Thomas Wolfe

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Thomas Wolfe
Thomas Wolfe 1937 1 (cropped).jpg
1937 portrait by Carl Van Vechten
BornThomas Clayton Wolfe
(1900-10-03)October 3, 1900
Asheville, North Carolina, U.S.
DiedSeptember 15, 1938(1938-09-15) (aged 37)
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
OccupationAuthor
Alma mater
Genre Fiction, drama
Notable works

Signature Thomas Wolfe signature.svg

Thomas Clayton Wolfe (October 3, 1900 – September 15, 1938) was an American novelist of the early twentieth century. [1]

A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction. Some novelists are professional novelists, thus make a living writing novels and other fiction, while others aspire to support themselves in this way or write as an avocation. Most novelists struggle to get their debut novel published, but once published they often continue to be published, although very few become literary celebrities, thus gaining prestige or a considerable income from their work.

Contents

Wolfe wrote four lengthy novels as well as many short stories, dramatic works, and novellas. He is known for mixing highly original, poetic, rhapsodic, and impressionistic prose with autobiographical writing. His books, written and published from the 1920s to the 1940s, vividly reflect on American culture and the mores of that period, filtered through Wolfe's sensitive, sophisticated, and hyper-analytical perspective.

Mores Customary behaviour

The concept of mores refers to social norms that are widely observed and are considered to have greater moral significance than others. Mores include an aversion for societal taboos, such as incest. The mores of a society usually predicate legislation reinforcing their taboos. Often, countries will employ specialized vice squads or vice police to combat specific crimes offending against societal mores.

After Wolfe's death, contemporary author William Faulkner said that Wolfe may have been the greatest talent of their generation for aiming higher than any other writer. [1] [2] Wolfe's influence extends to the writings of Beat Generation writer Jack Kerouac, and of authors Ray Bradbury and Philip Roth, among others. [3] He remains an important writer in modern American literature, as one of the first masters of autobiographical fiction, and is considered North Carolina's most famous writer. [4]

William Faulkner American writer

William Cuthbert Faulkner was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulkner wrote novels, short stories, screenplays, poetry, essays, and a play. He is primarily known for his novels and short stories set in the fictional Yoknapatawpha County, based on Lafayette County, Mississippi, where he spent most of his life.

The Beat Generation was a literary movement started by a group of authors whose work explored and influenced American culture and politics in the post-war era. The bulk of their work was published and popularized throughout the 1950s. The central elements of Beat culture are the rejection of standard narrative values, making a spiritual quest, the exploration of American and Eastern religions, the rejection of economic materialism, explicit portrayals of the human condition, experimentation with psychedelic drugs, and sexual liberation and exploration.

Jack Kerouac American writer

Jack Kerouac was an American novelist and poet of French-Canadian ancestry.

Early life

Wolfe was born in Asheville, North Carolina, the youngest of eight children of William Oliver Wolfe (1851–1922) and Julia Elizabeth Westall (1860–1945). His siblings were sister Leslie E. Wolfe (18851886), Effie Nelson Wolfe (18871950), Frank Cecil Wolfe (18881956), Mabel Elizabeth Wolfe (18901958), Grover Cleveland Wolfe (18921904), Benjamin Harrison Wolfe (18921918), and Frederick William Wolfe (18941980). Six of the children lived to adulthood. [5]

Asheville, North Carolina City in North Carolina, United States

Asheville is a city and the county seat of Buncombe County, North Carolina, United States. It is the largest city in Western North Carolina, and the 12th-most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina. The city's population was 92,452 according to 2018 estimates. It is the principal city in the four-county Asheville metropolitan area, with a population of 424,858 in 2010.

The Wolfes lived at 92 Woodfin Street, where Tom was born. His father, a successful stone carver, ran a gravestone business. His mother took in boarders and was active in acquiring real estate. In 1904, she opened a boarding house in St. Louis, for the World's Fair. While the family was in St. Louis, 12-year-old Grover died of typhoid fever.

Louisiana Purchase Exposition

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the St. Louis World's Fair, was an international exposition held in St. Louis, Missouri, United States, from April 30 to December 1, 1904. Local, state, and federal funds totaling $15 million were used to finance the event. More than 60 countries and 43 of the 45 American states maintained exhibition spaces at the fair, which was attended by nearly 19.7 million people.

