White became managing director of his father's hardware company, C.J. White & Sons Pty Ltd. [1] He continued to serve in the Citizen Military Forces (CMF, the renamed Citizen Forces), [1] [25] receiving promotion to major in July 1922, and commanding the 6th Battalion as a lieutenant colonel from March 1926 to March 1931. [4] In 1923 he was awarded the Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration, which recognised twenty years of service. [26] [27] White enlisted as a special constable when Victorian police went on strike in November that year; he would later express support for groups such as the New Guard. [1] [28]

White ran as a Nationalist for the House of Representatives seat of Maribyrnong in the 1925 federal elections, but lost to the sitting Labor member, James Fenton, 19,483 votes to 28,621. [1] [29] In 1927, he failed to win the Victorian Legislative Assembly seat of Prahran. After the Nationalists declined to endorse him as a candidate for the Senate the following year, he won the seat of Balaclava at a by-election held on 3 August 1929. [1] He defeated his only opponent, Independent Nationalist Frederick Francis, with 28,642 votes to 16,063, to succeed retiring member William Watt. [30] [31] White used his maiden speech in parliament to push for construction of the Australian War Memorial in Canberra. [1] In the federal election held that October, he defeated the Labor contender, Donald Cameron, 31,700 votes to 22,445. [32] The United Australia Party (UAP) came to power in the December 1931 federal elections; White was returned by a margin of 30,294. [33] [34]

In January 1933, White was appointed Minister for Trade and Customs in Joseph Lyons' first Ministry, replacing Henry Gullett, who had stood down due to ill-health. [1] [35] White had given up the directorship of C.J. White & Sons the previous year. Although he personally favoured protectionism, his portfolio was responsible for reducing tariffs, as well as attempting to increase trade with Britain as opposed to the United States and Japan. He was also in charge of book and film censorship; for the latter he established an advisory board, chaired by Robert Garran, to make recommendations to him. [1] In the September 1934 federal elections, White retained Balaclava by a margin 25,769 votes. [36] That year he became Australian chairman of the Royal Life Saving Society, serving until 1951; he was also an active supporter of such organisations as Legacy and the Royal Flying Doctor Service. [1] Vera White, who had been appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire for her wartime work, also pursued philanthropic activities, holding management or committee roles with the Royal Children's Hospital, the Victorian Society for Crippled Children and Adults, and the Red Cross. [24]

The October 1937 federal elections saw White returned by a margin of 20,954. [36] In July 1938, he represented Australia at an inter-governmental conference on Jewish refugees held at Évian, France, to discuss the growing numbers of Jewish emigrants seeking to leave Germany and occupied territories. [1] He sympathised with refugees he spoke to during the conference, but hedged his offer of support, saying that, "As we have no real racial problem, we are not desirous of importing one by encouraging any scheme of large-scale foreign migration". [1] [37] Australia agreed to accept 15,000 refugees over three years. [38] White's reaction to the Australian government's support for the Munich Agreement was to diarise: "I think we should hang our heads that we did not stand up to the bully of Europe ... It may yet mean peace but at what price?" [39] He called for stronger preparations at home in case of war, including the introduction of conscription. [1] [40] On 8 November 1938, White resigned his portfolio, having discovered that Lyons had established an inner cabinet from which he was excluded; he was succeeded as Minister for Trade and Customs by John Perkins. [1] [41] Lyons' response in parliament to White's resignation publicly highlighted the divisions in the UAP. [42] White stood for the UAP's leadership after Lyons' death the following year, but was eliminated early in the balloting; Robert Menzies narrowly defeated Billy Hughes in the final ballot. [1] [43]

Second World War and later parliamentary career

Wing Commander White (right) serving with the RAAF in Great Britain, March 1942 Thomas Walter White 1942 (AWM 011735).JPG
Wing Commander White (right) serving with the RAAF in Great Britain, March 1942

