|Thomas Wilson Barnes|
Thomas Wilson Barnes
Thomas Wilson Barnes (1825–1874) was an English chess master, one of the leading British masters of his time. He went on a diet and lost 130 pounds(9st 4lb) in 10 months, which resulted in his death.
Barnes was one of the leading British chess masters at the time of Paul Morphy's visit to the UK in 1858. Barnes had the happy fortune of having the best record against Morphy during the latter's visit, winning eight games and losing nineteen ( Brace 1977 ). The only tournament he played in was London in 1862, where he finished in the middle of the field ( Hooper & Whyld 1992 ), ( Golombek 1976 :148).
Paul Charles Morphy was an American chess player. He is considered to have been the greatest chess master of his era and an unofficial World Chess Champion. A chess prodigy, he was called "The Pride and Sorrow of Chess" because he had a brilliant chess career but retired from the game while still young. Bobby Fischer ranked him among the ten greatest players of all time, and described him as "perhaps the most accurate player who ever lived".
An international chess tournament was held in London, during the second British world exhibition, in 1862. Fourteen players participated in the main chess event from 16 June to 28 June 1862. They played at the St. George's Club, St. James's Club and Divan. All-play-all and time controls were novelties for a big tournament. Twenty-four moves had to be played in two hours. Time was measured with hourglasses. Draws did not count and had to be replayed.
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A variation of the Ruy Lopez opening called the Barnes Defence was named after him: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 g6 (this is also sometimes known as the Smyslov Defence). A much more dubious variation named for him is Barnes Defence, 1.e4 f6 which he played against Anderssen and Morphy, beating the latter.Barnes Opening, 1.f3, also bears his name. Opening with the f-pawn served his preference to sidestep existing opening knowledge.
The Ruy Lopez, also called the Spanish Opening or Spanish Game, is a chess opening characterised by the moves:
A chess opening or simply an opening refers to the initial moves of a chess game. The term can refer to the initial moves by either side, White or Black, but an opening by Black may also be known as a defense. There are dozens of different openings, and hundreds of variants. The Oxford Companion to Chess lists 1,327 named openings and variants. These vary widely in character from to wild tactical play. In addition to referring to specific move sequences, the opening is the first phase of a chess game, the other phases being the middlegame and the endgame.
Karl Ernst Adolf Anderssen was a German chess master. He won the great international tournaments of 1851 and 1862, but lost matches to Paul Morphy in 1858, and to Wilhelm Steinitz in 1866. Accordingly, he is generally regarded as having been the world's leading chess player from 1851 to 1858, and leading active player from 1862 to 1866; although the title of World Chess Champion did not yet exist.
Johann Jacob Löwenthal was a professional chess master. He was among the top six players of the 1850s.
Pierre Charles Fournier de Saint-Amant was a leading French chess master and an editor of the chess periodical Le Palamède. He is best known for losing a match against Howard Staunton in 1843 that is often considered to have been an unofficial match for the World Chess Championship.
Samuel Standidge Boden (1826–1882) was an English professional chess master.
The zwischenzug is a chess tactic in which a player, instead of playing the expected move, first interposes another move posing an immediate threat that the opponent must answer, and only then plays the expected move. It is a move that has a high degree of "initiative". Ideally, the zwischenzug changes the situation to the player's advantage, such as by gaining or avoiding what would otherwise be a strong continuation for the opponent.
The Philidor Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves:
Jules Arnous de Rivière was the strongest French chess player from the late 1850s through the late 1870s. He is best known today for playing many games with Paul Morphy when the American champion visited Paris in 1858 and 1863.
Hypermodernism is a school of chess that emerged after World War I. It featured challenges to the chess ideas of central European masters, including Wilhelm Steinitz's approach to the and the rules established by Siegbert Tarrasch.
Preston Ware Jr. was a US chess player. He is best known today for playing unorthodox chess openings.
Barnes Opening is a chess opening where White opens with:
Louis Paulsen was a German chess player. In the 1860s and 1870s, he was among the top five players in the world. He was a younger brother of Wilfried Paulsen.
In chess, a flight square or escape square is a safe square to which a king or other piece can move if it is threatened. A bishop sometimes begins to get hemmed in after the Morphy Defence is used, and c2–c3 may be used to create an extra escape square.
Győző Victor Forintos was a Hungarian chess player and by profession, an economist. He was awarded the titles International Master, in 1963, and Grandmaster, in 1974, by FIDE.
Nikolai (Nikolay) Nikolaevich Riumin was a Russian chess master, one of the strongest Soviet players of the 1930s.
David Vincent Hooper, born in Reigate, was a British chess player and writer. As an amateur, he tied for fifth place in the 1949 British Championship at Felixstowe. He was the British correspondence chess champion in 1944 and the London Chess Champion in 1948. He played in the Chess Olympiad at Helsinki in 1952.
John Wisker was an English chess player and journalist. By 1870, he was one of the world's ten best chess players, and the second-best English-born player, behind only Joseph Henry Blackburne.
Daniël Noteboom was a Dutch chess player. He gained notice at the 1930 Chess Olympiad at Hamburg, scoring 11½/15, including a win against Salo Flohr.
Rainer Fritz Albert Knaak is a German Chess Grandmaster.
The game of chess is commonly divided into three phases: the opening, middlegame, and endgame. There is a large body of theory regarding how the game should be played in each of these phases, especially the opening and endgame. Those who write about chess theory, who are often also eminent players, are referred to as "theorists" or "theoreticians".
Jacob Henry Sarratt was one of the top English chess players of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Sarratt was renowned as a player and author and adopted the title "Professor of Chess". He was the first professional player to teach chess in England. He introduced into England the chess rule that a stalemate is a draw, which was commonly used on the continent of Europe. He coined with his works of 1813 and 1821 the term Muzio Gambit. He was a pupil of Verdoni and later the teacher of William Lewis and Peter Unger Williams.
Libro de la invencion liberal y arte del juego del axedrez is one of the first books published about modern chess in Europe, after Pedro Damiano's 1512 book. It was written by Spanish priest Ruy López de Segura in 1561 and published in Alcalá de Henares.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
Harry Golombek OBE, was a British chess grandmaster, chess arbiter, chess author, and wartime codebreaker. He was three times British chess champion, in 1947, 1949, and 1955 and finished second in 1948. He was retrospectively awarded the grandmaster title in 1985.
Chessgames.com is an Internet chess community with over 224,000 members. The site maintains a large database of chess games, where each game has its own discussion page for comments and analysis. Limited primarily to games where at least one player is of master strength, the database begins with the earliest known recorded games and is updated with games from current top-level tournaments. Basic membership is free, and the site is open to players at all levels of ability, with additional features available for Premium members. While the primary purpose of Chessgames.com is to provide an outlet for chess discussion and analysis, consultation games are periodically organized with teams of members playing either other teams of members or very strong masters, including a former US champion and two former world correspondence champions. Members can maintain their own discussion pages, and there are features to assist study of openings, endgames and sacrifices. The front page also features a puzzle of the day, player of the day, and game of the day, the puzzle varying in difficulty throughout the week from "very easy" on Mondays to "insane" on Sundays.
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