Sir Thomas Wroth (c. 1518 – 9 October 1573) was an English courtier, landowner and politician, a supporter of the Protestant Reformation and a prominent figure among the Marian exiles.
The Marian Exiles were English Protestants who fled to the continent during the 1553–1558 reign of the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I and King Philip. They settled chiefly in Protestant countries such as the Netherlands, Switzerland and Germany, and also in France, Italy and Poland.
The Tudor-age family of Wroth of Enfieldderived from the marriage of John Wroth and Maud Durrant. Both were descendants of Hugh du Plessis (nephew of John du Plessis, 7th Earl of Warwick) and Muriel de Wrotham, an heiress of the family of William de Wrotham, who had been Constable of Dover Castle in the time of King John. Maud's father Thomas Durrant the younger, son of Hugh's granddaughter (by his eldest son) Avelina, built the residence of Durrants at Enfield and held estates at Edmonton. John Wroth was great-grandson of Hugh's youngest son Richard (died c. 1292), who became established at Enfield under the name of de Wrotham. The lines and estates of John and Maud were united in their son William.
The London Borough of Enfield is a London borough in north London, England. It borders the London Boroughs of Barnet, Haringey and Waltham Forest, the districts of Hertsmere, Welwyn Hatfield and Broxbourne in Hertfordshire, and Epping Forest in Essex. The local authority is Enfield Council.
John du Plessis or Plessetis, Earl of Warwick was an Anglo-Norman nobleman.
Edmonton is an area of the London Borough of Enfield, England, 8.4 miles (13.5 km) north-northeast of Charing Cross.
John Wroth, great-grandson of John and Maud, married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Roger Lewknor of Broadhurst (Horsted Keynes, Sussex), and the heiress Eleanor Camoys, in c. 1456. Their grandson Robert Wroth (of Durrants at Enfield,and of North Newton in North Petherton, Somerset ), of Gray's Inn, married Jane, daughter of Sir Thomas Hawte (died 1505, son of Sir William Hawte) and his wife Isabel Frowyk, sister of Sir Thomas Frowyk. (Jane was the widow of Thomas Goodere of Monken Hadley, Middlesex, by whom she had children including Francis, politician, and Anne, wife of Sir George Penruddock of Ivychurch, Wiltshire.) Robert Wroth was one of the commissioners appointed to inquire into Thomas Wolsey's possessions in 1529, and from 1531 Attorney of the Duchy of Lancaster. He sat for Middlesex in the Reformation parliament (1529–1535). He and Jane had four sons, Thomas, Oliver, John and William, and two daughters, Dorothy and Susan. By his will of 1536 Wroth indicated his expectation that his daughter Dorothy should marry his ward Edward Lewknor.
Horsted Keynes is a village and civil parish in the Mid Sussex District of West Sussex, England. The village is about 5 miles (8 km) north east of Haywards Heath, in the Weald. The civil parish is largely rural, covering 1,581 hectares, and has a population of 1,586. The Prime Meridian passes about 1 mile to the east of the village of Horsted Keynes.
North Petherton is a small town and civil parish in Somerset, England, situated on the edge of the eastern foothills of the Quantocks, and close to the edge of the Somerset Levels. The town has a population of 6,730. The parish includes Hamp, Melcombe, Woolmersdon and Huntworth.
The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, commonly known as Gray's Inn, is one of the four Inns of Court in London. To be called to the bar and practise as a barrister in England and Wales, a person must belong to one of these Inns. Located at the intersection of High Holborn and Gray's Inn Road in Central London, the Inn is both a professional body and a provider of office accommodation (chambers) for many barristers. It is ruled by a governing council called "Pension", made up of the Masters of the Bench, and led by the Treasurer, who is elected to serve a one-year term. The Inn is known for its gardens, or Walks, which have existed since at least 1597.