Following the outbreak of the Second World War, White transferred from the CMF to the Citizen Air Force, the active reserve of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), [1] [44] as a flight lieutenant (temporary squadron leader). He took leave from parliament in April 1940 and was appointed the inaugural commanding officer of No. 1 Initial Training School (ITS) at Somers, Victoria. [1] [45] In this capacity he was responsible for the first group of Empire Air Training Scheme (EATS) trainees in Australia, thirty-five student aircrew. [45] In the September 1940 federal election, White defeated Labor's Charles Sandford with 43,876 votes to 17,135. [46] He relinquished command of No. 1 ITS in September 1941; at this time the school was training over 900 pupils. [47] White was subsequently posted to England, initially to oversaw the Australian contingent at RAF Station Bournemouth. [1] [48] Arriving at Bournemouth as a wing commander in November 1941, he proceeded to organise EATS graduates from Australia into their own distinct section under the RAF's No. 3 Personnel Reception Centre. He also facilitated improvements in accommodation, services, and postings for the Australians at Bournemouth. [49] In June 1942, he became RAAF Liaison Officer at RAF Flying Training Command, where he worked to improve procedures for commissioning and promoting Australian airmen. [50]

By May 1943, the Australian contingent at Bournemouth had outgrown its facilities and transferred to Brighton, where White was given command of the RAF station. [51] According to the Parliamentary Library of Australia, White also "surreptitiously flew on several sorties as a second-pilot" while in Britain. [52] He paid tribute to the men of EATS with the narrative poem Sky Saga. [1] White returned to Australia to contest the August 1943 federal election, defeating Labor's John Barry with 38,698 votes to 28,271. [53] [54] He served at the RAAF Staff School, located at Mount Martha, Victoria, until his retirement as an honorary group captain; [1] [55] he was medically discharged on 28 October 1944. [56] [57] The same month, he attended the conference that resulted in the establishment of the Liberal Party, which succeeded the UAP; the new party was officially launched under Robert Menzies' leadership in August 1945. [1] [58] In June 1946, now as the Liberal member for Balaclava, White unsuccessfully called for a royal commission into problems of command in the RAAF during the war. [59] He retained Balaclava by a majority of over 13,000 in the September 1946 federal election, defeating Labor's Maurice Ashkanasy. [54] [60]

A boundary redistribution prior to the December 1949 federal elections reduced Balaclava from 84,000 voters to just under 43,000; White retained the seat against the Labor contender by a margin of 14,361. [60] [61] Following the Liberal Party victory, White was appointed Minister for Air and Minister for Civil Aviation, despite his personal animosity towards Menzies, which partly stemmed from the latter's failure to serve in the First World War. [1] [62] He took over his portfolios from Arthur Drakeford, who had held them for eight years. [63] [64] In January 1950, White and the Minister for Supply and Development, Richard Casey, announced that the English Electric Canberra had been selected to replace the RAAF's Avro Lincoln bombers and that the new jet would be manufactured by the Government Aircraft Factory in Victoria. [65] White's term as Minister for Air saw the deployment of RAAF squadrons to the Korean War and the Malayan Emergency in mid-1950, and the establishment of the Women's Royal Australian Air Force, the successor organisation to the wartime Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force, that November. [66] [67] The following year he gave his approval for the manufacture of a Rolls Royce-engined licensed version of the North American F-86 Sabre jet fighter for the RAAF, and played a major part in the controversial decision to replace the long-serving Chief of the Air Staff, Air Marshal George Jones, with an RAF officer, Air Vice Marshal (later Air Chief Marshal Sir) Donald Hardman. [68] [69] White also sought to strengthen the Citizen Air Force, and personally ordered the establishment of No. 24 (City of Adelaide) Squadron at Mallala, South Australia. [70]

