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Thomas Wingate Todd (January 15, 1885 – December 28, 1938) was an English Orthodontist who is known for his contributions towards the growth studies of children during early 1900s. Due to his efforts, Charles Bingham Bolton Fund was established. He served as Editor in Chief of several journals over his lifetime.
He was born in Sheffield to James Todd and Katherine Todd. His father was a Wesleyan Methodist Episcopal minister. He attended Nottingham High School and then went to University of Manchester and received his Medical Degree in 1907. After graduation he continued teaching Anatomy through 1912. He served as House Surgeon at Manchester Royal Infirmary in 1909-1910. During this time, Dr. Todd published several papers on inter-relationship of skeleton and nerves. Due to his efforts a new curriculum for Diploma in Dentistry and a degree of Dental Science was created at the University of Manchester. He also worked with Dr. A.H. Young, G. Elliot Smith and Sir Arthur Keith in organizing collections of bones coming from Egypt to England by the Nubian Archaeological Survey.
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its largely industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base. The population of the City of Sheffield is 577,800 (mid-2017 est.) and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group. Sheffield is the third-largest English district by population. The metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000.
Nottingham High School is an independent, fee-paying day school for boys and girls in Nottingham, England, comprising the Infant and Junior School and Senior School. Approximately 1,000 students attend the school, including around 800 in the Senior School.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester. The University of Manchester is a red brick university, a product of the civic university movement of the late 19th century.
Dr. Todd eventually moved to Case Western Reserve University and became the Professor of Anatomy and Physical Anthropology at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine . He taught anatomy to both dental and medical students at that time. During this time he published his first book called Mammalian Dentition. His teaching was interrupted by his military service in World War I as Captain in Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps .
Case Western Reserve University is a private research university in Cleveland, Ohio. It was created in 1967 through the federation of two longstanding contiguous institutions: Western Reserve University, founded in 1826 and named for its location in the Connecticut Western Reserve, and Case Institute of Technology, founded in 1880 through the endowment of Leonard Case, Jr.. Time magazine described the merger as the creation of "Cleveland's Big-Leaguer" university.
Case Western Reserve School of Medicine is one of the graduate schools of Case Western Reserve University, and is located in the University Circle neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio. The School of Medicine is among the top 25 medical schools in the United States and is the top-ranked medical school of Ohio in research per U.S. News & World Report. Additionally, Case School of Medicine is the largest biomedical research center in Ohio. In 2015, the average MCAT score for the entering class was 36.
World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.
In 1920, became the Director of Hamann Museum of Comparative Anthropology and Anatomy at Cleveland Museum of Natural History . Under his direction, the museum became the largest document museum on human and mammalian growth in the world. In 1928, he started his research under the Brush Foundation where he studied 4500 healthy children. In 1929, due to his efforts Charles Bingham Bolton Fund was started.
The Cleveland Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum located approximately five miles (8 km) east of downtown Cleveland, Ohio in University Circle, a 550-acre concentration of educational, cultural and medical institutions. The museum was established in 1920 by Cyrus S. Eaton to perform research, education and development of collections in the fields of anthropology, archaeology, astronomy, botany, geology, paleontology, wildlife biology, and zoology.
On 20 April 1923, Todd presented a lecture to the Harvey Club of London entitled "Forecasting the Future of the White Race" in which he agreed with Julian Huxley that education and environment were less important than heredity in the development of any people.However by the 1930s, he opposed the prevailing theories of racial determinism espoused by physical anthropologists when trained William Montague Cobb, the first African-American physical anthropologist, who studied Jesse Owens to show that training, rather specific "racial traits," accounted for athletic success.
The Harvey Club of London is the oldest currently active medical club in Canada. It was founded by Drs. J.W. Crane and C.M. Crawford in 1919 in London, Ontario. The club was initially founded as a way for practicing physicians to stay abreast of new developments in biomedical sciences, analogous to the modern concept of continuing medical education, a function that it continues to perform with annual presentations of papers. The club also provides financial support to students in the form scholarships at the medical school of Western University.
Sir Julian Sorell Huxley (1887–1975) was a British evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and internationalist. He was a proponent of natural selection, and a leading figure in the mid-twentieth century modern synthesis. He was secretary of the Zoological Society of London (1935–1942), the first Director of UNESCO, a founding member of the World Wildlife Fund and the first President of the British Humanist Association.
Dr. William Montague Cobb was a pioneering 20th-century physical anthropologist. As the first African American to earn a Ph.D in anthropology, and the only one until after the Korean War, his main focus in the anthropological discipline was studying the concept of race and the negative impact it has on communities of color. Cobb prolifically wrote both popular and scholarly articles during the course of his career and trained an untold number of students.
He was honorary member of Cleveland Dental Society, American Academy of Pediatrics, Southern Society of Orthodontists, Cleveland Neurological Society and Cleveland Allergy Society . Over his lifetime, Dr. Todd held appointments and was affiliated with sixty scientific societies of which some of them are mentioned below.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois. It maintains its Department of Federal Affairs office in Washington, D.C.
Dr. Todd married Eleanor Pearson had three children, Arthur, Donald and Eleanor.