Robert Wroth became a friend of Thomas Cromwell's, and for two years before his death in 1536 shared with him the stewardship of Westminster Abbey. Thomas Wroth, the eldest son, entered St. John's College, Cambridge, but seems to have taken no degree.In 1536, becoming a ward of the king, he was admitted student of Gray's Inn, and on 4 October his wardship and marriage were granted to Cromwell. Cromwell sold the marriage in 1539 to Sir Richard Rich for three hundred marks, who provided for his third daughter, Mary, by arranging her betrothal to Thomas. Wroth was granted livery of his lands on 24 April 1540, and in that and the following year Rich secured for his daughter's husband the manors of Highbury (forfeited by Cromwell) and Enfield, and of Beymondhall (i.e. Beaumond Hall) at Cheshunt, with its manorial appurtenances in Wormley in Hertfordshire, belonging to various dissolved monasteries.
Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex, was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540, when he was beheaded on orders of the king.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. The building itself was a Benedictine monastic church until the monastery was dissolved in 1539. Between 1540 and 1556, the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, the building is no longer an abbey or a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England "Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign.
Richard Rich, 1st Baron Rich, was Lord Chancellor during the reign of King Edward VI of England from 1547 until January 1552. He was the founder of Felsted School with its associated alms houses in Essex in 1564. He was a beneficiary of suppression of the monasteries, and persecuted opponents of church and state. He personally tortured the English writer, poet and Protestant martyr Anne Askew.
On 18 December 1544 Wroth was returned to parliament as one of the knights of the shire for Middlesex, and in the following year, reputedly through Thomas Cranmer's influence, was appointed Gentleman-Usher of the Privy Chamber to Prince Edward.He served in that office during Edward VI's reign, being dubbed a Knight of the Carpet at the King's coronation on 22 February 1546/7, and was one of the young king's principal favourites. In September 1547 he was sent to the Protector Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset in Scotland with Edward's letters congratulating him on his victory at the Battle of Pinkie, and in July 1548 was one of the witnesses against Bishop Stephen Gardiner for his sermon in St. Paul's Cathedral. He probably represented Middlesex in the parliament that sat from 1547 to 1552, but the returns are wanting. After Somerset's fall Wroth was on 15 October 1549 appointed one of the four principal gentlemen of the privy chamber, his fidelity to the Earl of Warwick's interests being secured by doubling the ordinary salary of £50. With Lord Rich he was jointly lieutenant of Waltham Forest from 1549. He held the office of King's standard-bearer during the minority of Sir Anthony Browne the younger.
Middlesex is a former constituency. It was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England, then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800, and finally of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885. It returned two members by various voting systems including hustings.
Thomas Cranmer was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. He helped build the case for the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which was one of the causes of the separation of the English Church from union with the Holy See. Along with Thomas Cromwell, he supported the principle of Royal Supremacy, in which the king was considered sovereign over the Church within his realm.
Edward VI was the King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine. Edward was the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, and England's first monarch to be raised as a Protestant. During his reign, the realm was governed by a regency council because he never reached maturity. The council was first led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (1547–1549), and then by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick (1550–1553), who from 1551 was Duke of Northumberland.
Wroth received 'an astonishing prodigality of grants of land, lordships, reversions, hereditaments'.In December 1549, extended in July 1550, he was granted the Great and Little Parks of Great Bardfield, and the lordships and manors of Chigwell and West Hatch (Chigwell) in Essex. He was granted, but at once surrendered, the offices of keeper or steward of the manors of Elsing and Worcetors at Enfield, and of Edmonton, and Keeper and Master of the Hunt of the New Park at Enfield, in reversion. The manors of Northall and Downebarnes (Northolt, Middlesex) and Hampstead, and the advowson of Greenford (Middlesex) came to him by royal Letters Patent in April 1550. On 14 April 1551 he was made Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex jointly with William Paget. He received grants of Bishops Lydeard in Somerset, Theydon Bois, Berden Priory and elsewhere in 1551, and of Abingdon Abbey, Berkshire, in 1552. On 29 November 1551 he was present at the disputation on the Sacrament held in William Cecil's house.
Great Bardfield is a large village in the Braintree district of Essex, England. It is located approximately 9 miles (14 km) northwest of the town of Braintree, and approximately 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Saffron Walden.
