Thomas Witlam Atkinson (1799–1861) was an English architect, artist and traveller in Siberia and Central Asia. Between 1847 and 1853 he travelled over 40 000 miles through Central Asia and Siberia, much of the time together with his wife Lucy and son Alatau, who was born during their travels. He also painted and documented his travels in two books that are today regarded as travel classics.His and Lucy's son, Alatau Tamchiboulac Atkinson, born on 4 November 1848 in what is now Eastern Kazakhstan, was named after a famous spring in the town of Kapal at the foot of the Djungar Alatau mountains.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
An architect is a person who plans, designs and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e., chief builder.
He was born in Cawthorne, near Barnsley, West Riding of Yorkshire in 1799. He began to learn his trade at the age of eight, working alongside his father, who was a stonemason at Cannon Hall, home of the Spencer Stanhope family. By the time he was twenty he was a stone-carver, and in that capacity executed some good work on churches at Barnsley, Ashton-Under-Lyne and elsewhere. At the last-named town he settled for a while as a teacher of drawing.Soon after he became clerk of works to a string of important Victorian architects, including George Basevi, who designed much of Belgrave Square in London.
Cawthorne is a village and civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley in South Yorkshire, England. The village was once the centre of a localised iron and coal mining industry, though today it is the centre of a very affluent commuter belt, west of Barnsley. At the 2001 census it had a population of 1,108, increasing to 1,151 at the 2011 Census.
Barnsley is a town in South Yorkshire, England, located halfway between Leeds and Sheffield. Historically in the West Riding of Yorkshire, the town centre lies on the west bank of the Dearne Valley. Barnsley is surrounded by several smaller settlements which together form the Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley, of which Barnsley is the largest and its administrative centre. At the 2011 Census, Barnsley had a population of 91,297.
The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire, England. From 1889 to 1974 the administrative county, County of York, West Riding, was based closely on the historic boundaries. The lieutenancy at that time included the City of York and as such was named West Riding of the County of York and the County of the City of York.
About this time he devoted himself to the study of Gothic architecture, and in 1829 published a folio volume entitled Gothic Ornaments selected from the different Cathedrals and Churches in England. In 1827, he went to London, and established himself as an architect in Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars. Among his works at this time was the church of St. Nicholas, at Lower Tooting, erected about 1831. A little later he obtained many important commissions in and around Manchester, including the Manchester and Liverpool District Bank in Spring Gardens, in 1834. About 1835, he moved to Manchester, where he began his principal work as an architect, St. Luke's church, Cheetham Hill. This building, designed in a modified perpendicular style, together with his Italian villas and other structures, had a marked effect in improving the architectural taste of the district. He remained at Manchester until 1840, when he fell into debt, an occupational hazard in those days for an architect.He continued to exhibit drawings and paintings at the Royal Academy.
Blackfriars is an area of central London, which lies in the south-west corner of the City of London.
St Nicholas, Tooting Graveney, is a Church of England parish church in central Tooting, London.
Manchester is a major city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.7 million, and third-most populous metropolitan area, with a population of 3.3 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority for the city is Manchester City Council.
At some point after 1840 he travelled out to India, producing paintings of subjects in Greece, India, Ethiopia, present day Iran and India itself. Returning to London, in 1842 he went to Hamburg, then to Berlin, and lastly, in 1846, to St. Petersburg, where he abandoned architecture as a profession for the pursuits of a traveller and artist.
Hamburg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg, is the second-largest city in Germany after Berlin and 8th largest city in the European Union with a population of over 1.8 million.
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with Potsdam, Brandenburg's capital. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.
On the advice of Alexander von Humboldt, he turned his attention to Oriental Russia, and, having received a remarkable blank passport from Nicholas I of Russia, he set out in January 1847 on the first of many journeys throughout Siberia and Central Asia. This first journey saw him visit the Urals, the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia and the northern Kazakh Steppes. He returned briefly to Moscow in February 1848 where he married Lucy Sherrard Finley, an Englishwoman who had been a governess in a noble Russian family in St Petersburg. Two days later he set off again for Siberia, accompanied by his newly married wife. Their travels extended over 39,500 miles, and occupied them until the end of 1853. His avowed aim in these expeditions was to sketch the scenery of Siberia, and he brought back over 500 clever watercolours - some of them five or six feet square - and drawings. Many were of places that were completely unknown to Europeans. He kept detailed journals of his explorations, which were written with much power and freshness.
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science. He was the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher, and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767–1835). Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography. Humboldt's advocacy of long-term systematic geophysical measurement laid the foundation for modern geomagnetic and meteorological monitoring.
Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), Russia is, by a considerable margin, the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.79 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
Nicholas I reigned as Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. He was also the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. He has become best known as a political conservative whose reign was marked by geographical expansion, repression of dissent, economic stagnation, poor administrative policies, a corrupt bureaucracy, and frequent wars that culminated in Russia's defeat in the Crimean War of 1853–56. Nicholas had a happy marriage that produced a large family; all of their seven children survived childhood. His biographer Nicholas V. Riasanovsky says that Nicholas displayed determination, singleness of purpose, and an iron will, along with a powerful sense of duty and a dedication to very hard work. He saw himself as a soldier—a junior officer totally consumed by spit and polish. A handsome man, he was highly nervous and aggressive. Trained as an engineer, he was a stickler for minute detail. In his public persona, says Riasanovsky, "Nicholas I came to represent autocracy personified: infinitely majestic, determined and powerful, hard as stone, and relentless as fate." He was the younger brother of his predecessor, Alexander I. Nicholas inherited his brother's throne despite the failed Decembrist revolt against him and went on to become the most reactionary of all Russian leaders.
On his return to England in 1858 he published his first book, Oriental and Western Siberia: a Narrative of Seven Years' Explorations and Adventures in Siberia, Mongolia, the Kirghis Steppes, Chinese Tartary, and part of Central Asia.A second volume appeared two years later: Travels in the Regions of the Upper and Lower Amoor and the Russian Acquisitions on the Confines of India and China. This work was highly praised by the Athenæum on its publication, although it was later suggested - after his death in 1861 - that he had used material that had previously been published in Russia in a book published by Richard Maak in St Petersburg in 1859. In fact, Atkinson fully acknowledged his debt to Maak in the foreword to the book.
Atkinson was much in demand as a speaker and in 1858 was even granted a private audience with Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle. The same year Atkinson read a paper before the British Association On the Volcanoes of Central Asia. He was also elected a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, and in 1859 a fellow of the Geological Society and the Ethnographic Society. He was also elected to membership of the exclusive Geographical Club. To the Proceedings of the RGS he contributed in 1859 a paper on a Journey through some of the highest Passes in the Ala-tu and Ac-tu Mountains in Chinese Tartary, and in the Journal of the Geological Society in 1860 he wrote On some Bronze Relics found in an Auriferous Sand in Siberia.
Through Lucy's connections to the Russian aristocracy, particularly to the Muravyev family, the Atkinsons were able to visit many of the exiled Decembrists who had been sent to Siberia by Nicholas I. These included Mattvei Muravyev-Apostol, the Bestuchev brothers and many others. Thomas had planned to write his final book about the Siberian exiles, but he died, at Lower Walmer, Kent, on 13 August 1861 before it could be started.
The seven years that Thomas and Lucy Atkinson spent travelling in Siberia and Central Asia was one of the greatest travel sagas of the nineteenth century. They visited many places that had never previously been visited by Europeans. During their first long journey together, for example, they travelled from Moscow to Barnaul in the Altai region, before heading south across the Kazakh Steppes to the Zhetysu or Semirechye region of Eastern Kazakhstan. It was here, in the small Cossack outpost of Kapal, that their son, Alatau Tamchiboulac Atkinson was born on 4 November 1848.Despite being born at the beginning of a harsh winter on the steppe, he survived.
Between September 1848 when they arrived in Kopal and September the following year when they arrived back in Barnaul, Thomas and Lucy systematically visited all the river valleys of the Djungar Alatau - becoming the first Europeans ever to visit these regions. Later they made extensive journeys in eastern Siberia, Mongolia and Djungaria.
In addition to Thomas's two books, Lucy also wrote a book: Recollections of Tartar Steppes,which is one of the earliest - and most entertaining - travel books ever written by a woman. Thomas' paintings can be found in the collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg, the Pushkin Museum in Moscow, the V I Surikov Museum in Krasnoyarsk and in the dining room at the Royal Geographical Society in London. His descriptions of life in the Central Asia steppes are unrivalled and his paintings of the leaders of the Kazakhs at that time are unique.
Thomas was twice married; first to Rebecca Mercer in 1819 and the second time, in 1848, to Lucy Finley. On 13 June 1863, two years after Thomas' death, Lucy was granted a civil list pension of £100. Thomas' son by his first wife, John William Atkinson, who died in Hamburg on 3 April 1846, aged 23, was a marine painter.Alatau, his son by Lucy, was educated at Rugby following a public subscription to pay his fees. In 1869 Alatau emigrated to Hawaii, where he became editor of the Hawaiian Gazette, director of education for the islands and later organizer of the territory's first census. He died in 1906.
Kazakhstan, the largest country fully within the Eurasian Steppe, has been a historical "crossroads" and home to numerous different peoples, states and empires throughout history.
