Thomas Wright Everett (November 4, 1823 – September 4, 1895) was an early American resident of the Kingdom of Hawaii who served as the last Governor of Maui from 1892 to 1893.
The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi originated in 1795 with the unification of the independent islands of Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Maui, Molokaʻi, and Lānaʻi under one government. In 1810, the whole Hawaiian Islands became unified when Kauaʻi and Niʻihau joined the Kingdom of Hawai‘i voluntarily and without bloodshed or war. Two major dynastic families ruled the kingdom: the House of Kamehameha and the House of Kalākaua.
The Governor of Maui was the royal governor or viceroy of the Island of Maui in the Kingdom of Hawaii. The Governor of Maui resided at Lahaina and was usually a Hawaiian chief or prince and could even be a woman. The governor had authority over four of the eight islands: Maui, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and Kahoʻolawe. It was up to the governor to appoint lieutenant governors to assist them. The governor had replaced the old Moʻi of Maui, but sovereignty remained with the king. The island governors were under the jurisdiction of the Ministers of the Interiors.
Everett was born in Boston, Massachusetts on November 4, 1823, to Thomas Everett (1791–1837), a Boston merchant from Dorchester, and Nancy Williams Wright (1789–1858). He was a descendant of American pioneer Richard Everett, founder of the city of Springfield and the town of Dedham. After finishing school, he learned the printer's trade at West Brookfield and in 1848, he returned to Boston to work. In 1849, he traveled to San Francisco aboard the bark Orb to take part in the California Gold Rush. However, on November 15, 1849, he left California and traveled to Honolulu in the Kingdom of Hawaii aboard the bark Memnom. In Hawaii, he started life as a trader and sold produce and supplies to visiting American whaling ships.
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles (124 km2) with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it also the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999. The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area (CSA), this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States.
Massachusetts, officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, and is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, which is also the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.
Dorchester is a Boston neighborhood comprising more than 6 square miles (16 km2) in the City of Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Originally, Dorchester was a separate town, founded by Puritans who emigrated in 1630 from Dorchester, Dorset, England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. This dissolved municipality, Boston's largest neighborhood by far, is often divided by city planners in order to create two planning areas roughly equivalent in size and population to other Boston neighborhoods.
He later settled on the island of Maui, and married Ellen Richardson (1824–1890), the daughter of George Richardson, on February 8, 1860, at Lahaina. They did not have any children, but he adopted many orphaned relatives of his wife.Residing in the Kingdom of Hawaii for the remainder of his life, Everett held the position deputy sheriff and sheriff of the island of Maui for more than forty years. He also co-owned the Ulupalakua Ranch, which produced potatoes, flour, wheat corn and other produce, and a homestead in Waikapu. On May 17, 1892. Queen Liliuokalani appointed Everett to the restored office of Governor of Maui. The office of governors had been abolished by the legislature of the Kingdom after the Bayonet Constitution of 1887. Prior to this, the position was last held by Robert Hoapili Baker, a high chief and royal favorite of King Kalākaua. Everett presided as the Governor of Maui and the adjacent islands of Molokai and Lanai. He did not hold the post for long. After the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii in January 1893, the Provisional Government of Hawaii passed an act abolishing the island governorships again; this act passed on February 27 and went into effect on February 28.
The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles (1,883 km2) and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's four islands, which include Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and unpopulated Kahoʻolawe. In 2010, Maui had a population of 144,444, third-highest of the Hawaiian Islands, behind that of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi Island. Kahului is the largest census-designated place (CDP) on the island with a population of 26,337 as of 2010 and is the commercial and financial hub of the island. Wailuku is the seat of Maui County and is the third-largest CDP as of 2010. Other significant places include Kīhei, Lahaina, Makawao, Pukalani, Pāʻia, Kula, Haʻikū, and Hāna.
A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated to English as sheriff, and this is discussed below.
Waikapū is a census-designated place (CDP) in Maui County, Hawaiʻi, United States. The population was 2,965 at the 2010 census.