Chigwell is a town and civil parish in the Epping Forest district of Essex, England. Adjacent to the northern boundary of Greater London, it is part of the metropolitan area of London and the Greater London Built-up Area. It is on the Central line of the London Underground.
Essex is a county in the south-east of England, north-east of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south, and London to the south-west. The county town is Chelmsford, the only city in the county. For government statistical purposes Essex is placed in the East of England region.
In the time of King Henry VI William Wrothe had held the valuable office of Forester of Petherton Park at North Petherton in Somerset, in succession to the Chaucer family. In 1508 Robert Wroth, father of Sir Thomas, was granted the same title by Henry VII for a term of 30 years, although the same was granted by Henry VIII to William Courtenay in 1513. In 1550 Sir Thomas petitioned King Edward to be admitted forester in fee of the King's Forests of Exmoor, Neroche, Mendip and Selwood, in consideration of the fact that he was a descendant and representative of William de Wrotham (who had been lord of the manor of Newton-Forester (nearby) during the time of King Richard I), and that he (Thomas) was inheritor and possessor of the greater part of that manor(among several others now combined as Newton-Wrothe). In October 1551 he was granted licence for his servants to shoot at fowl, mammals, fishes or deer with crossbow or handgun, an especially reserved right. The Wroth lands at Petherton descended to Robert Wroth (1576-1614, grandson of Sir Thomas by his son Robert, and husband of Mary Sidney (Lady Wroth)), who dissipated them, and after his death were purchased by Sir Thomas Wroth (grandson of Sir Thomas by his son Thomas of Bexley), who re-established the Wroth fortunes at Petherton Park.
Somerset's second fall brought Wroth further grants; on 22 January 1552, the day of the Protector's execution, he was sent to Sion House to report on the number and ages of the duke's sons, daughters, and servants, and on 7 June following was given a twenty-one years' lease of Sion. This he is said to have surrendered on an assurance that Edward designed it for some public charity. He received the manor of Basettes Fee, and St Leonard's Forest and manor at Horsham, Sussex, from the attainder of the Duke of Norfolk.In 1552, and again in 1553, he was one of the commissioners for the lord-lieutenancy of Middlesex, and in February 1552/3 he was again knight of the shire for Middlesex in Edward's last parliament. He was not a member of the privy council, but was one of those whom Edward VI proposed in March 1551/2 to ‘call into commission,’ his name appearing on the committees of the council which were to execute penal laws and proclamations and to examine into the state of all the courts, especially the new courts of augmentations, first-fruits and tenths, and wards. In December 1552 he was placed on a further commission for the recovery of debts owing to the king from his paymasters.
He was one of the adventurers (investors) in the 1552 Second voyage to Barbary (Morocco), led by Thomas Wyndham, which traded for three months at Santa Cruz de Tenerife.He was also among the investors in the first voyages of Sir Hugh Willoughby and Richard Chancellor in search of a north-east passage to Cathay: his name appears among the incorporated founders of the Company of Merchant Adventurers to New Lands listed in Mary's charter of February 1554/55, though already then living abroad in exile.
Wroth was until July 1553 in close attendance upon Edward VI, who is said to have died in his arms.He obtained from Edward (at a late stage) the right to devolve his manors and lands upon his wife and heirs in the making of his own will. He signed the king's letters patent limiting the crown to Lady Jane Grey, but apparently took no overt part in Northumberland's insurrection. He was sent to the Tower of London on 27 July, but was soon released. In January 1554, however, when Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk was meditating his second rising, Lord John Grey had an interview with Wroth, and urged him to join. Suspicion inevitably fell upon Wroth, as cousin-german to Jane Haute, wife of Thomas Wyatt the Younger. Gardiner proposed his arrest on the 27th, but Wroth escaped to the Continent.
