|Thomas Woolsey Thorne|
|Born|| June 1823|
Newburgh, New York, United States
|Died|| March 20, 1885 61) (aged|
Manhattan, New York
|Cause of death||Apoplexy|
|Resting place||Woodlawn Cemetery|
|Known for||NYPD police inspector credited for breaking up the Daybreak Boys; helped defend the New York Tribune during the New York Draft Riots.|
Thomas Woolsey Thorne (June 1823-March 20, 1885) was an American law enforcement officer and police inspector for the New York City Police Department. He is credited for breaking up the Daybreak Boys, a gang of river pirates active along the New York waterfront during the 1850s, by closing their dive bar headquarters in Slaughter House Point. He is also one of the commanding officers during the Draft Riots of 1863, in charge of the City Hall Police, and helped defend the New York Tribune .
The City of New York Police Department, more commonly known as the New York Police Department and its initials NYPD, is the primary law enforcement and investigation agency within the City of New York, New York in the United States. Established on May 23, 1845, the NYPD is one of the oldest police departments in the United States, and is the largest police force in the United States. The NYPD headquarters is at 1 Police Plaza, located on Park Row in Lower Manhattan across the street from City Hall. The department's mission is to "enforce the laws, preserve the peace, reduce fear, and provide for a safe environment." The NYPD's regulations are compiled in title 38 of the New York City Rules. The New York City Transit Police and New York City Housing Authority Police Department were fully integrated into the NYPD in 1995 by New York City Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani.
The Daybreak Boys was a New York City street gang during the mid nineteenth century.
Dive bar is a colloquial American term for a disreputable bar or pub. It may also refer to a neighborhood bar where local residents gather to drink and socialize.
Born near Newburgh in Orange County, New York in June 1823, his father was a well-to-do farmer and his mother was a member of the prominent Woolsey family. He moved to New York City as a young man and worked as a house and ship carpenter. For a time, he was the assistant stage carpenter at the old Bowery Theater, now the Thalia Theater, and was involved in the construction of early steamboats on the Hudson River.
Orange County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 372,813. The county seat is Goshen. This county was first created in 1683 and reorganized with its present boundaries in 1798.
The Hudson River is a 315-mile (507 km) river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New York Bay between New York City and Jersey City. It eventually drains into the Atlantic Ocean at New York Harbor. The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York at its southern end. Further north, it marks local boundaries between several New York counties. The lower half of the river is a tidal estuary, deeper than the body of water into which it flows, occupying the Hudson Fjord, an inlet which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Tidal waters influence the Hudson's flow from as far north as the city of Troy.
He first lived in the Thirteenth Ward and became active in Whig politics. In 1851, he was appointed a watchman for the revenue service and subsequently became a Custom House Inspector. On July 25, 1853, Thorne became an officer in the Municipal police force and was assigned to the Thirteenth Ward under the command of Captain Thomas S. Steers, father of Captain Henry V. Steers of the City Hall Police. That same year, he was elected by the rank-and-file officers to represent them when speaking to the Board of Commissioners over concerns over "an expensive and fantasical uniform". Although he himself was an early critic, he agreed to wear the new design and later became a strong supporter of the new uniforms.When the Metropolitan Police Department was formed in 1817, Thorne was among the majority of the old Municipals under then Mayor Fernando Wood who left to join the new police force.
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. Four presidents belonged to the party while in office. It emerged in the 1830s as the leading opponent of Jacksonian democracy, pulling together former members of the National Republican and the Anti-Masonic Party. It had links to the upscale traditions of the long-defunct Federalist Party. Along with the rival Democratic Party, it was central to the Second Party System from the early 1840s to the mid-1860s. It originally formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. In particular, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization, banking and economic protectionism to stimulate manufacturing. It appealed to entrepreneurs, planters, reformers and the emerging urban middle class, but had little appeal to farmers or unskilled workers. It included many active Protestants and voiced a moralistic opposition to the Jacksonian Indian removal. Party founders chose the "Whig" name to echo the American Whigs of the 18th century who fought for independence. The political philosophy of the American Whig Party was not related to the British Whig party. Historian Frank Towers has specified a deep ideological divide:
Fernando Wood was an American politician of the Democratic Party and the 73rd and 75th mayor of New York City; he also served as a United States Representative and as Chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means in both the 45th and 46th Congress (1877–1881).
