Lieutenant-General Thomas Windsor, 1st Viscount Windsor (c. 1670 –8 June 1738), styled The Honourable Thomas Windsor until 1699, was a British Army officer, landowner and Tory politician who sat in the English and British House of Commons between 1685 and 1712. He was then elevated to the British House of Lords as one of Harley's Dozen.
Windsor was the second son of Thomas Hickman-Windsor, 1st Earl of Plymouth, by his second wife Ursula Widdrington, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Thomas Widdrington, Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and Frances Fairfax.
He was made a Page of Honour to James II in 1685 (a post he held until the king was deposed in 1688) and a few months later was returned to Parliament for Droitwich, despite being only around sixteen at the time. Lord Willoughby de Eresby wanted both him and Peter Legh (died 1744) expelled as minors. Windsor took no part in the proceedings of Parliament and was not re-elected in 1687.
During the Monmouth Rebellion of 1685 Windsor had served as a cornet in Lord Plymouth's Horse under his father. He continued to serve in the Army as a captain in Sir John Fenwick's Regiment in 1687, as a lieutenant-colonel in Viscount Colchester's Regiment between 1690 and 1694, as a colonel of horse between 1694 and 1697, 1702 and 1707 and 1711 and 1712 and of the 3rd Dragoon Guards between 1712 and 1717. He was promoted to brigadier in 1702, to major-general in 1704 and to lieutenant-general in 1710.
In 1692 he was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber in King William's private household, serving until the King's death in 1702. In 1699 he was elevated to the Peerage of Ireland as Viscount Windsor, of Blackcastle.This being an Irish peerage he was still eligible for election to the English House of Commons, and in 1705 he was once again returned to Parliament for Bramber, a seat he held until 1708. Between 1708 and 1712 he represented Monmouthshire. The latter year he was created an English peer as Baron Mountjoy, in the Isle of Wight, as one of twelve peers created to secure a Tory majority in the House of Lords.
Lord Windsor married Lady Charlotte Herbert, only daughter of Philip Herbert, 7th Earl of Pembroke, and Henriette de Kéroualle (sister of Louise de Kéroualle, the principal mistress to King Charles II of England), and widow of John Jeffreys, 2nd Baron Jeffreys, in 1703. In 1709, they brought a petition to the House of Lords (which adjudicated on matters of noble titles and estates) seeking permission to sell the Jeffreys estates in order to pay their debts.
They had five children: one son and at least four daughters:
Charlotte died in November 1733. Lord Windsor died in June 1738 and was succeeded in his titles by his son, Herbert.
He inherited the Lower Avon Navigation from his father, who had acquired the rights to it from the future King James II of England.
Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, was an English Whig statesman. He served for a decade as Secretary of State for the Northern Department, 1714–1717, 1721–1730. He directed British foreign policy in close collaboration with his brother-in-law, prime minister Robert Walpole. He was often known as Turnip Townshend because of his strong interest in farming turnips and his role in the British Agricultural Revolution.
Baron Jeffreys is a title that has been created twice, once in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The first creation came in the Peerage of England on 16 May 1685 when the lawyer and later Lord Chancellor, Sir George Jeffreys, 1st Baronet, was made Baron Jeffreys, of Wem. He had already been created a Baronet, of Bulstrode in the County of Buckingham, in the Baronetage of England in 1681. The titles became extinct on the death of his son, the second Baron, in 1702, who had no male heir: his daughter, the writer Henrietta Fermor, married the 1st Earl of Pomfret. The estates passed to Jeffreys' widow, Lady Charlotte Herbert, who later remarried as Viscountess Windsor.
Viscount Windsor is a title that has been created twice.
John Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Gower,, known as The Baron Gower from 1709 to 1746, was a British Tory politician from the Leveson-Gower family, one of the first Tories to enter government after the Hanoverian Succession.
John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute PC, FRS, styled Lord Mount Stuart until 1792 and known as The Earl of Bute between 1792 and 1794, was a British nobleman, coalfield owner, diplomat and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1766 to 1776.
James Ogilvy, 4th Earl of Findlater and 1st Earl of Seafield, was a Scottish politician.
Richard Lumley, 2nd Earl of Scarbrough, of Stansted Park, Sussex and Lumley Castle, County Durham, known as Viscount Lumley from 1710 to 1721, was a British Army officer and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1708 until 1715 when he was raised to the House of Lords as Baron Lumley. He subsequently inherited his father's title as Earl of Scarborough. He committed suicide by shooting himself in the head.
Charles Townshend, 3rd Viscount Townshend, known as The Lord Lynn from 1723 to 1738, was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1722 to 1723 when he was elevated to the House of Lords by writ of acceleration.
Sir Francis Dashwood, 1st Baronet, of St. Botolph without Bishopsgate, London, and West Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, was a British merchant, landowner and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1708 to 1713.
Gentleman of the Bedchamber was a title in the royal household of the Kingdom of England from the 11th century, later used also in the Kingdom of Great Britain. A Lord of the Bedchamber was a courtier in the Royal Household; the term being first used in 1718. Lords and Gentleman of the Bedchamber's duties originally consisted of assisting the monarch with dressing, waiting on him when he ate, guarding access to his bedchamber and closet and providing companionship. Such functions became less important over time but provided proximity to the monarch and the holders were thus trusted confidants and often extremely powerful. The offices were in the gift of The Crown and were originally sworn by Royal Warrant directed to the Lord Chamberlain.
Bennet Sherard, 1st Earl of Harborough was a British peer and Member of Parliament.
The Honourable St John Brodrick, was an Anglo-Irish politician who sat in the Irish House of Commons from 1709 to 1728 and in the British House of Commons from 1721 to 1727.
Robert Marsham, 1st Baron Romney of The Mote, Maidstone, known as Sir Robert Marsham, Bt between 1703 and 1716, was an English Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1708 to 1716 when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Romney.
Herbert Windsor, 2nd Viscount Windsor, styled The Honourable Herbert Windsor until 1738, was a British landowner and Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1734 until 1738 when he succeeded to the peerage as Baron Mountjoy and Viscount Windsor.
Brigadier-General Andrews Windsor (1678–1765), of Southampton, was a British Army officer and politician.
John Berkeley, 4th Viscount Fitzhardinge of Bruton, Somerset was an English courtier, treasury official, army officer and politician who sat in the English and British House of Commons from 1690 to 1710.
Henry Herbert, 2nd Baron Herbert of Chirbury, of Ribbesford, Worcestershire, was an English Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1708 until 1709 when he succeeded to the peerage as Baron Herbert of Chirbury.
This article is about the particular significance of the year 1712 to Wales and its people.
Harley's Dozen were twelve new peerages created in December 1711 by the British Tory government of Robert Harley which was struggling to gain a majority in the Whig-dominated House of Lords. This came at a time when the government were negotiating peace terms to end the ongoing War of the Spanish Succession, which were unlikely to pass the Lords where opposition Whigs and some Tories had joined together to block them under the slogan "No Peace Without Spain".