Wroth travelled with Sir John Cheke, who was carrying a royal licence, and they reached Padua in July 1554.Many English exiles were gathered there, among them Sir Henry Neville, Sir John Cutts, Henry Kingsmill and Henry Cornwallis, and they were joined in late August by Sir Thomas Hoby, and by Sir Anthony Cooke. In late October 1554 Wroth, Cheke and Cooke, with their companies, joined with the Hoby party on an excursion to Mantua and Ferrara, returning to Padua in late November. The following August, Hoby's company having proceeded to Caldero beside Verona, Wroth and Cheke joined them there from Padua, avoiding a fresh outbreak of the plague, and they travelled north together through Rovereto, Innsbruck and Munich to Augsburg, where they arrived on 28 August 1555. After this the Hobys went on to Frankfurt, but Wroth and Cheke diverted to Strasbourg, and remained there. In May 1556 John Cheke and Sir Peter Carew were seized in Flanders on the orders of King Philip and despatched unceremoniously to the Tower of London.
In the Spring of 1556 Wroth's brother-in-law Edward Lewknor was drawn into the conspiracy of Henry Dudley and Henry Peckham against Mary. On 6 June Lewknor was arrested and committed to the Tower. The following day Mary issued orders to William Paget for the leading exiles (Sir Thomas Wroth heading the list of nine names) to be summoned immediately to England, "all excuses, delayes, lettes, hindrances and other occasions happening to you whatsoever utterly sett ap[ar]te", to appear before the King and Queen and privy council on the last day of October to answer such matters as may be objected against them, not failing upon their faith or allegiance.John Brett was despatched with this commission on 16 June. As Lewknor lay attainted and condemned in the Tower awaiting execution or pardon, Wroth in Strasbourg evaded the unwelcome missive and its unhappy bearer and instead obtained right of residence there. Lewknor died in the Tower in September 1556, as Cheke was writing his letter of submission to Queen Mary.
Wroth's brother Oliver had been in company in England with some of the conspirators, and at their arrest had fled to France, where he continued to have dealings with Henry Dudley and his friends. In Paris in November 1556 he gave information to Mary's ambassador at Poissy, Dr Nicholas Wotton, of French designs to exploit Dudley to subvert the allegiance of the English lieutenant at Hampnes near Calais. Oliver had favourable opportunities of marriage and employment in Paris, but wrote to Wotton seeking royal pardon and permission to return home. Wotton at once sent him to Sir William Petre in England, bearing ciphered letters commending his loyal intentions and showing that Dudley, hearing of Oliver's petition, had men lying in wait to kill him.
Thomas Wroth, having sent greetings to John Calvin through his friend François Hotman in November 1556,renewed his residency at Strasbourg on 1 September 1557, on the grounds that he could not return to England for reasons of religion. There he is said to have been 'very helpful to those of his godly countrymen among whom he dwelt, and particularly to Bartholomew Traheron, late Dean of Chichester.' Traheron dedicated a volume of the lectures that he read and had published there to Sir Thomas and Lady Wroth, styling them "exiles for Christ's cause". Other exiles at Strasbourg were listed by John Bale, who was at Basle "for the printing-presses". Lawrence Humphrey (an English theologian who had also remained abroad) dedicated to Wroth his lengthy treatise On Translation, Interpretatio Linguarum, at the suggestion of Edwin Sandys and Sir Francis Walsingham. François Hotman, who became involved in the Amboise conspiracy, dedicated to Wroth a volume of commentary upon De Actionibus. Both works were published at Basle in 1559.
Following Lewknor's death Queen Mary herself restored some lands to his widow.Immediately upon Elizabeth's accession Wroth and Cooke returned to England, Wroth leaving a son in Hotman's care. On 29 December 1558 he was elected knight of the shire for Middlesex (which he again represented in the parliament of 1562–3). He soon sought a constat or exemplification as patentee in his life office of Waltham Forest, which Lord Rich had for his part surrendered and Mary had regranted to the recusant Sir Edward Waldegrave during Wroth's exile. Lewknor's heir Edward Lewknor, and his brothers and sisters, were restored in blood in March 1559.