Lieutenant Colonel Robert Peter Fleming was a British adventurer, journalist, soldier and travel writer. He was the elder brother of Ian Fleming, creator of James Bond.
Alexander Theodor von Middendorff was a Russian zoologist and explorer of Baltic German origin.
Russian Turkestan was the western part of Turkestan within the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories, and was administered as a Krai or Governor-Generalship. It comprised the oasis region to the south of the Kazakh Steppe, but not the protectorates of the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva.
Zhetysu or Semirechye is a historical name of a part of Central Asia, corresponding to the southeastern part of modern Kazakhstan. It owes its name, meaning "seven rivers" in Kazakh and Persian, to the rivers which flow from the south-east into Lake Balkhash.
Mikhail Grigorievich Chernyayev was a Russian general, who, together with Konstantin Kaufman and Mikhail Skobelev, directed the Russian conquest of Central Asia during the reign of Csar Alexander II.
Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov was a Soviet historian, ethnologist, anthropologist and translator from Persian. He had a reputation for his highly non-orthodox theories of ethnogenesis and historiosophy. He was exponent of eurasianism.
The Dzungarian Alatau is a mountain range that lies on the boundary of the Dzungaria region of China and the Zhetysu region of Kazakhstan. It has a length of 450 km (280 mi) and a maximum elevation of 4,464 m (14,646 ft).
The Kazakh Steppe, also called the Great Dala, ecoregion, of the Palearctic temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome, is a vast region of open grassland in northern Kazakhstan and adjacent portions of Russia, extending to the east of the Pontic steppe and to the west of the Emin Valley steppe, with which it forms part of the Eurasian steppe. Before the mid-nineteenth century it was called the Kirghiz steppe, 'Kirghiz' being an old name for the Kazakhs.
John Bell (1691–1780) was a Scottish doctor and traveller.
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. It stretches from Bulgaria, Romania and Moldova through Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang, and Mongolia to Manchuria, with one major exclave, the Pannonian steppe or Puszta, located mostly in Hungary.
Shoqan Shynghysuly Walikhanov, given name Muhammed Qanapiya was a Kazakh scholar, ethnographer, historian and participant in The Great Game. He is regarded as the father of modern Kazakh historiography and ethnography. The Kazakh Academy of Sciences is named after him. His name is written Chokan Valikhanov in English based on the transliteration of the Russian spelling of his name, which he used himself. The Kazakh language variant of his name was written in the Arabic script, and was similar to the Russian version.
Richard Otto Maack was a 19th-century Russian naturalist, geographer, and anthropologist. He is most known for his exploration of the Russian Far East and Siberia, particularly the Ussuri and Amur River valleys. He wrote some of the first scientific descriptions of the natural history of remote Siberia and collected many biological specimens, many of which were original type specimens of previously unknown species.
Ivan Vasilʹevich Mushketov was a famous Russian geologist, tectonist, explorer, and geographer.
The Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly was a state-controlled religious administration in the Russian Empire that had jurisdiction over certain aspects of Islamic activity in Siberia, the Volga-Ural region, and parts of Central Asia, including the Kazakh steppe. It was established in 1788 by order of Russian Empress Catherine II.
The Koyandinsk Fair was a large annual trade fair held every June from 1848 to 1930 in the Karkaraly region of Kazakhstan on the caravan route from Central Asia to Siberia, located near modern-day Egindybulak, near a large freshwater lake.
The Semirechye Oblast was an oblast (province) of the Russian Empire. It corresponded approximately to most of present-day southeastern Kazakhstan and northeastern Kyrgyzstan. It was created out of the territories of the northern part of Khanate of Kokand that had been part of Kazakh Khanate. Its site of government was Verniy.
Kuznetsk Alatau Nature Reserve is a Russian 'zapovednik' on the Kuznetsky Alatau, a mountain ridge in the Altai-Sayan mountain region in southwestern Siberia. The Kuznetsky Alatau consists of several ranges of medium height, between which there are river valleys. The reserve is in the watershed of the Tom River and the Chuly River. It is spread over three districts of Kemerovo Oblast: Tisulsky District, Mezhdurechensky District, and Novokuznetsky District. The reserve was established in 1989 and covers an area of 412,900 ha (1,594 sq mi).
Lucy Sherrard Atkinson (1817–1893) was an English explorer and author who travelled throughout Central Asia and Siberia during the mid-19th century.
Alatau Tamchiboulac Atkinson was the Superintendent of Public Instruction for the Territory of Hawaii, and Inspector General of Schools under the administrations of Kalākaua, Liliʻuokalani and Sanford B. Dole. A journalist and newspaper owner, he is believed to have been one of two authors of satirical works lampooning Walter Murray Gibson's cabinet regime under Kalākaua. Atkinson Drive, Ala Moana, Honolulu, was named to honor him.