|Thomas Wilson Barnes
|August 20, 1874 48–49)(aged
Thomas Wilson Barnes (1825–1874) was an English chess master, one of the leading British masters of his time.
Barnes was one of the leading British chess masters at the time of Paul Morphy's visit to the UK in 1858. Barnes had the happy fortune of having the best record against Paul Morphy during the latter's visit, winning eight games and losing nineteen ( Brace 1977 ). The only tournament he played in was London in 1862, where he finished in the middle of the field ( Hooper & Whyld 1992 ), ( Golombek 1976 :148).
A variation of the Ruy Lopez opening called the Barnes Defence was named after him: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 g6 (this is also sometimes known as the Smyslov Defence). A much more dubious variation named for him is Barnes Defence, 1.e4 f6 which he played against Anderssen and Morphy, beating the latter.Barnes Opening, 1.f3, also bears his name. Opening with the f-pawn served his preference to sidestep existing opening knowledge.
Barnes went on a diet and lost 130 pounds (9st 4 lb, approx. 59 kg) in 10 months, which resulted in his death. Barnes was buried 5 days after his death at the Brompton cemetery in London.
Chess libraries are library collections of books and periodicals on the game of chess. In 1913, preeminent chess historian H. J. R. Murray estimated the total number of books, magazines, and newspaper columns pertaining to chess to be about 5,000 at that time. B. H. Wood estimated that number, as of 1949, to be about 20,000. David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld write that, "Since then there has been a steady increase year by year of the number of new chess publications. No one knows how many have been printed..."
Howard Staunton was an English chess master who is generally regarded as the world's strongest player from 1843 to 1851, largely as a result of his 1843 victory over Pierre Charles Fournier de Saint-Amant. He promoted a chess set of clearly distinguishable pieces of standardised shape – the Staunton pattern promulgated by Nathaniel Cooke – that is still the style required for competitions. He was the principal organiser of the first international chess tournament in 1851, which made England the world's leading chess centre and caused Adolf Anderssen to be recognised as the world's strongest player.
Johann Jacob Löwenthal was a professional chess master. He was among the top 3 players of the 1850s.
Pierre Charles Fournier de Saint-Amant was a leading French chess master and an editor of the chess periodical Le Palamède. He is best known for losing a match against Howard Staunton in 1843 that is often considered to have been an unofficial match for the World Chess Championship.
Samuel Standidge Boden was an English professional chess master.
The zwischenzug is a chess tactic in which a player, instead of playing the expected move, first interposes another move posing an immediate threat that the opponent must answer, and only then plays the expected move. It is a move that has a high degree of "initiative". Ideally, the zwischenzug changes the situation to the player's advantage, such as by gaining or avoiding what would otherwise be a strong continuation for the opponent.
In chess, the fianchetto is a pattern of wherein a bishop is developed to the second of the adjacent b- or g-, the having been moved one or two squares forward.
The Philidor Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves:
Jules Arnous de Rivière was the strongest French chess player from the late 1850s through the late 1870s. He is best known today for playing many games with Paul Morphy when the American champion visited Paris in 1858 and 1863.
The Barnes Opening is a chess opening where White opens with:
The King's Pawn Game is any chess opening starting with the move:
Louis Paulsen was a German chess player. In the 1860s and 1870s, he was among the top players in the world. He was a younger brother of Wilfried Paulsen.
Győző Victor Forintos was a Hungarian chess player and by profession, an economist. He was awarded the titles International Master, in 1963, and Grandmaster, in 1974, by FIDE.
Nikolai (Nikolay) Nikolaevich Riumin was a Russian chess master, one of the strongest Soviet players of the 1930s.
David Vincent Hooper, born in Reigate, was a British chess player and writer. As an amateur, he tied for fifth place in the 1949 British Championship at Felixstowe. He was the British correspondence chess champion in 1944 and the London Chess Champion in 1948. He played in the Chess Olympiad at Helsinki in 1952.
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The game of chess is commonly divided into three phases: the opening, middlegame, and endgame. There is a large body of theory regarding how the game should be played in each of these phases, especially the opening and endgame. Those who write about chess theory, who are often also eminent players, are referred to as "theorists" or "theoreticians".
Philip Walsingham Sergeant was a British professional writer on chess and popular historical subjects. He collaborated on the fifth (1933), sixth (1939), and seventh (1946) editions of Modern Chess Openings, an important reference work on the chess openings. He also wrote biographical game collections of Paul Morphy, Rudolf Charousek, and Harry Nelson Pillsbury, and other important books such as A Century of British Chess (1934) and Championship Chess (1938).
Libro de la invencion liberal y arte del juego del axedrez is one of the first books published about modern chess in Europe, after Pedro Damiano's 1512 book. It was written by Spanish priest Ruy López de Segura in 1561 and published in Alcalá de Henares.