Ex-Governor Everett died at his homestead at Waikapu, Maui, on September 4, 1895. After a funeral attended by close friends, he was buried next to his wife Ellen.His obituary in the Honolulu-based newspaper The Independent described Everett as:
Tom Everett was a true New Englander. He was gruff and at times even rough, but nothing can be better express the charter of the man than the few words said by a former Hawaiian employee of the deceased last night to the editor of this paper. "Tom dead? True! An honest man is dead."
William Pitt Leleiohoku II, born Kalahoʻolewa, was a prince of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi and member of the reigning House of Kalākaua. At birth, he was hānai by Ruth Keʻelikōlani and later legally adopted by her in 1862 as the heir to her vast land holdings. He was educated at St. Alban's College, a precursor of the present ʻIolani School. After finishing his education, he worked in the governmental Foreign Office and served as an officer on the personal military staff of King Lunalilo. On February 14, 1874, his brother Kalākaua was elected king after the death of Lunalilo. Declared heir apparent to his childless brother, Leleiohoku was expected to inherit the throne of Hawaii. He would also serve as a Privy Councilor and member of the House of Nobles in the Legislature of the Kingdom of Hawaii. During Kalākaua's trip to the United States to negotiate the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875, he ruled as regent in the monarch's absence from November 17, 1874, to February 15, 1875. Leleiohoku died at the age of 22 from rheumatic fever resulting in the proclamation of his sister Liliʻuokalani as the next heir to the throne. An accomplished musical composer, Leleiohoku is remembered for composing many folk songs including "Kāua I Ka Huahuaʻi", which was adapted into the American popular song "Hawaiian War Chant".
The Governor of Oʻahu was the royal governor or viceroy of the island of Oʻahu in the Kingdom of Hawaii. The Governor of Oʻahu resided at Honolulu and was usually a Hawaiian chief or prince and could even be a woman. The governor had authority over the island of Oahu and Honolulu, the kingdom's capital, and it was up to the governor to appoint lieutenant governors to assist them. The governor had replaced the old alii aimokus of the islands, but sovereignty remained with the king. The island governors were under the jurisdiction of the Ministers of the Interiors. Either the governor or the monarch had the power to call in foreign assistance in time of troubles. This occurred a few times, including the uprising of the Emmaites in 1874 when John Owen Dominis called for British and American assistance. Neither the governor nor monarch called for foreign assistance in January 1893 when John L. Stevens sent American troops into Honolulu.
The Governor of Hawaiʻi Island was the royal governor or viceroy of the Island of Hawaiʻi during the Kingdom of Hawaii. The Governor of Hawaii was usually a Hawaiian chief or prince and could even be a woman. There were no restriction of women in government in the House of Nobles or Governship of the islands. The Governor had authority over the island of Hawaii, the biggest island in the kingdom, and it was up to the governor to appoint lieutenant governors to assisted them. The governor had replaced the old Aliʻis of the islands, but sovereignty remained with the king. The island governors were under the jurisdiction of the Ministers of the Interiors.
The Governor of Kauaʻi was the royal governor or viceroy of the island of Kauaʻi and island of Niʻihau during the Kingdom of Hawaii. The Governor of Kauaʻi was usually a Hawaiian chief or prince and could even be a woman. The governor had authority over the islands of Kauaʻi and Niʻihau, and it was up to the governor to appoint lieutenant governors to assist them. The governor had replaced the old alii aimokus of the islands, but the sovereignty remained with the king. The first governor was the last king of Kaumualiʻi, and it was not until his death in 1824 that Queen Kaʻahumanu and King Kamehameha II took control from his sons. The island governors were under the jurisdiction of the Ministers of the Interiors.
Luther Aholo was a politician who served many political posts in the Kingdom of Hawaii. He served multiple terms as a legislator from Maui and Minister of the Interior from 1886 to 1887. Considered one of the leading Hawaiian politicians of his generation, his skills as an orator were compared to those of the Ancient Greek statesman Solon.
Franklin Seaver Pratt, also known as Franklyn or Frank S. Pratt, was an American businessman, public servant and diplomat of the Kingdom of Hawaii. He served as the Hawaiian consul for the Pacific States of California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington around the time of the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1893. Pratt married Elizabeth Kekaʻaniau Laʻanui, a member of Hawaiian nobility, and he defended her claims to the Hawaiian crown lands during the overthrow. He died shortly after his return to Hawaii.