He officially joined the Metropolitan police on April 23, 1857 as a patrolman and, within a month, he had won promotion to sergeant. He eventually left the Thirteenth Ward and was stationed in Seventh, Eleventh and Thirteenth Precincts. He became a police captain on September 16, 1861, and was posted to the Fourth Precinct. The precinct was notorious for its corruption and was referred to as "a resort of thieves and desperados of the worst kind".It was around this time that Thorne closed the headquarters of the Daybreak Boys, a dive bar located in Slaughter House Point, which contributed to the eventual break up of the river pirates and went a long way in cleaning up the New York waterfront.
Within a year, Thorne had cleaned the precinct and was reassigned to the Twenty-Sixth Precinct, located in the basement of New York City Hall. He was still in command of the precinct at the time of the New York Draft Riots in 1863, and had five officers dress in civilian clothes to move freely among the rioters and inform of their plans.
New York City Hall, the seat of New York City government, is located at the center of City Hall Park in the Civic Center area of Lower Manhattan, between Broadway, Park Row, and Chambers Street. The building is the oldest city hall in the United States that still houses its original governmental functions, such as the office of the Mayor of New York City and the chambers of the New York City Council. While the Mayor's Office is in the building, the staff of thirteen municipal agencies under mayoral control are located in the nearby Manhattan Municipal Building, one of the largest government buildings in the world.
On the first night of the riot, he set out from City Hall to relieve the besieged defenders of the New York Tribune . He was met at Printing House Square by Captain Jacob B. Warlow and his squad, returning from a tour of the New York waterfront, and decided to combine forces. With around 100 patrolmen, he and Captain Warlow led their squad against the mob attacking the offices of the New York Tribune. They attacked from the rear, quickly clearing the building of rioters and putting out small fires which had been set, and the mob fled in disorder up Park Row and into City Hall Park where they were met by another police squad under Police Inspectors Daniel C. Carpenter and John S. Folk.
Jacob B. Warlow was an American law enforcement officer, detective and police captain in the New York Police Department. A twenty-year veteran, he led police squads against rioters on the New York waterfront and later defended the New York Tribune during the New York Draft Riot of 1863.
Park Row is a street located in the Financial District, Civic Center, and Chinatown neighborhoods of the New York City borough of Manhattan. The street runs east-west, sometimes called north-south because the western end is nearer to Downtown Manhattan. At the north end of Park Row is the confluence of Bowery, East Broadway, St. James Place, Oliver Street, Mott Street, and Worth Street at Chatham Square. At the street's south end, Broadway, Vesey Street, Barclay Street, and Ann Street intersect. The intersection includes a bus turnaround loop designated as Millennium Park. Park Row was once known as Chatham Street; it was renamed Park Row in 1886, a reference to the fact that it faces City Hall Park, the former New York Common.
Daniel C. Carpenter was an American law enforcement officer and police inspector of the New York Police Department. He was one of earliest leading detectives on the police force during the mid-19th century and also had a prominent role in the Police Riot of 1857 and New York Draft Riots in 1863. His successful defeat of the rioters was the largest, and perhaps most crucial, battle during the riot. Fought in front of the Metropolitan Police headquarters, Carpenter's victory saved the New York financial district from falling into the hands of the rioters.
In late 1866, Thorne returned to the Fourth Precinct to take over command from Captain Bryan, who had resigned his post, before returning to City Hall on July 2, 1869. Following the removal of Police Inspector William Jameson from office, on April 20, 1872, Thorne was appointed as his replacement. He held this position until May 31 when he resigned to head the Street Cleaning Bureau. Then under the jurisdiction of the NYPD, the laws were changed a year later to allow a police officer to oversee the bureau and, on February 14, 1873, Thorne was reinstated on the NYPD being promoted from patrolman to sergeant and then captain all in one day. This was considered at the time to be the most rapid rise in rank in the history on the police force.
