Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton

Last updated
Thomas Wriothesley
4thEarlOfSouthampton.jpg
Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, wearing his Garter Star and holding his Staff of Office as Lord High Treasurer. Portrait by School of Sir Peter Lely
Born(1607-03-10)10 March 1607
Died16 May 1667(1667-05-16) (aged 60)
Title4th Earl of Southampton
Tenure1624-1667
Other titlesEarl of Chichester
Lord Wriothesley
NationalityEnglish
Offices Lord High Treasurer
Predecessor Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton
Spouse(s)Rachel de Massue
Lady Elizabeth Leigh
Frances Seymour
Parents Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton
Elizabeth Vernon
Quartered arms of Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, KG, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's chapel Coat of arms of Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, KG.png
Quartered arms of Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, KG, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's chapel
Arms of Wriothesley: Azure, a cross or between four hawks close argent WriothesleyArms.png
Arms of Wriothesley: Azure, a cross or between four hawks close argent

Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, KG ( /ˈrəθsli/ RY-əth-slee; [1] 10 March 1607 16 May 1667), styled Lord Wriothesley before 1624, was an English statesman, a staunch supporter of King Charles II who after the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660 rose to the position of Lord High Treasurer, which term began with the assumption of power by the Clarendon Ministry. He "was remarkable for his freedom from any taint of corruption and for his efforts in the interests of economy and financial order," [2] a noble if not completely objective view of his work as the keeper of the nation's finances. [3] He died before the impeachment of Lord Clarendon, after which the Cabal Ministry took over government.

Order of the Garter Order of chivalry in England

The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry in England and later the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George, England's patron saint.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Contents

Origins

He was the only surviving son of Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573–1624) by his wife Elizabeth Vernon (1572–1655), daughter of John Vernon (died 1592) of Hodnet, Shropshire.

Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton 17th-century English noble

Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, , was the only son of Henry Wriothesley, 2nd Earl of Southampton, and Mary Browne, daughter of Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu. Shakespeare's two narrative poems, Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece, were dedicated to Southampton, who is frequently identified as the Fair Youth of Shakespeare's Sonnets.

Hodnet, Shropshire village and civil parish in Shropshire, England

Hodnet is a village and civil parish in Shropshire, England. The town of Market Drayton lies 5.7 miles (9.2 km) north-east of the village.

Career

He succeeded to the earldom following his father's death in 1624, after which event he attended St. John's College, Cambridge. [4] At first, he sided with the Parliament supporters upon the controversies leading to the English Civil War, but upon his realisation of their propensity to violence, he became a loyal supporter of King Charles I. While remaining very loyal to the deposed monarch, he still worked for peace and represented the king at the peace conferences in 1643 and one at Uxbridge in 1645. [5] He was allowed to remain in England, having paid fines to the Committee for Compounding with Delinquents of more than £6,000.

Long Parliament English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660

The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660. It followed the fiasco of the Short Parliament which had convened for only three weeks during the spring of 1640, and which in turn had followed an 11-year parliamentary absence. In September 1640, King Charles I issued writs summoning a parliament to convene on 3 November 1640. He intended it to pass financial bills, a step made necessary by the costs of the Bishops' Wars in Scotland. The Long Parliament received its name from the fact that, by Act of Parliament, it stipulated it could be dissolved only with agreement of the members; and, those members did not agree to its dissolution until 16 March 1660, after the English Civil War and near the close of the Interregnum.

English Civil War Civil war in England (1642–1651)

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance. The first (1642–1646) and second (1648–1649) wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third (1649–1651) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.

In 1643, near the start of the English Civil War, Parliament set up two committees the Sequestration Committee which confiscated the estates of the Royalists who fought against Parliament, and the Committee for Compounding with Delinquents which allowed Royalists whose estates had been sequestrated, to compound for their estates — pay a fine and recover their estates — if they pledged not to take up arms against Parliament again. The size of the fine they had to pay depended on the worth of the estate and how great their support for the Royalist cause had been.

Several months after the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660, Lord Southampton was appointed Lord High Treasurer (8 September 1660), a position he occupied until his death. Samuel Pepys admired Southampton's integrity and the stoicism with which he endured his painful last illness, but clearly had doubts about his competence as Treasurer; in particular he recorded Southampton's despairing words to him, having been asked to raise more funds at a Council meeting in April 1665: "Why, what means all this, Mr. Pepys? This is true, you say, but what would you have me do? I have given all I can for my life. Why will not people lend their money?" [6] However Pepys admitted that Sir William Coventry, the colleague he most admired, was himself an admirer of Southampton, whom he described as "a great statesman". Coventry recalled that other ministers would joke that regardless of his complaints that it was "impossible" to find money, Southampton always succeeded in the end. Southampton however once grimly remarked that "Impossible will be found impossible at the last", an accurate prophecy of the crisis of 1672 which led to the Stop of the Exchequer.

Lord High Treasurer English government position

The post of Lord High Treasurer or Lord Treasurer was an English government position and has been a British government position since the Acts of Union of 1707. A holder of the post would be the third-highest-ranked Great Officer of State, below the Lord High Steward and the Lord High Chancellor.