Typhoid fever Bacterial infection due to a specific type of Salmonella

Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to a specific type of Salmonella that causes symptoms. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe, and usually begin 6 to 30 days after exposure. Often there is a gradual onset of a high fever over several days. This is commonly accompanied by weakness, abdominal pain, constipation, headaches, and mild vomiting. Some people develop a skin rash with rose colored spots. In severe cases, people may experience confusion. Without treatment, symptoms may last weeks or months. Diarrhea is uncommon. Other people may carry the bacterium without being affected; however, they are still able to spread the disease to others. Typhoid fever is a type of enteric fever, along with paratyphoid fever.

Thomas Wolfe House, 48 Spruce Street in Asheville Thomas Wolfe's Home.jpg
Thomas Wolfe House, 48 Spruce Street in Asheville

In 1906 Julia Wolfe bought a boarding house named "Old Kentucky Home" at nearby 48 Spruce Street in Asheville, taking up residence there with her youngest son while the rest of the family remained at the Woodfin Street residence. Wolfe lived in the boarding house on Spruce Street until he went to college in 1916. It is now the Thomas Wolfe Memorial. [6] Wolfe was closest to his brother Ben, whose early death at age 26 is chronicled in Look Homeward, Angel . [5] Julia Wolfe bought and sold many properties, eventually becoming a successful real estate speculator. [5]

Thomas Wolfe House United States historic place

The Thomas Wolfe House, also known as the Thomas Wolfe Memorial, is a state historic site, historic house and museum located at 52 North Market Street in downtown Asheville, North Carolina. The American author Thomas Wolfe (1900-1938) lived in the home during his boyhood. The house was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1971 for its association with Wolfe. It is located in the Downtown Asheville Historic District.

<i>Look Homeward, Angel</i> novel by Thomas Wolfe

Look Homeward, Angel: A Story of the Buried Life is a 1929 novel by Thomas Wolfe. It is Wolfe's first novel, and is considered a highly autobiographical American coming-of-age story. The character of Eugene Gant is generally believed to be a depiction of Wolfe himself. The novel briefly recounts Eugene's father's early life, but primarily covers the span of time from Eugene's birth in 1900 to his definitive departure from home at the age of 19. The setting is a fictionalization of his home town of Asheville, North Carolina, called Altamont, Catawba in the novel.

Wolfe began to study at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) when he was 15 years old. A member of the Dialectic Society and Pi Kappa Phi fraternity, he predicted that his portrait would one day hang in New West near that of celebrated North Carolina governor Zebulon Vance, which it does today. [7] Aspiring to be a playwright, in 1919 Wolfe enrolled in a playwriting course. [1] His one-act play, The Return of Buck Gavin, was performed by the newly formed Carolina Playmakers, then composed of classmates in Frederick Koch's playwriting class, with Wolfe acting the title role. He edited UNC's student newspaper The Daily Tar Heel [5] and won the Worth Prize for Philosophy for an essay titled The Crisis in Industry. Another of his plays, The Third Night, was performed by the Playmakers in December 1919. Wolfe was inducted into the Golden Fleece honor society. [7]

Wolfe graduated from UNC with a B.A. in June 1920, and in September entered Harvard University, where he studied playwriting under George Pierce Baker. Two versions of his play The Mountains were performed by Baker's 47 Workshop in 1921.

In 1922, Wolfe received his master's degree from Harvard. His father died in Asheville in June of that year. Wolfe studied another year with Baker, and the 47 Workshop produced his ten-scene play Welcome to Our City in May 1923.

Wolfe visited New York City again in November 1923 and solicited funds for UNC, while trying to sell his plays to Broadway. In February 1924, he began teaching English as an instructor at New York University (NYU), a position he occupied periodically for almost seven years.

Career

Wolfe was unable to sell any of his plays after three years because of their great length. [7] The Theatre Guild came close to producing Welcome to Our City before ultimately rejecting it, and Wolfe found his writing style more suited to fiction than the stage. [1] He sailed to Europe in October 1924 to continue writing. From England he traveled to France, Italy and Switzerland.