Thorne remained in charge of the Street Cleaning Bureau and, following his promotion to police inspector, he was assigned to the Third District after the reorganization of the inspection districts in 1875. The area then comprised the eastern half of the city above Forty-Second Street. It was while in command of the district that headed the investigation into the murder of Abraham Weisberger, a Jewish peddler, whose body had been found in Lydig's Woods. Three African-Americans, William Thomas, William Watson and Charles Ellis, were convicted of the murder and hanged at The Tombs on December 17, 1875. The Board of Commissioners credited Thorne for his conduct of the high-profile case.In riots during the summer of 1877, he commanded a 400-man reserve police force, both patrolman and mounted police, in support of Police Inspector William Murray and Captain Thomas F. Byrnes.
He was subsequently transferred to the First Inspection District and remained there until his replacement by Inspector William Murray. Returning to the Third District, on the appointment of Inspector Byrnes, the Third and Fourth Districts were consolidated and placed under the command of Inspector George W. Dilks. Thorne was then put in charge of the Third District, which comprised the west side of the city below Forty-Second Street, and remained there for the rest of his career. It was while commander of the precinct that he became concerned over accusations of illegal gambling in the Twenty-Second Precinct and, although these charges were primarily directed towards then Captain Alexander S. Williams, it was Williams acquittal of these charges that indirectly vindicated him.
Thorne had married twice, having a son and daughter from the first marriage, before marrying a wealthy young widow in 1873. His brother-in-law from the latter marriage was old time yachtman Commodore Charles Cheesebrough. Although there was no issue by this second marriage, the two lived together for the next 12 years.
In 1884, he and Captain Alexander "Clubber" Williams attended a boxing match between John L. Sullivan and Greenfield at Madison Square Garden. Under orders from Mayor Edson, Walling closed the fight and had Thorne and Williams arrest both men.On January 19, 1885, Thorne was again involved in controversy when he was assigned as the police supervisor in a boxing match between John L. Sullivan and Paddy Ryan at Madison Square Garden. He had been ordered by New York Mayor William R. Grace to stop the match "at the slightest hint of violence", 30 seconds into the first round, he "stamped into the ring, seized Ryan by the feet and ended the match".
On the afternoon of March 19, 1885, Thorne left his precinct to attend a meeting with the Superintendent George W. Walling and other Inspectors. He remained on duty at police headquarters until 7:15 am when he left the building to return to his office on East Twenty-Ninth Street. On his way uptown, he stopped by the Mercer police station to visit Captain John J. Brogan. After having breakfast, Thorne finally arrived at his office and received the reports of the Captains of the Second Inspection District. He then started out for the Twenty-Ninth Street station house but fell seriously ill at the corner of Broadway and Twenty-Ninth Street.
He walked into the nearby Lindo Brothers jewelry store where he told one of the owners, David Lindo, that he felt sick. He asked for some brandy and, when it failed to revive him, a Dr. Hunt was called from West Twenty-Ninth Street. Thorne, at his suggestion, was brought to a back room while a messenger brought back a sergeant and detective from the West Thirteenth police station. He asked that his wife be sent for, however he died before her arrival 20 minutes after he had entered the store. His body was removed to his home on West Fourteenth Street.His funeral was organized by Captain Williams on his family's behalf and held in the front parlor of his home three days later. When the funeral procession began, around 1,100 policemen had formed in line stretching from Eight to Sixth Avenue. Three police battalions under Captains Theron S. Copeland, Anthony J. Allaire and George Washburn escorted his body to the Calvary Baptist Church for the funeral. Superintendent Walling, Inspectors Thomas F. Byrnes, George W. Dilks and William Murray, and Captains William H. Clinchy, Joseph B. Eakins, Thomas Killilea and John J. Mount walked alongside the hearse as pallbearers. The funeral procession included 16 carriages carrying Thorne's family and friends as well as a delegation from the Mecca Temple of the Mystic Shrine led by Potentate Walter M. Flemming. The Temple, together with the Palestine Commandery of the Knights Templar and the Eureka Lodge, later received his body for burial at Woodlawn Cemetery.
Alexander S. Williams was an American law enforcement officer and police inspector for the New York City Police Department. One of the more colorful yet controversial figures of the NYPD, popularly known as "Clubber Williams" or "Czar of the Tenderloin", he oversaw the Tenderloin and Gas House districts as well as breaking up a number of the city's street gangs, most notably, the Gas House Gang in 1871. He, along with William "Big Bill" Devery and Thomas F. Byrnes, were among several senior NYPD officials implicated by the Lexow Committee during the 1890s.