Later life and legacy

White in 1950 Sir Thomas White 1950.jpg
White in 1950

White secured his tenth election victory in Balaclava in the April 1951 federal election, defeating Labor's Arthur Lewis by 10,700 votes. [71] [72] On 21 June, he resigned from parliament to become Australian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, a position he held until 1956. [1] He was succeeded as the member for Balaclava by Liberal Percy Joske, as Minister for Air by Philip McBride, and as Minister for Civil Aviation by Hubert Anthony. [73] [74] White was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in January 1952. [75] As High Commissioner he advocated continued British migration to Australia and participated in the renewal of the assisted passage scheme between the two countries in 1954. [76] [77] He was succeeded by Sir Eric Harrison. [78] After returning to Australia, White lived in Melbourne. He suffered from emphysema and on 13 October 1957 died of a heart attack at his home in South Yarra. [1] Survived by his wife and four daughters, he was accorded a state funeral at St Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne, and interred at Point Lonsdale cemetery. [1] [79]

The T.W. White Society, founded in 1982, sponsors an annual prize for thoracic research awarded through the Thoracic Society of Queensland. [80] White's daughters donated his papers to the National Library of Australia in 1997 and 1998. [81]

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Rickard, John (2002). "White, Sir Thomas Walter (1888–1957)". Australian Dictionary of Biography . Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  2. "Col. T.W. White". The Prahran Telegraph . Prahran, Victoria. 7 January 1927. p. 5. Retrieved 4 June 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  3. "Naval and military". The Mercury . Hobart. 15 April 1931. p. 3. Retrieved 4 June 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  4. 1 2 3 "White, Thomas Walter". National Archives of Australia. p. 83. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  5. Stephens, The Royal Australian Air Force, pp. 3–4
  6. Molkentin, Fire in the Sky, p. 7
  7. Molkentin, Fire in the Sky, p. 8
  8. Campbell-Wright, An Interesting Point, pp. 38, 164
  9. Campbell-Wright, An Interesting Point, p. 39
  10. Molkentin, Fire in the Sky, p. 10
  11. Cutlack, The Australian Flying Corps, pp. 1–3
  12. Stephens, The Royal Australian Air Force, pp. 5–6
  13. Cutlack, The Australian Flying Corps, pp. 16–19
  14. 1 2 Stephens, The Royal Australian Air Force, p. 7
  15. Cutlack, The Australian Flying Corps, p. 19
  16. Molkentin, Fire in the Sky, p. 19
  17. Cutlack, The Australian Flying Corps, pp. 19–20
  18. Cutlack, The Australian Flying Corps, p. 22
  19. "No. 29665". The London Gazette (Supplement). 13 July 1916. pp. 6959–6960.
  20. 1 2 Cutlack, The Australian Flying Corps, pp. 27–28
  21. "No. 31378". The London Gazette (Supplement). 3 June 1919. pp. 7031–7032.
  22. "No. 31691". The London Gazette (Supplement). 16 December 1919. pp. 15613–15614.
  23. White, Thomas Walter (1928). Guests of the Unspeakable: The Odyssey of an Australian Airman – Being a Record of Captivity and Escape in Turkey. London: John Hamilton. ISBN   1-86315-000-5.
  24. 1 2 Rickard, John (2002). "White, Vera Deakin (1891–1978)". Australian Dictionary of Biography . Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  25. Dennis, P., Grey, J., Morris, E., Prior, R., & Bou, J. (2008). "Army, Titles of" . The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 5 July 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  26. "Australian Military Forces". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette . Canberra. 29 March 1923. p. 441. Retrieved 5 June 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  27. "No. 27085". The London Gazette . 2 June 1899. p. 3517.
  28. "The outbreak". The Sydney Morning Herald . Sydney. 5 November 1923. p. 9. Retrieved 8 July 2019 via National Library of Australia.
  29. "Maribyrnong". The Age . Melbourne. 25 November 1925. p. 12. Retrieved 1 April 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  30. "Balaclava election". The Age. Melbourne. 5 August 1929. p. 8. Retrieved 31 March 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  31. "The Balaclava election". The West Australian . Perth. 7 August 1929. p. 16. Retrieved 5 July 2019 via National Library of Australia.