Samuel Pepys English naval administrator and member of parliament

Samuel Pepys was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man. Pepys had no maritime experience, but he rose to be the Chief Secretary to the Admiralty under both King Charles II and King James II through patronage, hard work, and his talent for administration. His influence and reforms at the Admiralty were important in the early professionalisation of the Royal Navy.

Sir William Coventry was an English statesman.

Lord Southampton's name lives on in London as both Southampton Row and Southampton Street in Holborn are named after him. [2]

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom, as well as the largest city within the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Southampton Row street in the London Borough of Camden

Southampton Row is a major thoroughfare running northwest-southeast in Bloomsbury, Camden, central London, England. The road is designated as part of the A4200.

Southampton Street, London street in central London

Southampton Street is a street in central London, running north from the Strand to Covent Garden Market.

Marriages and children

Portrait c. 1638 of Rachel de Massue, Southampton's first wife, by van Dyck Portrait of Rachel de Massue, Countess of Southampton, by Anthony van Dyck, c.1638.jpg
Portrait c. 1638 of Rachel de Massue, Southampton's first wife, by van Dyck

He married three times and had three daughters:

  1. to Rachel de Massue (1603 – 16 February 1640), a French Huguenot and an aunt of Henri de Massue, Marquis de Ruvigny, 1st Viscount Galway. By Rachel he had children two daughters and co-heiresses:
    1. Elizabeth Wriothesley, Viscountess Campden, wife of Edward Noel, 1st Earl of Gainsborough [2]
    2. Rachel Wriothesley, wife of William Russell, Lord Russell (1639–1683), the third son of William Russell, 5th Earl of Bedford, later created Duke of Bedford. The eventual heir to all the estates of her father Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, was her only son Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford (1680–1711).
  2. to Lady Elizabeth Leigh, daughter of Francis Leigh, 1st Earl of Chichester from whom he inherited the title Earl of Chichester. [7] By Elizabeth Leigh he had a further daughter:
    1. Lady Elizabeth Wriothesley (1646–1690) who married twice, firstly to Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland (1644–1670), whom she bore an only surviving child, heiress to the vast Percy estates, Lady Elizabeth Percy (1667–1722) who married Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset (1662–1748). She secondly married Ralph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu. [8]
  3. Lady Frances Seymour, daughter of William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset (1587–1660) by his second wife Lady Frances Devereux. They had no children.

Related Research Articles

George Carteret British Royalist politician and colonial proprietor of New Jersey

Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret, 1st Baronet, son of Elias de Carteret, was a royalist statesman in Jersey and England, who served in the Clarendon Ministry as Treasurer of the Navy. He was also one of the original Lords Proprietor of the former British colony of Carolina and New Jersey. Carteret, New Jersey, as well as Carteret County, North Carolina, both in the United States, are named after him. He acquired the manor of Haynes, Bedfordshire in about 1667.

Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset English noble (1662–1748)

Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset, known by the epithet "The Proud Duke", was a British peer. He rebuilt Petworth House in Sussex, the ancient Percy seat inherited from his wife, in the palatial form which survives today. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, he was a remarkably handsome man, and inordinately fond of taking a conspicuous part in court ceremonial; his vanity, which earned him the sobriquet of "the proud duke", was a byword among his contemporaries and was the subject of numerous anecdotes; Macaulay described him as "a man in whom the pride of birth and rank amounted almost to a disease".

Charles Wyndham, 2nd Earl of Egremont British politician and earl

Charles Wyndham, 2nd Earl of Egremont, PC, of Orchard Wyndham in Somerset, Petworth House in Sussex, and of Egremont House in Mayfair, London, was a British statesman who served as Secretary of State for the Southern Department from 1761-63.

Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel Chancellor of the University of Oxford; English earl

Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of ArundelKG was an English nobleman, who over his long life assumed a prominent place at the court of all the later Tudor sovereigns, probably the only person to do so.

Baron Montagu of Beaulieu

Baron Montagu of Beaulieu, in the County of Hampshire, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom and the Noble House of Montagu. It was created in 1885 for the Conservative politician Lord Henry Montagu Douglas Scott, who had earlier represented Selkirkshire and South Hampshire in the House of Commons. He was the second son of Walter Montagu Douglas Scott, 5th Duke of Buccleuch. His son, the second Baron, sat as a Conservative Member of Parliament for New Forest. The 3rd Baron Montagu of Beaulieu was one of the ninety elected hereditary peers that remain in the House of Lords after the passing of the House of Lords Act 1999, and sat on the Conservative benches. As descendants of the 5th Duke of Buccleuch, the Barons Montagu of Beaulieu are also in remainder to this peerage and its subsidiary titles.

John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford British politician

John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford, known as Lord John Russell until 1802, was a British Whig politician who notably served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in the Ministry of All the Talents. He was the father of Prime Minister John Russell, 1st Earl Russell.