Forensic anthropology is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy, in a legal setting. A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated or otherwise unrecognizable, as might happen in a plane crash. Forensic anthropologists are also instrumental to the investigation and documentation of genocide and mass graves. Along with forensic pathologists, forensic dentists, and homicide investigators, forensic anthropologists commonly testify in court as expert witnesses. Using physical markers present on a skeleton, a forensic anthropologist can potentially determine a victim's age, sex, stature, and ancestry. In addition to identifying physical characteristics of the individual, forensic anthropologists can use skeletal abnormalities to potentially determine cause of death, past trauma such as broken bones or medical procedures, as well as diseases such as bone cancer.
Montague Francis Ashley-Montagu, previously known as Israel Ehrenberg, was a British-American anthropologist who popularized the study of topics such as race and gender and their relation to politics and development. He was the rapporteur, in 1950, for the UNESCO statement "The Race Question". As a young man he changed his name from Ehrenberg to "Montague Francis Ashley-Montagu". After relocating to the United States he used the name "Ashley Montagu". Montagu, who became a naturalized American citizen in 1940, taught and lectured at Harvard, Princeton, Rutgers, the University of California, Santa Barbara, and New York University. Forced out of his Rutgers position after the McCarthy hearings, he repositioned himself as a public intellectual in the 1950s and 1960s, appearing regularly on television shows and writing for magazines and newspapers. He authored over sixty books throughout this lifetime. In 1995, the American Humanist Association named him the Humanist of the Year.
Wilton Marion Krogman was an American anthropologist. He was a leader in the development of the field of physical anthropology, with an early and lasting interest in dental anthropology.
Marcus S. Goldstein was one of the forefathers of dental anthropology and was also a public health analyst. He was an active researcher with a broad interest in the field of anthropology, writing over one hundred scientific publications during his lifetime.
Phillip Vallentine Tobias FRS was a South African palaeoanthropologist and Professor Emeritus at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. He was best known for his work at South Africa's hominid fossil sites. He was also an activist for the eradication of apartheid and gave numerous anti-apartheid speeches at protest rallies and also to academic audiences.
James A. McNamara Jr. is an American-trained, board certified, orthodontist. He is known for his development of McNamara analysis, one of the more popular methods of cephalometric analysis in cephalometry.
Dr. Martin Dewey (1881–1933) was an American orthodontist and a past president of the American Association of Orthodontists and the American Dental Association. Dewey represented the "New School" of Edward Angle in the great Extraction Debate of 1911 held in New York City.
Angle School of Orthodontia was the first school of Orthodontics in the world established by Edward Angle in 1899. The school taught its students Orthodontics over a period of 3–6 weeks. The school graduated 183 students until it closed in 1927. Among the graduates, 25 students became Presidents of American Association of Orthodontists, 11 students became head of Orthodontic Departments and three students became dental school Deans.
Milo Hellman was an American Orthodontist was an instructor at Angle School of Orthodontia and Chair of NYU Orthodontic Program. He is known for his contributions to the field of Orthodontia via his research on the relationship between teeth, jaws and face.
Birdsall Holly Broadbent Jr. was an American orthodontist known for this contributions to the field of orthodontics. He co-developed the Bolton Standards along with his father Birdsall Holly Broadbent Sr. The work is based on the Broadbent-Bolton Growth study, which the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation has called "the most complete human craniofacial growth study in the world".
Birdsall Holly Broadbent Sr. was an American orthodontist who is credited with developing and introducing the technique of cephalometric roentgenography to orthodontics. He also devised the cephalometer, which accurately positions a patient's head with reference to the x-ray source.
William B. Downs was an American orthodontist who is known for developing the first cephalometric analysis for orthodontics, the Downs analysis.
Dr Melvin L. Moss was an American dentist known for creating the functional matrix hypothesis for growth and development. He was an anatomist and former dean of Columbia University College of Dental Medicine.
Lee W. Graber is an American Orthodontist who is the recipient of the Albert H. Ketcham Award in 2012. He also co-authored the textbook Orthodontics: Current Principles and Techniques along with his father Thomas M. Graber. He is a past president of World Federation of Orthodontists.
Thomas M. Graber was an American orthodontist known for his contributions to the field of orthodontics. Graber wrote 28 books on orthodontics and dental anatomy. He also wrote chapters in more than 20 books and over 175 published articles.
Jacob Amos Salzmann (1901–1992) was an American orthodontist who is known for developing an assessment index for determining malocclusion. This index has been adopted by ADA Council of Dental Health, the Council on Dental Care Programs, and by the American Association of Orthodontists.
Dr. Spencer Roane Atkinson was an American orthodontist and a graduate of Angle School of Orthodontia. He is best known for establishing The Spencer R. Atkinson Library of Applied Anatomy at University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry. The library consists of collection of 1,400 human skulls collected over past 40 years. Atkinson is also known for developing the Universal Appliance in the 1960s which led to eventual formation of the Unitek Division of 3M Company.
Peter H. Buschang is an Anthropologist, an Orthodontic researcher and an Orthodontic educator. He is also an honorary member of American Association of Orthodontics and Edward H. Angle Society of Orthodontists.