Thomas Wynne

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Thomas Wynne
Born(1627-07-20)July 20, 1627
DiedJanuary 16, 1692(1692-01-16) (aged 64)
Occupation physician, politician

Dr. Thomas Wynne (July 20, 1627 – Jan 16, 1692) was personal physician of William Penn and one of the original settlers of Philadelphia in the Province of Pennsylvania. Born in Ysceifiog, Wales, where his family dated back seventeen generations to Owain Gwynedd [1] He accompanied Penn on his original journey to America on the ship Welcome. [2]

Physician professional who practices medicine

A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients, and methods of treatment—known as specialities—or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice. Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines, such as anatomy and physiology, underlying diseases and their treatment—the science of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or craft of medicine.

William Penn English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania

William Penn was the son of the admiral and politician Sir William Penn, and an English nobleman, writer, early Quaker, and founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania. He was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Native Americans. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was planned and developed.

Philadelphia Largest city in Pennsylvania, United States

Philadelphia, known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2018 census-estimated population of 1,584,138. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.

Contents

Early life and education

According to church records, Thomas Wynne was the fourth of five sons of Thomas Wynne Sr., Thomas Wynne lost his father at the age of 11. [3] While attracted to the study of medicine early on, heavy taxes levied on his family originally made the acquisition of proper learning materials difficult. His trade was that of cooper. He was later able to make the acquaintance of an established surgeon by the name of Richard Moore, and soon he was able to apprentice until he was deemed worthy of licensing. He was licensed in Shropshire by Drs. Hollins, Needham and Moore. [4] He in turn after the death of Dr. Richard Moore apprenticed his son Mordecai Moore. [5]

Medicine The science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of physical and mental illnesses

Medicine is the science and practice of establishing the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Medicine encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation, amongst others.

A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures. A failure to pay, along with evasion of or resistance to taxation, is punishable by law. Taxes consist of direct or indirect taxes and may be paid in money or as its labour equivalent. The first known taxation took place in Ancient Egypt around 3000–2800 BC.

Cooper (profession) maker of staved vessels such as barrels

A cooper is a person trained to make wooden casks, barrels, vats, buckets, tubs, troughs and other staved containers from timber that was usually heated or steamed to make it pliable. Journeymen coopers also traditionally made wooden implements, such as rakes and wooden-bladed shovels. In addition to wood, other materials, such as iron, were used in the manufacturing process.

Emigration to Pennsylvania

Born into the Protestant faith, he in 1655 married Quaker Martha Buttall (1627–1676) and found himself profoundly converted. Henceforth a devout Quaker and author of several pamphlets on Quaker doctrine, Wynne faced persecution and even six years' imprisonment in England in the 1680s. After Martha died, he married Mrs. Elizabeth Rowden (b. 1637; d. after 1691) on July 20, 1676, and she accompanied him as he joined Penn on his trip to America, leaving on August 30 and landing on October 27, 1682. [6]

Protestantism Division within Christianity, originating from the Reformation in the 16th century against the Roman Catholic Church, that rejects the Roman Catholic doctrines of papal supremacy and sacraments

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. They emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, and the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church.

Quakers Family of Protestant religious movements

Quakers, also called Friends, are a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends, Society of Friends or Friends Church. Members of the various Quaker movements are all generally united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access the light within, or "that of God in every one".

Career

Wynne was notable for erecting the first brick house in the colony of Philadelphia, on his "Liberty Lot" at Front and Chestnut streets (known as Wynne Street until renamed by Penn in 1684). He built a home at 52nd Street and Woodbine Avenue in 1690 named "Wynnestay" (a reference to the famous Wynnstay estate in Wales owned by Sir John Wynn, 1st Baronet, a collateral cousin [7] ), and several surrounding communities in the greater Philadelphia Area now bear his name. He returned to England with Penn in 1684. He served as speaker for the first two Pennsylvania Assemblies of the Province in Philadelphia in 1687 and 1688 and acted as Justice of Sussex county, now a county in Delaware, from 1687 to 1691. [8] [9] He was appointed a justice of the peace in January 1690 and held the position of justice of the provincial court from September 1690 until his death.

Chestnut Street is a major historic street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was originally named Wynne Street because Thomas Wynne's home was there. William Penn renamed it Chestnut Street in 1684. It runs east–west from the Delaware River waterfront in downtown Philadelphia through Center City and West Philadelphia. The road crosses the Schuylkill River on the Chestnut Street Bridge. It serves as eastbound Pennsylvania Route 3 between 63rd and 33rd Streets.