Earl of Southampton

Earl of Southampton was a title that was created three times in the Peerage of England. The first creation came in 1537 in favour of the courtier William FitzWilliam. He was childless and the title became extinct on his death in 1542. The second creation came in 1547 in favour of the politician Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Baron Wriothesley, Lord Chancellor between 1544 and 1547. He had already been created Baron Wriothesley in 1544, also in the Peerage of England. He was succeeded by his third but only surviving son, the second Earl. On his death the titles passed to his second but only surviving son, the third Earl. He is best remembered as a patron of William Shakespeare. He was succeeded by his second but only surviving son, the fourth Earl. He was a prominent statesman and served as Lord High Treasurer under Charles II between 1660 and 1667. In 1653 he had succeeded his father-in-law Francis Leigh, 1st Earl of Chichester as second Earl of Chichester according to a special remainder in the letters patent. However, Lord Southampton had no sons and the titles became extinct on his death in 1667. The third creation came in 1670 for Barbara Palmer, mistress of Charles II. She was made Baroness Nonsuch and Duchess of Cleveland at the same time. See the latter title for more information on this creation.

Ralph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu English politician

Ralph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu was an English courtier and diplomat.

Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford British politician

Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford, PC, known as Viscount Trentham from 1746 to 1754 and as The Earl Gower from 1754 to 1786, was a British politician from the Leveson-Gower family.

William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset Duke of Somerset

William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset, KG was an English nobleman and Royalist commander in the English Civil War.

William Russell, 1st Duke of Bedford English politician

William Russell, 1st Duke of Bedford KG PC was an English nobleman and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 until 1641 when he inherited his Peerage as 5th Earl of Bedford and removed to the House of Lords. He fought in the Parliamentarian army and later defected to the Royalists during the English Civil War. He is also known for developing the Bloomsbury area of London.

Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford English duke

Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford KG was an English nobleman and politician. He was the son of William Russell, Lord Russell, and his wife Lady Rachel Wriothesley. From 1683 until 1694, he was styled Lord Russell, and from 1695 until his accession in 1700, Marquess of Tavistock.

George Villiers, 4th Earl of Jersey English earl

George Bussy Villiers, 4th Earl of Jersey, PC was an English nobleman, peer, politician and courtier at the court of George III.

This is a list of people who have served as Custos Rotulorum of Hampshire.

Josceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland English noble

JoscelinePercy, 11th Earl of Northumberland, 5th Baron Percy, of Alnwick Castle, Northumberland and Petworth House, Sussex, was an English peer.

Elizabeth Wriothesley, Countess of Southampton English countess

Elizabeth Wriothesley, Countess of Southampton was one of the chief ladies-in-waiting to Elizabeth I of England in the later years of her reign.

Rachel Russell, Lady Russell English noblewoman, heiress, and author

Rachel, Lady Russell was an English noblewoman, heiress, and author. Her second husband was William, Lord Russell, who was implicated in the Rye House Plot and later executed. A collection of the many letters she wrote to her husband and other distinguished men was published in 1773.

Wriothesley may refer to:

Elizabeth Percy, Countess of Northumberland English noble

Elizabeth Percy, Countess of Northumberland, was a British courtier. She was one of the Windsor Beauties, painted by Sir Peter Lely.

Anne Russell, Duchess of Bedford

Anne Russell, Duchess of Bedford, formerly Lady Anne Egerton, was the wife of Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford, and, following his death, of William Villiers, 3rd Earl of Jersey. She was the mother of the 4th Earl of Jersey.

References

  1. Wells, J. C. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. 3rd edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2008.
  2. 1 2 3 Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Southampton, Earl of"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 489–490.
  3. Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. "Wriothesley, Thomas (WRTY642T)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  5. Per Encyclopædia Britannica
  6. Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 April 1665
  7. thepeerage.com
  8. Leslie Stephen (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 38. p. 263. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Portland
The 1st Duke of Richmond
Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire
jointly with The Earl of Portland
The 1st Duke of Richmond

16411646
English Interregnum
Preceded by
Sir Henry Wallop
Custos Rotulorum of Hampshire
16421646
In commission
Sir Edward Hyde as First Lord
Title last held by
The Lord Cottington
Lord High Treasurer
16601667
In commission
The Duke of Albemarle as First Lord
Title next held by
The Lord Clifford of Chudleigh
Honorary titles
English Interregnum Custos Rotulorum of Hampshire
16601667
Succeeded by
Lord Percy
Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk
16601661
Succeeded by
The Lord Townshend
Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire
16601667
Succeeded by
Lord St John
Preceded by
The Duke of Somerset
Lord Lieutenant of Wiltshire
16611667
Succeeded by
The Earl of Clarendon
Preceded by
The Lord Windsor
Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire
16621663
Succeeded by
The Lord Windsor
Preceded by
The Earl of Winchilsea
Lord Lieutenant of Kent
16621667
Succeeded by
The Earl of Winchilsea
The 3rd Duke of Richmond
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Henry Wriothesley
Earl of Southampton
16241667
Extinct
Preceded by
Francis Leigh
Earl of Chichester
16531667