John Timoteo Baker, also given as John Tamatoa Baker, was a Hawaiian politician, businessman, and rancher who served many political posts in the Kingdom of Hawaii, including Governor of the Island of Hawaii from 1892 to 1893. Baker and his brother became the models for the Kamehameha Statues.
Cecil Brown was a Hawaiian attorney, politician, businessman, and banker in the Kingdom, Republic, and Territory of Hawaii.
Colonel John Dominis Kauikeaouli Holt II was an official holding the rank of major and colonel during the Kingdom of Hawaii. After the American annexation of Hawaii, he became an early member of the Democratic Party of Hawaii.
Robert Hoapili Kekaipukaʻala Baker was an Hawaiian ali'i (noble), military officer, courtesan and politician who served many political posts in the Kingdom of Hawaii, including Governor of Maui, Privy Councillor and Aide-de-camp to King Kalākaua.
John Green Hoapili was a judge and politician of the Kingdom of Hawaii. He served as a legislator for many years. He commonly referred to by his initials, J. G. Hoapili.
William Pūnohuʻāweoweoʻulaokalani White was a Hawaiian lawyer, sheriff, politician, and newspaper editor. He became a political statesman and orator during the final years of the Kingdom of Hawaii and the beginnings of the Territory of Hawaii. Despite being a leading Native Hawaiian politician in this era, his legacy has been largely forgotten or portrayed in a negative light, mainly because of a reliance on English-language sources to write Hawaiian history. He was known by the nickname of "Pila Aila" or "Bila Aila" for his oratory skills.
Hawaiian Sovereignty Restoration Day is a former national holiday celebrated on July 31 in the U.S. state of Hawaii, which commemorates the restoration of sovereignty to the former Kingdom of Hawaiʻi following the occupation of Hawaiʻi by Great Britain during the 1843 Paulet Affair. It is still celebrated today by proponents of the Hawaiian sovereignty movement as a day of resistance against what sovereignty advocates consider an ongoing American occupation of Hawaiʻi.
William Henry Daniels was a judge, lawyer, and businessman of Wailuku, Maui during the Kingdom of Hawaii. He was declined reappointment to his office as district magistrate for refusing to take an oath to the Provisional Government of Hawaii and was arrested by the Republic of Hawaii for suspected involvement in the 1895 Counter-Revolution in Hawaii.
John William Kalua, sometime referred to as Keahiowailuku, was a Native Hawaiian politician of Hawaii. He served in the legislature of the Kingdom of Hawaii and the Territory of Hawaii for the island of Maui.
Liliʻuokalani was the first queen regnant and last sovereign monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. After King Kalākaua's brother and heir apparent Leleiohoku II died April 9, 1877, he proclaimed his sister Liliʻuokalani to be his successor. Upon his 1891 death, she ascended to the throne, ruling from January 29, 1891, until the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi on January 17, 1893.
Kalākaua, born David Laʻamea Kamananakapu Mahinulani Naloiaehuokalani Lumialani Kalākaua and sometimes called The Merrie Monarch, was the last king and penultimate monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. The inherited position of the kingdom's monarch became a legislatively elected office with Lunalilo. Upon his death, Kalākaua won election over his political opponent Queen Emma. He reigned from February 12, 1874, until his death in San Francisco, California, on January 20, 1891.
Following the January 20, 1891 death of King Kalākaua in San Francisco, his embalmed body arrived at Honolulu Harbor aboard the USS Charleston, draped in black with its ensigns at half mast. His sister Liliʻuokalani was designated his successor.
The Privy Council of State of the Kingdom of Hawaii was a constitutionally-created body purposed to advise and consent to acts made by the monarch. The cabinet ministers were ex-officio members. Both the cabinet and other privy counselors were appointed and dismissed by the monarch according to his personal wishes. The 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii made a key change in regards to the cabinet ministers. The monarch was still empowered to appoint the ministers, but only the legislature, or a voluntary resignation, could remove them from office.
Title last held byRobert Hoapili Baker
| Governor of Maui |