Thomas Willing

Last updated
Thomas Willing
Thomas Willing by John Wollaston (1706-1805).jpg
President of First Bank of the United States
In office
October 25, 1791 November 10, 1807
President George Washington
John Adams
Thomas Jefferson
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byDavid Lenox
President of Bank of North America
In office
January 7, 1782 March 19, 1791
President George Washington
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded by John Nixon
Mayor of Philadelphia
In office
October 4, 1763 October 2, 1764
Preceded by Henry Harrison
Succeeded byThomas Lawrence
Personal details
Born(1731-12-19)December 19, 1731
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
DiedJanuary 19, 1821(1821-01-19) (aged 89)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Resting place Christ Church Burial Ground
Spouse(s)
Anne McCall
(m. 1763;her death 1781)
Children13, including Ann and Mary
Relatives Charles Willing (Father)
James Willing (Brother)
Mary Willing Byrd (Sister)
Edward Shippen (Great-grandfather)
Education Inner Temple

Thomas Willing (December 19, 1731 – January 19, 1821) was an American merchant, a Delegate to the Continental Congress from Pennsylvania and the first president of the First Bank of the United States. [1]

Continental Congress convention of delegates that became the governing body of the United States

The Continental Congress was initially a convention of delegates from several British American colonies at the height of the American Revolution era, who spoke and acted collectively for the people of the Thirteen Colonies that ultimately became the United States of America. After declaring the colonies independent from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1776, it acted as the provisional governing structure for the collective United States, while most government functions remained in the individual states. The term most specifically refers to the First Continental Congress of 1774 and the Second Continental Congress of 1775–1781. More broadly, it also refers to the Congress of the Confederation of 1781–1789, thus covering the three congressional bodies of the Thirteen Colonies and the United States that met between 1774 and the inauguration of a new government in 1789 under the United States Constitution.

Pennsylvania U.S. state in the United States

Pennsylvania, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern, Great Lakes and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.

First Bank of the United States US National Register of Historic Places bank building

The President, Directors and Company, of the Bank of the United States, commonly known as the First Bank of the United States, was a national bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791. It followed the Bank of North America, the nation's first de facto central bank.

Contents

Early life

Thomas Willing was born in Philadelphia, the son of Charles Willing (1710–1754), who twice served as mayor of Philadelphia, and Anne Shippen, granddaughter of Edward Shippen, who was the second mayor of Philadelphia. His brother, James Willing, was a Philadelphia merchant who later served as a representative of the Continental Congress and led a 1778 military expedition to raid holdings of British loyalists in Natchez, Mississippi.

Philadelphia Largest city in Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2018 census-estimated population of 1,584,138. Since 1854, the city has had the same geographic boundaries as Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.

Charles Willing American politician

Charles Willing was a Philadelphia merchant, trader and politician; twice he served as Mayor of Philadelphia, from 1748 until 1749 and again in 1754.

Edward Shippen was the second mayor of Philadelphia, although under William Penn's charter of 1701, he was considered the first. He was appointed to a one-year term by William Penn in 1701. In 1702, he was elected to a second one-year term, making him the first elected mayor of Philadelphia. He was also a leader of the Province of Pennsylvania, and served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania in 1699. He also served as the chief executive for the Province of Pennsylvania as the President of the Provincial Council between 1703 and 1704.

Thomas completed preparatory studies in Bath, England, then studied law in London at the Inner Temple. [2]

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital of and largest city in England and the United Kingdom, with the largest municipal population in the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Inner Temple one of the four Inns of Court in London, England

The Honorable Society of the Inner Temple, commonly known as the Inner Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court in London. To be called to the Bar and practise as a barrister in England and Wales, a person must belong to one of these Inns. It is located in the wider Temple area of the capital, near the Royal Courts of Justice, and within the City of London.

Career

In 1749, after studying abroad in England, he returned to Philadelphia, where he engaged in mercantile pursuits, including slave trading, in partnership with Robert Morris, until 1793. [3] [4]

Political career

A member of the common council in 1755, he became an alderman in 1759, associate justice of the city court on October 2, 1759, and then justice of the court of common pleas February 28, 1761. Willing then became Mayor of Philadelphia in 1763. In 1767, the Pennsylvania Assembly, with Governor Thomas Penn's assent, had authorized a Supreme Court justice (always a lawyer) to sit with local justices of the peace (judges of county courts, but laymen) in a system of Nisi Prius courts. Governor Penn appointed two new Supreme Court justices, John Lawrence and Thomas Willing. Willing served until 1767, the last under the colonial government. [5] :52 [3]

Thomas Penn son of William Penn, founder of the Province of Pennsylvania

Thomas Penn was a son of William Penn, founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony that became the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. Thomas Penn was born in Bristol, England after his father returned there in 1701 because of financial difficulties. Thomas Penn's mother was his father's second wife, Hannah Callowhill Penn (1671–1726), daughter of Thomas Callowhill.