On his return voyage in 1925, he met Aline Bernstein (1880–1955), a scene designer for the Theatre Guild. Twenty years his senior, she was married to a successful stockbroker with whom she had two children. In October 1925, she and Wolfe became lovers and remained so for five years. [7] Their affair was turbulent and sometimes combative, but she exerted a powerful influence, encouraging and funding his writing. [7]

Wolfe returned to Europe in the summer of 1926 and began writing the first version of an autobiographical novel titled O Lost. The narrative, which evolved into Look Homeward, Angel , fictionalized his early experiences in Asheville, and chronicled family, friends, and the boarders at his mother's establishment on Spruce Street. In the book, he renamed the town Altamont and called the boarding house "Dixieland". His family's surname became Gant, and Wolfe called himself Eugene, his father Oliver, and his mother Eliza. The original manuscript of O Lost was over 1100 pages (333,000 words) long, [8] [9] and considerably more experimental in style than the final version of Look Homeward, Angel. It was submitted to Scribner's, where the editing was done by Maxwell Perkins, the most prominent book editor of the time, who also worked with Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald. He cut the book to focus more on the character of Eugene, a stand-in for Wolfe. Wolfe initially expressed gratitude to Perkins for his disciplined editing, but he had misgivings later. It has been said that Wolfe found a father figure in Perkins, and that Perkins, who had five daughters, found in Wolfe a sort of foster son. [10]

The novel, which had been dedicated to Bernstein, was published 11 days before the stock market crash of 1929. [7] [11] Soon afterward, Wolfe returned to Europe and ended his affair with Bernstein. [10] The novel caused a stir in Asheville, with its over 200 thinly disguised local characters. [7] [12] [13] Wolfe chose to stay away from Asheville for eight years because of the uproar; he traveled to Europe for a year on a Guggenheim Fellowship. [7] [14] [15] Look Homeward, Angel was a bestseller in the United Kingdom and Germany. [11] Some members of Wolfe's family were upset with their portrayal in the book, but his sister Mabel wrote to him that she was sure he had the best of intentions. [16]

After four more years writing in Brooklyn, [15] the second novel Wolfe submitted to Scribner's was The October Fair, a multi-volume epic roughly the length of Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time . After considering the commercial possibilities of publishing the book in full, Perkins opted to cut it significantly and create a single volume. Titled Of Time and the River , it was more commercially successful than Look Homeward, Angel. [7] In an ironic twist, the citizens of Asheville were more upset this time because they hadn't been included. [17] The character of Esther Jack was based on Bernstein. [10] In 1934, Maxim Lieber served as his literary agent.

Wolfe was persuaded by Edward Aswell to leave Scribner's and sign with Harper & Brothers. [18] By some accounts, Perkins' severe editing of Wolfe's work is what prompted him to leave. [19] Others describe his growing resentment that some people attributed his success to Perkins' work as editor. [10] In 1936, Bernard DeVoto, reviewing The Story of a Novel for Saturday Review, wrote that Look Homeward, Angel was "hacked and shaped and compressed into something resembling a novel by Mr. Perkins and the assembly-line at Scribners". [20] [21]

Wolfe spent much time in Europe and was especially popular and at ease in Germany, where he made many friends. However, in 1936 he witnessed incidents of discrimination against Jews, which upset him and changed his mind about the political developments in the country. [21] He returned to America and published a story based on his observations ("I Have a Thing to Tell You") in The New Republic . [21] Following its publication, Wolfe's books were banned by the German government, and he was prohibited from traveling there. [21]

In 1937, Chickamauga, his short story set during the American Civil War battle of the same name, was published. [22] Wolfe returned to Asheville in early 1937 for the first time since publication of his first book. [21]

Death

In 1938, after submitting over one million words of manuscript to his new editor, Edward Aswell, Wolfe left New York for a tour of the Western United States. [23] On the way, he stopped at Purdue University and gave a lecture, "Writing and Living", and then spent two weeks traveling through 11 national parks in the West, the only part of the country he had never visited. [2] Wolfe wrote to Aswell that while he had focused on his family in his previous writing, he would now take a more global perspective. [24] In July, Wolfe became ill with pneumonia while visiting Seattle, spending three weeks in the hospital there. [16] His sister Mabel closed her boarding house in Washington, D.C. and went to Seattle to care for him. [16] Complications arose, and Wolfe was eventually diagnosed with miliary tuberculosis.