On 21 August 1559 Wroth was appointed commissioner to visit the dioceses of Ely and Norwich. In June 1562 he was nominated a special commissioner (with which Sir Nicholas Arnold and Sir W. Dixie were associated) to consult with the Lord Deputy of Ireland, Thomas Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex, on the government of Ireland, and in particular to mediate in the bitter feud between Sussex and his colleague John Parker, but does not seem to have gone to Dublin (where he made reports upon church reform) until February 1564; he was recalled at his own request in August. Bishop Brady referred to Wroth's painstaking efforts. In 1569 he was commissioner for musters in Middlesex and for the lord-lieutenancy of London. He was assigned to the inquiry into the Papal Bull of Excommunication Regnans in Excelsis against Elizabeth posted in London in 1570, and tasked with the delivery of John Felton to the Lieutenant of the Tower for torture. He was also a commissioner in the case of John Story. On 1 September 1571 he was sent to take an inventory of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk's goods in the Charterhouse.
In May 1573Wroth in person made a legal claim to the unpaid arrears of an annuity of £20 in respect of his appointment by Patent of Henry VIII as Gentleman-Usher of the Privy Chamber to Prince Edward, none of which he had ever received. It was decided that he should be paid for all the intervening years, since he had not defaulted upon his service to Prince Edward, and Henry's Patent had been binding upon the Body politic and not upon the natural bodies of Henry or his successors, whose demise came about by Act of God. The suit was awarded to him. Wroth dated his lengthy will on 5 October 1573, making Peter Osborne, Sir James Morrice, William Clerk and his brother William Wroth his executors, and adding a schedule or codicil on 9 October: all four were sworn at probate on 17 April 1575. He died on 9 October 1573: his wife Mary overlived him. His executors had to pursue the recovery of the arrears of his annuity.
John Ludham, vicar of Wethersfield, Essex, 1570-1613,dedicated his work The Course of Christianity (1579), a translation of the De Sacrae Scripturae Lectione ac Meditatione Quotidiana of Andreas Hyperius, to Lady Mary Wroth, Sir Thomas's widow.
Thomas Wroth and Mary Rich, daughter of Richard Rich, 1st Baron Rich, left sons as follows:
In addition to these, the Suffolk Pedigrees of David Elisha Davy refer to daughters Joan and Faith Wroth,and the Essex Visitations show a daughter Margery who married (1) Izack Hill and (2) Thomas Wyatt.
The Wroth heraldry, 'Argent, on a bend sable three lions' heads erased of the field crowned or', is displayed on the tomb of Mabel Hardres.
Sir John Cheke (Cheek) was an English classical scholar and statesman. One of the foremost teachers of his age, and the first Regius Professor of Greek at the University of Cambridge, he played a great part in the revival of Greek learning in England. He was tutor to Prince Edward, the future King Edward VI, and also sometimes to Princess Elizabeth. Of strongly Reformist sympathy in religious affairs, his public career as Provost of King's College, Cambridge, Member of Parliament and briefly as Secretary of State during King Edward's reign was brought to a close by the accession of Queen Mary in 1553. He went into voluntary exile abroad, at first under royal licence. He was captured and imprisoned in 1556, and under threat or apprehension of execution by the fire made a forced public recantation and affiliated himself to the Church of Rome. He died not long afterwards, filled with remorse for having forsworn his true belief from the infirmity of fear. His character, teaching and reputation were, however, admiringly and honourably upheld.
Sir Andrew Windsor, 1st Baron Windsor (1467–1543) was an English peer, M.P. and Keeper of the wardrobe, knight banneret and military commander.
Elsyng Palace was a Tudor palace, on a site in what are now the grounds of Forty Hall in Enfield, north London. Its exact location was lost for many years until excavations were carried out in the 1960s.
John Tiptoft, 1st Baron Tiptoft was a Knight of the Shire for Huntingdonshire and Somerset, Speaker of the House of Commons, Treasurer of the Household, Chief Butler of England, Treasurer of the Exchequer and Seneschal of Landes and Aquitaine.
