Thomas Wijck

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Thomas Wijck
Thomas Wijck 001.jpg
Italian Port, c. 1640
Born1616
Died1677
Known for Painting
Movement Dutch Golden Age painting

Thomas Wijck (also Thomas Wijk, or Thomas Wyck; 1616–1677) was a Dutch painter of port views and genre paintings.

Dutch Republic Republican predecessor state of the Netherlands from 1581 to 1795

The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or simply United Provinces, and commonly referred to historiographically as the Dutch Republic, was a confederal republic formally established from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces—seceded from Spanish rule—until the Batavian Revolution of 1795. It was a predecessor state of the Netherlands and the first fully independent Dutch nation state.

Painting Practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface

Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be used. The final work is also called a painting.

Genre art art genre that depicts scenes from everyday life

Genre art is the pictorial representation in any of various media of scenes or events from everyday life, such as markets, domestic settings, interiors, parties, inn scenes, and street scenes. Such representations may be realistic, imagined, or romanticized by the artist. Some variations of the term genre art specify the medium or type of visual work, as in genre painting, genre prints, genre photographs, and so on.

Contents

Biography

Wijck was born into an artist family and received his training from his father. He journeyed to Italy, presumably by 1640, the year in which a ‘Tommaso fiammingo, pittore’ (Thomas the Fleming, painter) is documented as residing in Rome in the Via della Fontanella. Although this evidence of his residence in Rome around this time has been questioned, [1] a number of his pictures depict scenes in and around Rome which would indicate a visit to the city at some point. [2] He also resided in the environs of Naples, where he executed many sketches which he subsequently worked up into drawings of coast views. [3]

Rome Capital of Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

Naples Comune in Campania, Italy

Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents. Its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe.

In 1642 Wijck returned to the northern Netherlands, where he became a member of the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke. [1] In 1660 he was appointed Dean of the Haarlem Guild.

Haarlem Guild of St. Luke guild of Haarlem

The Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke was first a Christian, and later a city Guild for a large number of trades falling under the patron saints Luke the Evangelist and Saint Eligius.

He went to England about the time of the Restoration and was much employed. He was followed there by his son and pupil Jan Wyck, who remained in Britain for the rest of his career and played an important role in the development of English sporting painting. Thomas Wyck was also the teacher of the Haarlem painter Jan van der Vaart, who later also immigrated to England.

Jan Wyck was a Dutch baroque painter, best known for his works on military subjects. There are still over 150 of his works known to be in existence.

Jan van der Vaart (painter) Dutch painter

Jan van der Vaart or Jan van der Vaardt was a Dutch painter and draughtsman of portraits, landscapes and trompe-l'œil paintings and a mezzotint artist who was active in England for most of his career. He was also an art restorer and art collector.

He died in Haarlem in August 1677. Pieter Mulier II was a follower of his style.

Pieter Mulier II Dutch Golden Age painter active in Italy

Cavalier Pietro Tempesta, or Pieter Mulier II was a Dutch Golden Age painter active in Italy.

Work

The Alchemist by Thomas Wijck Thomas Wijck - An Alchemist - WGA25742.jpg
The Alchemist by Thomas Wijck

He excelled in Italianate paintings of shipping and seaports, populated with many figures, very frequently odd characters such as alchemists and misers. His style resembles that of the loose group of Dutch and Flemish genre painters working in Rome who are called the 'Bamboccianti' and were influenced by the genre paintings of Pieter van Laar. He also painted fairs, public markets, and the interiors of chemists’ laboratories.

Bamboccianti followers of Pieter van Laer and other Bentvueghels in Rome

The Bamboccianti were genre painters active in Rome from about 1625 until the end of the seventeenth century. Most were Dutch and Flemish artists who brought existing traditions of depicting peasant subjects from sixteenth-century Netherlandish art with them to Italy, and generally created small cabinet paintings or etchings of the everyday life of the lower classes in Rome and its countryside.

Thomas Wijck's painting of an alchemist is said to have influenced Joseph Wright of Derby's similar picture. Both pictures contain similar vaulting, a confusion of objects and an assistant who is singled out by the light. [4]

Thomas Wijck painted a View of London before the fire, and another of the north bank of the Thames, from Southwark, exhibiting the mansions of the nobility in the Strand. He also painted the “Fire of London” more than once.

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References

  1. 1 2 Thomas Wijck at the Netherlands Institute for Art History
  2. 'Thomas Wijck' at Sphinx Fine Art
  3. M. Bryan. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers, biographical and critical. v. II. London, George Bell and Sons, 1889.
  4. Nicholson, Benedict (1968). Joseph Wright of Derby: painter of light, Volume 1. Taylor & Francis. p. 52.