On September 6, he was sent to Baltimore's Johns Hopkins Hospital for treatment by the most famous neurosurgeon in the country, Walter Dandy, [16] but an operation revealed that the disease had overrun the entire right side of his brain. Without regaining consciousness, he died 18 days before his 38th birthday. A journal of his two-week trip through the national parks was found among his belongings. [24]

On his deathbed and shortly before lapsing into a coma Wolfe wrote a letter to Perkins: [25] He acknowledged that Perkins had helped to realize his work and had made his labors possible. In closing he wrote:

I shall always think of you and feel about you the way it was that Fourth of July day three years ago when you met me at the boat, and we went out on the cafe on the river and had a drink and later went on top of the tall building, and all the strangeness and the glory and the power of life and of the city was below. [26]

Wolfe was buried in Riverside Cemetery in Asheville, North Carolina, beside his parents and siblings.

After Wolfe's death, The New York Times wrote: "His was one of the most confident young voices in contemporary American literature, a vibrant, full-toned voice which it is hard to believe could be so suddenly stilled. The stamp of genius was upon him, though it was an undisciplined and unpredictable genius.... There was within him an unspent energy, an untiring force, an unappeasable hunger for life and for expression which might have carried him to the heights and might equally have torn him down." [2] Time wrote: "The death last week of Thomas Clayton Wolfe shocked critics with the realization that, of all American novelists of his generation, he was the one from whom most had been expected." [27]

Posthumous works

Wolfe saw less than half of his work published in his lifetime, there being much unpublished material remaining after his death. [28] He was the first American writer to leave two complete, unpublished novels in the hands of his publisher at death. [29] Two Wolfe novels, The Web and the Rock and You Can't Go Home Again , were edited posthumously by Edward Aswell of Harper & Brothers. The novels were "two of the longest one-volume novels ever written" (nearly 700 pages each). [29] In these novels, Wolfe changed the name of his autobiographical character from Eugene Gant to George Webber. [29]

O Lost, the original "author's cut" of Look Homeward, Angel, was reconstructed by F. Scott Fitzgerald scholar Matthew Bruccoli and published in 2000 on the centennial of Wolfe's birth. Bruccoli said that while Perkins was a talented editor, Look Homeward, Angel is inferior to the complete work of O Lost and that the publication of the complete novel "marks nothing less than the restoration of a masterpiece to the literary canon". [10]

Critical reception

Upon publication of Look Homeward, Angel, most reviewers responded favorably, including John Chamberlain, Carl Van Doren, and Stringfellow Barr. [30] Margaret Wallace wrote sneeringly in The New York Times Book Review that Wolfe had produced "as interesting and powerful a book as has ever been made out of the drab circumstances of provincial American life". [10] An anonymous review published in Scribner's magazine compared Wolfe to Walt Whitman, and many other reviewers and scholars have found similarities in their works since. [31]

When published in the UK in July 1930, the book received similar reviews. Richard Aldington wrote that the novel was "the product of an immense exuberance, organic in its form, kinetic, and drenched with the love of life... I rejoice over Mr. Wolfe". [32] Both in his 1930 Nobel Prize for Literature acceptance speech and original press conference announcement, Sinclair Lewis, the first American to win the Nobel Prize for literature, said of Wolfe, "He may have a chance to be the greatest American writer.... In fact I don't see why he should not be one of the greatest world writers." [33]

Upon publication of his second novel, Of Time and the River, most reviewers and the public remained supportive, though some critics found shortcomings while still hailing it for moments or aspects of greatness. [15] The book was well received by the public and became his only American bestseller. [15] The publication was viewed as "the literary event of 1935"; by comparison, the earlier attention given to Look Homeward, Angel was modest. [34] Both The New York Times and New York Herald Tribune published enthusiastic front-page reviews. [34] Clifton Fadiman wrote in The New Yorker that while he wasn't sure what he thought of the book, "for decades we have not had eloquence like his in American writing". [34] Malcolm Cowley of The New Republic thought the book would be twice as good if half as long, but stated Wolfe was "the only contemporary writer who can be mentioned in the same breath as Dickens and Dostoevsky". [34] Robert Penn Warren thought Wolfe produced some brilliant fragments from which "several fine novels might be written". He went on to say: "And meanwhile it may be well to recollect that Shakespeare merely wrote Hamlet ; he was not Hamlet." [34] Warren also praised Wolfe in the same review, though, as did John Donald Wade in a separate review. [35]

While acclaimed during his lifetime as one of the most important American writers, comparable to F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, or William Faulkner, [21] Wolfe's reputation has been "all but destroyed" since his death, [10] [21] although The New York Times wrote in 2003 that Wolfe's reputation and related scholarship appeared to be on an "upswing". [36] He is often left out of college courses and anthologies devoted to great writers. [21] Faulkner and W. J. Cash listed Wolfe as the ablest writer of their generation, although Faulkner later qualified his praise. [37] Despite his early admiration of Wolfe's work, Faulkner later decided that his novels were "like an elephant trying to do the hoochie-coochie". Ernest Hemingway's verdict was that Wolfe was "the over-bloated Li'l Abner of literature". [38]

Legacy

Southerner and Harvard historian David Herbert Donald's biography of Wolfe, Look Homeward, won the Pulitzer Prize for Biography in 1988.

