Thomas Wingate Todd

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Thomas Wingate Todd (January 15, 1885 December 28, 1938) was an English Orthodontist who is known for his contributions towards the growth studies of children during early 1900s. Due to his efforts, Charles Bingham Bolton Fund was established. He served as Editor in Chief of several journals over his lifetime. [1] [2]

Contents

Life

He was born in Sheffield to James Todd and Katherine Todd. His father was a Wesleyan Methodist Episcopal minister. He attended Nottingham High School and then went to University of Manchester and received his Medical Degree in 1907. After graduation he continued teaching Anatomy through 1912. He served as House Surgeon at Manchester Royal Infirmary in 1909-1910. During this time, Dr. Todd published several papers on inter-relationship of skeleton and nerves. Due to his efforts a new curriculum for Diploma in Dentistry and a degree of Dental Science was created at the University of Manchester. He also worked with Dr. A.H. Young, G. Elliot Smith and Sir Arthur Keith in organizing collections of bones coming from Egypt to England by the Nubian Archaeological Survey.

Sheffield City and Metropolitan borough in England

Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its largely industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base. The population of the City of Sheffield is 577,800 (mid-2017 est.) and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group. Sheffield is the third-largest English district by population. The metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000.

Nottingham High School Coeducational public school in Nottingham, England

Nottingham High School is an independent, fee-paying day school for boys and girls in Nottingham, England, comprising the Infant and Junior School and Senior School. Approximately 1,000 students attend the school, including around 800 in the Senior School.

University of Manchester public research university in Manchester, England

The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester. The University of Manchester is a red brick university, a product of the civic university movement of the late 19th century.

Dr. Todd eventually moved to Case Western Reserve University and became the Professor of Anatomy and Physical Anthropology at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine . He taught anatomy to both dental and medical students at that time. During this time he published his first book called Mammalian Dentition. His teaching was interrupted by his military service in World War I as Captain in Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps .

Case Western Reserve University university in Ohio, United States

Case Western Reserve University is a private research university in Cleveland, Ohio. It was created in 1967 through the federation of two longstanding contiguous institutions: Western Reserve University, founded in 1826 and named for its location in the Connecticut Western Reserve, and Case Institute of Technology, founded in 1880 through the endowment of Leonard Case, Jr.. Time magazine described the merger as the creation of "Cleveland's Big-Leaguer" university.

Case Western Reserve School of Medicine is one of the graduate schools of Case Western Reserve University, and is located in the University Circle neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio. The School of Medicine is among the top 25 medical schools in the United States and is the top-ranked medical school of Ohio in research per U.S. News & World Report. Additionally, Case School of Medicine is the largest biomedical research center in Ohio. In 2015, the average MCAT score for the entering class was 36.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Career

In 1920, became the Director of Hamann Museum of Comparative Anthropology and Anatomy at Cleveland Museum of Natural History . Under his direction, the museum became the largest document museum on human and mammalian growth in the world. In 1928, he started his research under the Brush Foundation where he studied 4500 healthy children. In 1929, due to his efforts Charles Bingham Bolton Fund was started.

Cleveland Museum of Natural History museum

The Cleveland Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum located approximately five miles (8 km) east of downtown Cleveland, Ohio in University Circle, a 550-acre concentration of educational, cultural and medical institutions. The museum was established in 1920 by Cyrus S. Eaton to perform research, education and development of collections in the fields of anthropology, archaeology, astronomy, botany, geology, paleontology, wildlife biology, and zoology.

On 20 April 1923, Todd presented a lecture to the Harvey Club of London entitled "Forecasting the Future of the White Race" in which he agreed with Julian Huxley that education and environment were less important than heredity in the development of any people. [3] However by the 1930s, he opposed the prevailing theories of racial determinism espoused by physical anthropologists when trained William Montague Cobb, the first African-American physical anthropologist, who studied Jesse Owens to show that training, rather specific "racial traits," accounted for athletic success. [4]

Harvey Club of London

The Harvey Club of London is the oldest currently active medical club in Canada. It was founded by Drs. J.W. Crane and C.M. Crawford in 1919 in London, Ontario. The club was initially founded as a way for practicing physicians to stay abreast of new developments in biomedical sciences, analogous to the modern concept of continuing medical education, a function that it continues to perform with annual presentations of papers. The club also provides financial support to students in the form scholarships at the medical school of Western University.

Julian Huxley British evolutionary biologist, philosopher, author

Sir Julian Sorell Huxley (1887–1975) was a British evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and internationalist. He was a proponent of natural selection, and a leading figure in the mid-twentieth century modern synthesis. He was secretary of the Zoological Society of London (1935–1942), the first Director of UNESCO, a founding member of the World Wildlife Fund and the first President of the British Humanist Association.

William Montague Cobb American anthropologist

Dr. William Montague Cobb was a pioneering 20th-century physical anthropologist. As the first African American to earn a Ph.D in anthropology, and the only one until after the Korean War, his main focus in the anthropological discipline was studying the concept of race and the negative impact it has on communities of color. Cobb prolifically wrote both popular and scholarly articles during the course of his career and trained an untold number of students.

He was honorary member of Cleveland Dental Society, American Academy of Pediatrics, Southern Society of Orthodontists, Cleveland Neurological Society and Cleveland Allergy Society . Over his lifetime, Dr. Todd held appointments and was affiliated with sixty scientific societies of which some of them are mentioned below.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois. It maintains its Department of Federal Affairs office in Washington, D.C.

Dr. Todd married Eleanor Pearson had three children, Arthur, Donald and Eleanor.

Awards and honors

Positions

Related Research Articles

Forensic anthropology Application of the science of anthropology in a legal setting

Forensic anthropology is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy, in a legal setting. A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated or otherwise unrecognizable, as might happen in a plane crash. Forensic anthropologists are also instrumental to the investigation and documentation of genocide and mass graves. Along with forensic pathologists, forensic dentists, and homicide investigators, forensic anthropologists commonly testify in court as expert witnesses. Using physical markers present on a skeleton, a forensic anthropologist can potentially determine a victim's age, sex, stature, and ancestry. In addition to identifying physical characteristics of the individual, forensic anthropologists can use skeletal abnormalities to potentially determine cause of death, past trauma such as broken bones or medical procedures, as well as diseases such as bone cancer.

Ashley Montagu British-American anthropologist

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References

  1. Keith, Arthur (1939-01-01). "Thomas Wingate Todd (1885-1938)". Journal of Anatomy. 73 (Pt 2): 350–353. ISSN   0021-8782. PMC   1252520 .
  2. "Encyclopedia of Cleveland History: TODD, THOMAS WINGATE". ech.case.edu. Retrieved 2016-01-09.
  3. Harvey Club fonds, Western Archives AFC 39 - 1/4, https://www.lib.uwo.ca/files/archives/archives_finding_aids/AFC%2039%20-%20Harvey%20Club.pdf
  4. "1900s - 1950s: Critiquing race". NBC news. Retrieved 26 March 2019.