A member of the committee of correspondence in 1774 and of the committee of safety in 1775, he served in the colonial house of representatives. As a member of the Continental Congress in 1775 and 1776, he voted against the Declaration of Independence. [6] Later, however, he subscribed £5,000 to supply the revolutionary cause. [3]

United States Declaration of Independence 1776 assertion of colonial Americas independence from Great Britain

The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on July 4, 1776. The Declaration announced that the Thirteen Colonies at war with the Kingdom of Great Britain would regard themselves as thirteen independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. With the Declaration, these new states took a collective first step toward forming the United States of America. The declaration was signed by representatives from New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.

Banker

After the war, he became president of the Bank of North America (1781–91), preceding John Nixon, and then the first president of the Bank of the United States from 1791 to 1807. In August, 1807, he suffered a slight stroke, and he resigned for health reasons as president of the bank in November, 1807. [5] :189 [7]

Personal life

Portrait of Willing, by Charles Willson Peale Charles Willson Peale - Portrait of Thomas Willing.jpg
Portrait of Willing, by Charles Willson Peale

In 1763, Willing married Anne McCall (1745–1781), daughter of Samuel McCall (1721–1762) and Anne Searle (1724–1757). Together, they had thirteen children, including: [3]

Willing died in 1821 in Philadelphia, where he is interred in Christ Church Burial Ground. [9]

Descendants

Willing was the great-uncle of John Brown Francis (1791–1864), who was a governor and United States Senator from Rhode Island. [10] [11]

Willing was also the grandfather of Ann Louisa Bingham (b. 1782), [12] who married Alexander Baring, 1st Baron Ashburton (1774–1848), in 1798, and Maria Matilda Bingham (1783–1849), who was briefly married to Jacques Alexandre, Comte de Tilly, a French aristocrat and later married her sister's brother-in-law, Henry Baring (1777–1848), until their divorce in 1824. Maria later married the Marquis de Blaisel in 1826. [13] Their brother, and Willing's grandson, William Bingham (1800–1852) married Marie-Charlotte Chartier de Lotbiniere (1805–1866), the second of the three daughters and heiresses of Michel-Eustache-Gaspard-Alain Chartier de Lotbinière by his second wife Mary, daughter of Captain John Munro, in 1822. [3]

See also

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References

Notes

  1. "WILLING, Thomas, (1731–1821)". Biographical Information of the United States Congress. US Congress. 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2009-06-11.
  2. "Thomas Willing (1731-1821), University of Pennsylvania University Archives". www.archives.upenn.edu. University of Pennsylvania . Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Balch, Thomas Willing (January 1, 1922). Thomas Willing of Philadelphia (1731-1821). The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  4. Wright, Robert E. "Thomas Wllling (1731-1821): Phiadelphia Fnancier and Forgoten Founding Father". journals.psu.edu. Biographical Directory of Early Pennsylvania Legislatures Project. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  5. 1 2 Konkle, Burton Alva (1937). Thomas Willing and the First American Financial System. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  6. "Thomas Willing | exhibits.hsp.org". digitalhistory.hsp.org. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  7. Wright, R. E. (1996). "Thomas Willing (1731-1821): Philadelphia Financier and Forgotten Founding Father". Pennsylvania History. 63 (4): 525–560. JSTOR   27773931.
  8. ALBERTS, ROBERT C (1969). The Golden Voyage. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 435.
  9. Society, Sons of the Revolution Pennsylvania (1898). Decennial Register of the Pennsylvania Society of Sons of the Revolution: 1888-1898. F. B. Lippincott. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  10. "FRANCIS, John Brown - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress . Retrieved 10 February 2017.
  11. "Guide to the Francis Family Papers 1783-1901 (bulk 1783-1838)" (PDF). library.brown.edu. Rhode Island Historical Society. 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
  12. "Lady Ashburton". Maine Memory Network.
  13. "The Peerage, page 1308". August 5, 2015.

Sources'

Preceded by
Henry Harrison (mayor)
Mayor of Philadelphia
1763–1764
Succeeded by
Thomas Lawrence (II)