Wolfe inspired the works of many other authors, including Betty Smith with A Tree Grows in Brooklyn , Robert Morgan, author of Gap Creek , and Prince of Tides author Pat Conroy, who has said, "My writing career began the instant I finished Look Homeward, Angel." [4] [39] [40] Jack Kerouac idolized Wolfe. [41] Ray Bradbury was influenced by Wolfe, and included him as a character in his books. [42] Earl Hamner, Jr., who went on to create the popular television series The Waltons , idolized Wolfe in his youth. [43]

Hunter S. Thompson credits Wolfe for his famous phrase "Fear and Loathing" (on page 62 of The Web and the Rock ). [44]

In the film Genius —a biographical drama about Max Perkins released in the summer of 2016—Wolfe is portrayed by Academy Award–nominated actor Jude Law. [45]

Archives

Two universities hold the primary archival collections of Thomas Wolfe materials in the United States: the Thomas Clayton Wolfe Papers at Harvard University's Houghton Library, which includes all of Wolfe's manuscripts, [5] and the Thomas Wolfe Collections in the North Carolina Collection at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Each October, at the time of Wolfe's birthday, UNC-Chapel Hill presents the annual Thomas Wolfe Prize and Lecture to a contemporary writer, with past recipients including Roy Blount, Jr., Robert Morgan, and Pat Conroy. [46]

Tributes

Return of an Angel, a play by Sandra Mason, explores the reactions of Wolfe's family and the citizens of his hometown of Asheville to the publication of Look Homeward, Angel. The play was staged several times near the Thomas Wolfe Memorial, in the month of October, to commemorate his birthday. Pack Memorial Library in Asheville hosts the Thomas Wolfe Collection which "honors Asheville's favorite son". [47] The Western North Carolina Historical Association has presented the Thomas Wolfe Memorial Literary Award yearly since 1955 for a literary achievement of the previous year. [48] The Thomas Wolfe Society celebrates Wolfe's writings and publishes an annual review about Wolfe's work. [39] The United States Postal Service honored Wolfe with a postage stamp on the occasion of what would have been Wolfe's 100th birthday in 2000. [39]

Historic landmarks

The "Old Kentucky Home" was donated by Wolfe's family as the Thomas Wolfe Memorial and has been open to visitors since the 1950s, owned by the state of North Carolina since 1976 and designated as a National Historic Landmark. [36] Wolfe called it "Dixieland" in Look homeward, Angel. [49] In 1998, 200 of the house's 800 original artifacts and the house's dining room were destroyed by a fire set by an arsonist during the Bele Chere street festival. The perpetrator remains unknown. [36] After a $2.4 million restoration, the house was re-opened in 2003. [36]

A cabin built by Wolfe's friend Max Whitson in 1924 near Azalea Road was designated as a historic landmark by the Asheville City Council in 1982. Thomas Wolfe Cabin, as it is called, was where Wolfe spent the summer of 1937 in his last visit to the city. [49] In a letter to F. Scott Fitzgerald, Wolfe said, "I am going into the woods. I am going to try to do the best, the most important piece of work I have ever done", referring to October Fair, which became The Web and the Rock and You Can't Go Home Again. He also wrote "The Party at Jack's" while at the cabin in the Oteen community. [50] The city bought the property, including a larger house, from John Moyer in 2001. As of 2017, renovation is being considered and work has been done on the cabin. [49]

The Thomas Wolfe Society

The Thomas Wolfe Society, [51] established in the late 1970s, issues an annual publication of Wolfe-related materials, and its journal, The Thomas Wolfe Review features scholarly articles, belles lettres, and reviews. The Society also awards prizes for literary scholarship on Wolfe.