Wynnestay

Wynnestay or Wynnstay is a historic house, one of the oldest extant houses in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The two-and-a-half-story house was first built in 1689 as the residence of Dr. Thomas Wynne, Pennsylvania founder William Penn's personal physician and first Speaker of the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly.

Wynnstay estate near Wrexham

Wynnstay is a country house located in an important landscaped park 1.3 km south-east of Ruabon, near Wrexham, Wales. Wynnstay, previously Watstay, was a famous estate and the family seat of the Wynns.

Death

His time in America lasted only nine years. His death is noted by the meeting of Radnor Friends Meetinghouse then at Duckett's Farm which in 1950 was located at the West Philadelphia train station not far from his home at Wynnestay. [10] Thomas Wynne burial is noted at in the Philadelphia Meeting records at Ducketts Farm Burial Ground. [11]

Radnor Friends Meetinghouse church building in Pennsylvania, United States of America

Radnor Friends Meetinghouse is a historic Quaker meeting house on Sproul and Conestoga Roads in Radnor Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania.

West Philadelphia Neighborhood of Philadelphia in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

West Philadelphia, nicknamed West Philly, is a section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Though there is no official definition of its boundaries, it is generally considered to reach from the western shore of the Schuylkill River, to City Avenue to the northwest, Cobbs Creek to the southwest, and the SEPTA Media/Elwyn Line to the south. An alternate definition includes all city land west of the Schuylkill; this would also include Southwest Philadelphia and its neighborhoods. The eastern side of West Philadelphia is also known as University City.

Family

Among his descendents, through Mary Wynne and Dr. Edward Jones,: John Cadwalader, Lambert Cadwalader, John Dickinson, Sally Wister; through his daughter Rebecca: Charles Dickinson; through his daughter Hannah Joshua Humphreys and Charles Humphreys; through his step daughter Margery Maude Joshua Fisher; great-grandsons, Thomas, and Warner Wynne, through his son Jonathan, son Jonathan all served in the Pennsylvania "Flying Camp" and were taken prisoner by the British at the Battle of Fort Washington and Thomas was held on the prison ships in New York Harbor. His great-grandson Thomas through his son Jonathan, son Thomas died shortly after Washington's crossing of the Delaware from him Gustavus Wynne Cook. This Thomas is remembered on the Lower Merion Revolutionary War Memorial. [12]

John Cadwalader (general) American general

John Cadwalader was a commander of Pennsylvania troops during the American Revolutionary War and served under George Washington. He was with Washington during the Delaware River crossing and the Battle of Trenton and at Valley Forge.

Sarah ("Sally") Wister was a girl living in Pennsylvania during the American Revolution. She is principally known as the author of Sally Wister's Journal, written when she was sixteen; it is a firsthand account of life in the nearby countryside during the British occupation of Philadelphia in 1777–78.

Charles Dickinson was an American attorney, and a famous duelist. An expert marksman, Dickinson died from injuries sustained in a duel with Andrew Jackson, who later became President of the United States.

See also

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References

  1. Sir John Wynn. History of the Gwydir family and memoirs, 1878
  2. Wikisource-logo.svg Kelly, Howard A.; Burrage, Walter L., eds. (1920). "Wynne, Thomas"  . American Medical Biographies  . Baltimore: The Norman, Remington Company.
  3. Thomas Allen Glenn Welsh Founders of Pennsylvania, 1970 reprint 1911 original
  4. William Mac Lean Jr., 1901, The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, pg 104
  5. Charles Browning, Welsh Settlement of Pennsylvania, 1912
  6. Wynne is an approved ancestor for the Welcome Society.
  7. Sir John Wynn. History of the Gwydir family and memoirs. 1878
  8. Some Records of Sussex County Delaware, compiled by C.H.B. Turner 1909
  9. Flintshire Historical Society Journal, 1977–1978, Volume 28, From Ysgeifiog to Pennsylvania : The rise of Thomas Wynne, Quaker Barber
  10. Scharf, John Thomas; Westcott, Thompson (1884). History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884, Vol. 3. Philadelphia: L. H. Everts & Company. p. 2358. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  11. Joseph Jackson (1918) Market Street, Philadelphia: The Most Historic Highway in America, Its Merchants and Its Story; page 197.
  12. Walker, Gavin Morton. "Lower Merion Revolutionary War Memorial". Lower Merion Baptist Church. Retrieved December 31, 2013.