  32. "Federal election". The Argus . Melbourne. 17 October 1929. p. 10. Retrieved 31 March 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  33. "Declaration of Balaclava poll". The Argus. Melbourne. 23 December 1931. p. 7. Retrieved 31 March 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  34. "Latest Federal election figures from all the states". The Herald . Melbourne. 17 September 1934. p. 10. Retrieved 31 March 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  35. Hill, A.J. (1983). "Gullett, Sir Henry Somer (1878–1940)". Australian Dictionary of Biography . Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  36. 1 2 "House of Representatives". The Chronicle . Adelaide. 28 October 1937. p. 42. Retrieved 1 April 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  37. "The Fateful Year". Yad Vashem . Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  38. Sykes, Cross Roads to Israel, pp. 198–199
  39. Martin, Robert Menzies: A Life – Volume I, p. 237
  40. Henderson, Joseph Lyons, p. 412
  41. "New cabinet stir". The Courier-Mail . Brisbane. 9 November 1938. p. 1. Retrieved 25 May 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  42. Henderson, Joseph Lyons, p. 419
  43. "Mr Menzies leader of UAP". The Argus. Melbourne. 19 April 1939. p. 1. Retrieved 20 March 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  44. Coulthard-Clark, The Third Brother, p. 226
  45. 1 2 Gillison, Royal Australian Air Force, p. 97
  46. "19,155 majority in Balaclava". The Argus. Melbourne. 9 October 1940. p. 5. Retrieved 1 April 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  47. RAAF Historical Section, Training Units, pp. 44–45
  48. Gillison, Royal Australian Air Force, p. 35
  49. Herington, Air War Against Germany and Italy, pp. 124–127
  50. Herington, Air War Against Germany and Italy, p. 541
  51. Herington, Air War Against Germany and Italy, p. 551
  52. Parliamentary Library (26 March 2007). Commonwealth Members of Parliament who have served in war (PDF) (Report). pp. 9–10. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  53. "Who's who in the elections". The Age. Melbourne. 10 August 1943. p. 3. Retrieved 1 April 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  54. 1 2 "Full list of today's candidates". The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney. 28 September 1946. p. 2. Retrieved 1 April 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  55. RAAF Historical Section, Training Units, p. 178
  56. "White, Thomas Walter". World War 2 Nominal Roll. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  57. "Canberra commentary". The Argus. Melbourne. 21 October 1944. p. 11. Retrieved 1 April 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  58. Ian Hancock. "The Origins of the Modern Liberal Party". Harold White Fellowships. Retrieved 25 March 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  59. Helson, The Private Air Marshal, pp. 316–318
  60. 1 2 "Majority for Opposition likely in Victoria". The Canberra Times . Canberra. 5 December 1949. p. 4. Retrieved 1 April 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  61. "Voting in 1949 and today's nominations". Townsville Daily Bulletin . Townsville, Queensland. 28 April 1951. p. 7. Retrieved 1 April 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  62. Martin, Robert Menzies: A Life – Volume II, pp. 129–130
  63. Stephens, Going Solo, pp. 15, 326
  64. "Air Minister states policy". Daily Mercury . Mackay, Queensland. 22 December 1949. p. 1. Retrieved 26 May 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  65. "Speedy plane". The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney. 13 January 1950. p. 1. Retrieved 25 March 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  66. "1950 a fine year for RAAF". The Queensland Times . Ipswich, Queensland. 8 January 1951. p. 3. Retrieved 25 March 2018 via National Library of Australia.
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References

Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by
Henry Gullett
Minister for Trade and Customs
1932–1938
Succeeded by
John Perkins
Preceded by
Arthur Drakeford
Minister for Air
1949–1951
Succeeded by
Philip McBride
Minister for Civil Aviation
1949–1951
Succeeded by
Hubert Lawrence Anthony
Parliament of Australia
Preceded by
William Watt
Member for Balaclava
1929–1951
Succeeded by
Percy Joske
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Vacant
Last held by: Jack Beasley
Australian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom
1951–1956
Succeeded by
Sir Eric Harrison