John G. Bergen was an American public servant and New York City Police Commissioner. A member and treasurer of the Board of Police Commissioners, he and Thomas Coxon Acton assumed command of the NYPD during the New York Draft Riots after Superintendent John Kennedy was injured at the hands of a mob.
Francis J. Banfield was an American soldier, law enforcement officer, police sergeant and founding member of the New York City Police Department "Steamboat Squad". Born in England, he emigrated to the United States as a child. He worked as a painter in his youth and later served in the Mexican-American War. He lived in California for a time before returning the New York to join the police force in June 1857.
John Cameron was an American law enforcement officer and police captain with the New York City Police Department. Although best remembered for his performance during the New York Draft Riots, Cameron was one of the most prominent senior police officials during the post-American Civil War era and the oldest serving police officer at the time of his death in 1873.
Maximilian Frances Schmittberger was an American law enforcement officer and chief police inspector for the New York City Police Department from 1909 until his death in 1917. He and Captain John Price were both wardmen closely associated with Inspector Alexander "Clubber" Williams while a precinct captain in the Tenderloin district. Schmittberger later became a star witness testifying before the Lexow Committee on police corruption within the NYPD.
James Z. Bogart was an American law enforcement officer and police captain with the New York City Police Department. A member of the old Municipal police force, he joined the Metropolitan Police Department upon its formation in 1857. From his official appointment on April 23, 1857, Bogart rose from roundsman, to sergeant and finally captain within only a few years. He served in a number of important posts throughout the city, including the Twelfth, Twenty-Second and Thirty-First Precincts.
John F. Dickson was an American public servant, law enforcement officer and police captain with the New York City Police Department. He and drillmaster Theron S. Copeland led a police squad during the New York Draft Riots which were dispatched against rioters attacking African-Americans. He was also the longtime head of the Tombs Police Court and one of the oldest serving police officers on the police force at the time of his death in 1880.
John D. Coughlin was an American law enforcement officer, detective and police inspector in the New York City Police Department. He served as head of the NYPD detectives division from 1920 until 1928 when he was removed from office amid charges of police laxity following the murder of underworld figure Arnold Rothstein.
John H. McCullagh was an American law enforcement officer and police captain in the New York City Police Department. Popularly known as "Farmer John", he was a protégé of Captains Jeremiah Petty and George W. Walling and battled such notorious gangs and river pirates such as the Tub of Blood Bunch, the Battle Row and Hell's Kitchen Gangs. He especially confronting the latter gang when their leaders Ike Marsh and Dutch Heinrichs began raiding the Hudson River Railroad yards and express trains. McCullagh is also credited for the breakup of Shang Draper's criminal organization in the early 1880s.
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Charles McDonnell was an American law enforcement officer and police captain in the New York City Police Department. Popularly known as "Lightning Charlie", he was responsible for a number of high-profile arrests during the 1870s/80s, including those of procuress Jane the Grabber and gambler Samuel S. Brewster.
Galen T. Porter was an American law enforcement officer and police captain in the New York City Police Department. One of the senior police commanders during the New York Draft Riots, he helped defend the Third Avenue draft office and later headed the Nineteenth Precinct.
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Francis C. Speight was an American law enforcement officer and police inspector for the New York City Police Department. A noted crimefighter, credited for running out the criminal elements from Manhattan's Eighteenth and Nineteenth Wards in the 1850s, he also took part in the Police Riot of 1857 and New York Draft Riots of 1863. Prior to the outbreak of violence at the Third Avenue draft office, Speight was the only officer to maintain control of his station, the Broadway draft office, during the early hours of the riots.
John S. Folk was an American law enforcement officer in New York City during mid-to late 19th century. A prominent police official during the early years of the Municipal Police Department, Folk served as the first police chief of the Brooklyn Municipal Police from 1851 to 1865, NYPD police inspector until 1870 and police superintendent from 1873 to 1875. He was also a participant in the Bread Riot of 1837, the Angel Gabriel riot of 1854 and the Draft Riot of 1863, helping defend both the offices of the New York Tribune and the Brooklyn Eagle from rioters.
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