|Born||25 September 1856|
|Died||3 October 1935 79)(aged|
Thomas Whittaker (1856–1935) was an English metaphysician and critic.
Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that examines the fundamental nature of reality, including the relationship between mind and matter, between substance and attribute, and between possibility and actuality. The word "metaphysics" comes from two Greek words that, together, literally mean "after or behind or among the [study of] the natural". It has been suggested that the term might have been coined by a first century CE editor who assembled various small selections of Aristotle’s works into the treatise we now know by the name Metaphysics.
A critic is a professional who communicates an assessment and an opinion of various forms of creative works such as art, literature, music, cinema, theater, fashion, architecture, and food. Critics may also take as their subject social or government policy. Critical judgments, whether derived from critical thinking or not, weigh up a range of factors, including an assessment of the extent to which the item under review achieves its purpose and its creator's intention and a knowledge of its context. They may also include a positive or negative personal response.
Whittaker was educated at Dublin Royal College of Science and Exeter College, Oxford. He was an editor of the journal Mind (1885-1891).He won a Natural Science scholarship at Exeter College. From 1910 he was director of the Rationalist Press Association.
The Royal College of Science for Ireland (RCScI) was an institute for higher education in Dublin which existed from 1867 to 1926, specialising in physical sciences and applied science. It was originally based on St. Stephen's Green, moving in 1911 to a purpose-built "Royal College of Science" building on Merrion Street. In 1926 it was absorbed into University College Dublin (UCD) as the faculty of Science and Engineering.
Exeter College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England and the fourth oldest college of the University.
Mind is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Mind Association. Having previously published exclusively philosophy in the analytic tradition, it now "aims to take quality to be the sole criterion of publication, with no area of philosophy, no style of philosophy, and no school of philosophy excluded." Its institutional home is shared between the University of Oxford and University College London.
Whittaker was an advocate of the Christ myth theory.He was influenced by the writings of Willem Christiaan van Manen and J. M. Robertson.
The Christ myth theory is the view that "the story of Jesus is a piece of mythology," possessing no "substantial claims to historical fact." Alternatively, in terms given by Bart Ehrman paraphrasing Earl Doherty, "the historical Jesus did not exist. Or if he did, he had virtually nothing to do with the founding of Christianity."
Willem Christiaan van Manen was a Dutch theologian. He was professor in early Christian literature and New Testament exegesis at Leiden University (1885–1903) and belonged to the Dutch school of Radical Criticism.
John Mackinnon Robertson was a prolific journalist, advocate of rationalism and secularism, and Liberal Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom for Tyneside from 1906 to 1918. Robertson was best known as an advocate of the Christ myth theory.
He wrote several lives for the Dictionary of National Biography , signing as T. W-r.
The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (ODNB) was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives.
Thomas Bedwell was an English mathematician and military engineer.
William Bewley (1726–83) was an English physician.
John Bonnycastle was an English teacher of mathematics and author.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive".
Christian philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from a Christian tradition.
James Martineau was an English religious philosopher influential in the history of Unitarianism.
John Jamieson Carswell "Jack" Smart AC was an Australian philosopher and academic, and was appointed as an Emeritus Professor by the Australian National University. He worked in the fields of metaphysics, philosophy of science, philosophy of mind, philosophy of religion, and political philosophy. He wrote multiple entries for the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Joseph Martin McCabe was an English writer and speaker on freethought, after having been a Roman Catholic priest earlier in his life. Although he is now largely forgotten, he was "one of the great mouthpieces of freethought in England". A staunch critic of the Catholic Church, McCabe joined groups such as the Rationalist Association and the National Secular Society. Although he criticised Christianity from a rationalist perspective, he was involved in the South Place Ethical Society which grew out of dissenting Protestantism and was a precursor of modern secular humanism.
The Thinker's Library was a series of 140 small hardcover books published between 1929 and 1951 for the Rationalist Press Association by Watts & Co., London, a company founded by Charles Albert Watts. They consisted of a selection of essays, literature, and extracts from greater works by various classical and contemporary humanists and rationalists, continuing in the tradition of the Renaissance. Many of the titles were cheap reprints of classic books, aimed at a mass audience.
Brian Barry, was a moral and political philosopher. He was educated at the Queen's College, Oxford, obtaining the degrees of B.A. and D.Phil under the direction of H. L. A. Hart.
David Wiggins FBA is a British moral philosopher, metaphysician, and philosophical logician working especially on identity and issues in meta-ethics.
Daniel Kolak is a Croatian-American philosopher who works primarily in philosophy of mind, personal identity, cognitive science, philosophy of science, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of logic, philosophy of religion, and aesthetics. He is professor of philosophy at the William Paterson University of New Jersey and an Affiliate of the Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science (RuCCS). Kolak is the founder of the philosophical therapy known as cognitive dynamics.
Robert Elliott Allinson is Professor of Philosophy and the former Director of Humanities at Soka University of America (SUA). He was previously a professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. He received his B.A. in Philosophy and Literature from Southern Illinois University, Carbondale with Great Distinction in the Honours Program. He received his M.A. in Literature from the University of Texas at Austin and his Ph.D. in Philosophy with Highest Distinction in Metaphysics and Epistemology under his doctoral advisor, Charles Hartshorne, considered 'The Leading Metaphysician of the Twentieth Century' by the Encyclopædia Britannica.
Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that investigates principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. Cosmology and ontology are traditional branches of metaphysics. It is concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world. Someone who studies metaphysics can be called either a "metaphysician" or a "metaphysicist".
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to metaphysics:
Die Leugnung der Geschichtlichkeit Jesu in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart was a 1926 book in German by Arthur Drews on Christ myth theory.
Jeffrey Paul Bishop is a philosopher, bioethicist, author and the Tenet Endowed Chair of Health Care Ethics at Saint Louis University. The director of the Albert Gnaegi Center for Health Care Ethics, he is most widely recognized and cited for work in medical ethics as relating to death and dying in addition to contributions in the field of medical humanities. Bishop is a physician, holds a Doctorate of Philosophy from the University of Dallas and serves on the editorial boards of both the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy and the Journal of Christian Bioethics for Oxford University Press.
Gerald Allan Cohen, known as G. A. Cohen or Jerry Cohen, was a Canadian Marxist political philosopher who held the positions of Quain Professor of Jurisprudence, University College London and Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory, All Souls College, Oxford.
Archibald Horace Mann Robertson was an English civil servant who became a writer on history, social affairs from a left-wing perspective and critiques of Christianity.
Louis Gordon Rylands, best known as L. Gordon Rylands was a British criminologist and writer.
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