Adaptations

In 1958, Ketti Frings adapted Look Homeward, Angel into a play of the same name. It ran on Broadway for 564 performances at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre, received six Tony Award nominations, and won the 1958 Pulitzer Prize for Drama. Frings was named "Woman of the Year" by The Los Angeles Times in the same year. [15] In 1972, it was presented as a television drama, as was Of Time and the River in a one-hour version. [15]

Wolfe's play Welcome to Our City was performed twice at Harvard during his graduate school years, in Zurich in German during the 1950s, and by the Mint Theater in New York City in 2000 in celebration of Wolfe's 100th birthday.[51]

Wolfe's relationship with his editor, Maxwell Perkins was made into a movie titled Genius in 2016 in which Jude Law and Colin Firth played the roles of Wolfe and Perkins respectively.

Works

Look Homeward, Angel and Of Time and the River were published as Armed Services Editions during WWII.

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 Reeves, Paschal (1974) [1974]. Thomas Wolfe, The Critical Reception. Ayer Publishing. p. xvii. ISBN   0-89102-050-0.
  2. 1 2 3 "Thomas Wolfe's Final Journal". Virginia Quarterly Review. August 14, 2009. Archived from the original on December 7, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  3. "The Book That Made Me A Reader: Philip Roth". centerforfiction.org. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
  4. 1 2 "2008 Thomas Wolfe Prize". Cornell University. September 9, 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 "Bio". UNC Wilmington Library. Archived from the original on October 17, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  6. Thomas Wolfe’s ‘Angel’ of Death Archived November 19, 2010, at the Wayback Machine , New York Times blog - May 1, 2009
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Thomas Wolfe Timeline". Wolfe Memorial. Archived from the original on November 20, 2012. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  8. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 23, 2016. Retrieved February 25, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. Bruccoli, Matthew (2004) [2004]. The Sons of Maxwell Perkins: Letters of F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Thomas Wolfe, and Their Editor. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press. p. xviii.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Smith, Dinitia (October 2, 2000). "Looking Homeward To Thomas Wolfe; An Uncut Version of His First Novel Is to Be Published on His Centenary". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  11. 1 2 Reeves, Paschal (1974) [1974]. Thomas Wolfe, The Critical Reception. Ayer Publishing. p. xix. ISBN   0-89102-050-0.
  12. Horace Kephart and Thomas Wolfe's "abomination," Look Homeward, Angel, Thomas Wolfe Review - 2006
  13. Margaret E. Roberts (Mrs. John Munsey Roberts), Buncombe County Library Archived December 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  14. "Thomas Wolfe". North Carolina Department of Archives and History. Archived from the original on April 16, 2010. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Reeves, Paschal (1974) [1974]. Thomas Wolfe, The Critical Reception. Ayer Publishing. p. xxii. ISBN   0-89102-050-0.
  16. 1 2 3 4 "His Sister Knew Tom Wolfe Well". The Charlotte News. July 30, 1939. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  17. "Tom Wolfe: Penance No More". Virginia Quarterly Review. Spring 1939. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  18. "Edward C. Aswell Papers on Thomas Wolfe". North Carolina University at the Louis Round Special Collections Library. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
  19. "Thomas Wolfe's "Old Catawba"". Virginia Quarterly Review. July 8, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  20. David Donald, Look Homeward (1987), 376-7
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Roberts, Terry (2000). "Resurrecting Thomas Wolfe". Southern Literary Journal. 33 (1): 27–41.
  22. Foote, Shelby, ed. (1993). Chickamauga, and other Civil War Stories. ISBN   0-385-31100-1.
  23. "A Western Journey". Virginia Quarterly Review. Summer 1939. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  24. 1 2 "Notes on 'A Western Journey'". Virginia Quarterly Review. Summer 1939. Archived from the original on December 8, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  25. "Thomas Wolfe Memorial: Maxwell Perkins". NC Historic Sites. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  26. North Carolina Office of Archives and History - A Brief Biography of Thomas Wolfe Archived September 17, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  27. "Books: Unpredictable Imagination" . Time . September 26, 1938. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  28. Reeves, Paschal (1974) [1974]. Thomas Wolfe, The Critical Reception. Ayer Publishing. p. xviii. ISBN   0-89102-050-0.
  29. 1 2 3 "Books: Burning, Burning, Burning" . Time. September 23, 1940. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  30. Reeves, Paschal (1974) [1974]. Thomas Wolfe, The Critical Reception. Ayer Publishing. pp. xx–xxi. ISBN   0-89102-050-0.
  31. "Walt Whitman's and Thomas Wolfe's Treatment of the American Landscape". Valdosta University. Archived from the original on February 23, 2012. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  32. Mitchell, Ted (2006). Thomas Wolfe: An Illustrated Biography. Pegasus Books. p. 140. ISBN   1-933648-10-4.
  33. "Books: U. S. Voice" . Time. March 12, 1935. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 Reeves, Paschal (1974) [1974]. Thomas Wolfe, The Critical Reception. Ayer Publishing. p. xxiii. ISBN   0-89102-050-0.
  35. Bradley, Patricia L. (Spring 2006). "Robert Penn Warren, Thomas Wolfe, and the Problem of Autobiography" (PDF). The South Carolina Review . 38 (2): 136–145. Retrieved May 27, 2018.
  36. 1 2 3 4 Blumenthal, Ralph (June 5, 2003). "A House Restored, An Author Revisited; Thomas Wolfe Shrine Returns". The New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 2009.
  37. "Immortality in Words: On Living Forever". The Charlotte News. October 16, 1938. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  38. Wetzsteon, Ross, "Republic of Dreams Greenwich Village: The American Bohemia 1910-1960, Simon & Schuster, 2003, p. 415
  39. 1 2 3 Mitchell, Ted (2006). Thomas Wolfe: An Illustrated Biography. Pegasus Books. p. 334. ISBN   1-933648-10-4.
  40. "1943 Publication of A Tree Grows In Brooklyn: Betty Smith and Harper & Brothers". NJIT. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  41. "The Town and the City". City Lights Bookstore & Publishers. Retrieved November 11, 2009.
  42. Reid, Robin Anne (2000). Ray Bradbury: A Critical Companion. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 11. ISBN   0-313-30901-9.
  43. "Earl Hamner Jr., Creator of 'The Waltons', Dies at 92". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  44. Klein, Joe (November 18, 2007). "Forever Weird". The New York Times .
  45. "Colin Firth, Nicole Kidman and Jude Law begin filming 'Genius' in Manchester, UK". On Location Vacations. October 27, 2014. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
  46. "About the Thomas Wolfe Prize and Lecture". University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. Archived from the original on March 30, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  47. Buncombe County Public Libraries Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  48. "Fairview author Bruce E. Johnson receives Thomas Wolfe Memorial Literary Award in Asheville". Asheville Citizen-Times. October 21, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2009.[ dead link ]
  49. 1 2 3 Boyle, John (March 14, 2017). "Answer Man: Historic Thomas Wolfe cabin set for rehab?". Asheville Citizen-Times . Retrieved March 16, 2017.
  50. Neufeld, Rob (May 8, 2017). "Visiting Our Past: Preserving Wolfe's Asheville legacy". Asheville Citizen-Times. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  51. Thomas Wolfe Society Archived October 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine website
  52. Thomas Wolfe in eNotes, Retrieved September 3, 2012