Peter Osborne, Esquire, (1521–1592) was Keeper of the Privy Purse to King Edward VI, at a time when great constitutional changes affected the management of public finance. Of reformist sympathies in religion, his career was in abeyance during the reign of Queen Mary but regained momentum as Remembrancer in the Exchequer under Elizabeth, working usually to his marital kinsman Lord Burghley, and he sat in seven parliaments between 1559 and 1589.
Sir Stephen Jenyns was a wool merchant from Wolverhampton, Merchant of the Staple and Master Merchant Taylor who became Lord Mayor of London for the year of the coronation of King Henry VIII. An artistic, architectural and educational patron, he founded Wolverhampton Grammar School, and took a leading part in the rebuilding of the church of St. Andrew Undershaft in the City of London.
Enfield-chantry school was a chantry school in Enfield from c. 1398–1558, and the predecessor of Enfield Grammar School.
Walter Hungerford, 1st Baron Hungerford of Heytesbury, was created Baron Hungerford of Heytesbury in 1536.
Sir William Hawte was a prominent member of a Kentish gentry family of long standing in royal service, which, through its near connections to the Woodville family, became closely and dangerously imbroiled in the last phases of the Wars of the Roses.
Sir Thomas Wroth was an English gentleman-poet and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1628 and 1660. Active in colonial enterprises in North America, he became a strong republican in the Rump Parliament but stopped short of regicide.
Sir Robert Wroth was an English politician.
Sir Henry Wroth, second son of Henry, Sir Robert Wroth's youngest son, acquired some fame as a royalist during the civil wars, was a 'pensioner' of Charles I, and was knighted at Oxford on 15 September 1645. He compounded with the parliament for £60. He was granted land in Ireland and succeeded to Durrants, an estate at Enfield in Middlesex, on the death of his uncle John. He was commissioned captain of a troop in the Royal Horse Guards in 1661.
Anthony Hussey, was an English politician and Judge of the High Court of Admiralty for England and Wales]] between 1542 and 1549.
Sir Francis Hynde, of Madingley, Cambridgeshire and Aldgate, London, was an English politician and landowner particularly associated with the development of Madingley Hall and its manorial estates.
Sir Edward Lewknor or Lewkenor was a prominent member of the puritan gentry in East Anglia in the later Elizabethan period, and an important voice on religious matters in the English Parliament.
Sir Nicholas Woodroffe was a London merchant of the Worshipful Company of Haberdashers, who, through the English Reformation, rose in the Alderman class to become a Master Haberdasher, Lord Mayor of London and Member of Parliament for London. Through the complexities of his family's relationships, and the position and security which they afforded, he lived to establish his family among the armigerous houses of late Elizabethan Surrey.
John Machell (1637-1704) was for twenty years Member of Parliament for Horsham, Sussex, during the reigns of Charles II, James II and William III and Mary II. By the marriage of his daughter Isabella Machell (1670-1764) to Arthur Ingram, 3rd Viscount of Irvine, he became the grandfather of the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth Viscounts of Irvine, and great-grandfather of the ninth, seated at Temple Newsam near Leeds, whose family inherited and augmented his valuable property of Hills house at Horsham, and continued the parliamentary tradition there.
Edward Lewknor (c.1517–1556) was the representative of a branch of a prominent Sussex family, in an armigerous line descending in the distaff side from the Camoys barony. Having attained standing as a member of parliament and (reportedly) a position of service in the royal household, his career was ended abruptly by his involvement in Henry Dudley's conspiracy against Queen Mary I, and his consequent attainder. His children were restored in blood by Queen Elizabeth I.
The manor of Modbury was a manor covering the ecclesiastical parish of Modbury in Devon. The manor house, last occupied by the Champernowne family and known as "Court House", was situated on the north side of the parish church of St George, on or near the site of Modbury Priory, founded in the 12th century by the Vautort lords of the manor. It was destroyed during the Civil War (1642–1651) and the remnants were sold for building materials in 1705.
Geoffrey Chamber was a legal advocate, an associate and agent of Thomas Cromwell's, and was Surveyor and Receiver-General to the Court of Augmentations at the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries. He was connected with the discovery of the mechanical contrivances in the Rood of Grace at Boxley Abbey.