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The Great Gatsby is a 1925 novel written by American author F. Scott Fitzgerald that follows a cast of characters living in the fictional towns of West Egg and East Egg on prosperous Long Island in the summer of 1922. The story primarily concerns the young and mysterious millionaire Jay Gatsby and his quixotic passion and obsession with the beautiful former debutante Daisy Buchanan. Considered to be Fitzgerald's magnum opus, The Great Gatsby explores themes of decadence, idealism, resistance to change, social upheaval and excess, creating a portrait of the Roaring Twenties that has been described as a cautionary tale regarding the American Dream.

Zelda Fitzgerald Novelist, wife of F. Scott Fitzgerald

Zelda Fitzgerald was an American novelist, socialite, painter and wife of author F. Scott Fitzgerald.

Maxwell Perkins book editor

William Maxwell Evarts "Max" Perkins was an American book editor, best remembered for discovering authors Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald and Thomas Wolfe.

Matthew Joseph Bruccoli was an American professor of English at the University of South Carolina. He was the preeminent expert on F. Scott Fitzgerald. He also wrote about writers such as Ernest Hemingway, Thomas Wolfe and John O'Hara, and was editor of the Dictionary of Literary Biography.

<i>This Side of Paradise</i> novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald

This Side of Paradise is the debut novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald, published in 1920. The book examines the lives and morality of post–World War I youth. Its protagonist Amory Blaine is an attractive student at Princeton University who dabbles in literature. The novel explores the theme of love warped by greed and status seeking, and takes its title from a line of Rupert Brooke's poem Tiare Tahiti. The novel famously helped F. Scott Fitzgerald gain Zelda Sayre's hand in marriage; its publication was her condition of acceptance.

Bernard DeVoto American historian and author

Bernard Augustine DeVoto, American historian, essayist, columnist, teacher, editor, and reviewer, was a lifelong champion of American Public lands and the conservation of public resources as well as an outspoken defender of civil liberties. He was the author of a series of Pulitzer-Prize-winning popular histories of the American West and for many years wrote The Easy Chair, an influential column in Harper's Magazine. DeVoto also wrote several well-regarded novels and during the 1950s served as a speech-writer for Adlai Stevenson. His friend and biographer, Wallace Stegner described Devoto as "flawed, brilliant, provocative, outrageous, ... often wrong, often spectacularly right, always stimulating, sometimes infuriating, and never, never dull."

<i>The Town and the City</i> novel by Jack Kerouac

The Town and the City is a novel by Jack Kerouac, published by Harcourt Brace in 1950. This was the first major work published by Kerouac, who later became famous for his second novel On the Road (1957). Like all of Jack Kerouac's major works, The Town and the City is essentially an autobiographical novel, though less directly so than most of his other works. The Town and the City was written in a conventional manner over a period of years, and much more novelistic license was taken with this work than after Kerouac's adoption of quickly written "spontaneous prose". The Town and the City was written before Kerouac had developed his own style, and it is heavily influenced by Thomas Wolfe.

Aline Bernstein American stage and costume designer

Aline Bernstein was an American set designer and costume designer. She and Irene Lewisohn founded the Museum of Costume Art. Bernstein was the lover, patron, and muse of novelist Thomas Wolfe.

<i>Angel</i> (musical) 1970s Broadway musical

Angel is a Broadway musical that opened at the Minskoff Theatre in New York on May 4, 1978.

<i>You Cant Go Home Again</i> book by Thomas Wolfe

You Can't Go Home Again is a novel by Thomas Wolfe published posthumously in 1940, extracted by his editor, Edward Aswell, from the contents of his vast unpublished manuscript The October Fair.

F. Scott Fitzgerald American novelist and screenwriter

Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald was an American fiction writer, whose works helped to illustrate the flamboyance and excess of the Jazz Age. While he achieved popular success, fame, and fortune in his lifetime, he did not receive much critical acclaim until after his death. Perhaps the most notable member of the "Lost Generation" of the 1920s, Fitzgerald is now widely regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century. He finished four novels: This Side of Paradise, The Beautiful and Damned, The Great Gatsby, and Tender Is the Night. A fifth, unfinished novel, The Last Tycoon, was published posthumously. Four collections of his short stories were published, as well as 164 short stories in magazines during his lifetime.

<i>Look Homeward, Angel</i> (play) play written by Ketti Frings

Look Homeward, Angel is a 1957 stage play by the playwright Ketti Frings. The play is based on Thomas Wolfe's largely autobiographical novel of the same title, which was published in 1929.

Altamont may refer to:

"The Rich Boy" is a short story by American writer F. Scott Fitzgerald. It was included in his 1926 collection All the Sad Young Men.

<i>The Web and the Rock</i> book by Thomas Wolfe

The Web and the Rock is an American bildungsroman novel by Thomas Wolfe, published posthumously in the 1939. Like its sequel, You Can't Go Home Again it was extracted by Edward Aswell from a larger manuscript after Wolfe's death.

Edward Aswell American editor

Edward Campbell Aswell was a 20th-century American editor. He was Thomas Wolfe's last editor and edited Wolfe's three posthumous books. This required considerable editorial work as the manuscripts were not in publishable form at Wolfe's death, but how much credit for the resulting three books devolves to Wolfe, and how much to Aswell, remains a subject of dispute.

<i>Genius</i> (2016 film) 2016 film by Michael Grandage

Genius is a 2016 British-American biographical drama film directed by Michael Grandage and written by John Logan, based on the 1978 National Book Award-winner Max Perkins: Editor of Genius by A. Scott Berg. The film stars Colin Firth, Jude Law, Nicole Kidman, Dominic West, and Guy Pearce. It was selected to compete for the Golden Bear at the 66th Berlin International Film Festival.

<i>Look Homeward: A Life of Thomas Wolfe</i>

Look Homeward: A Life of Thomas Wolfe is a 1987 biography of Thomas Wolfe by David Herbert Donald. It won the 1988 Pulitzer Prize in Biography.