Thomas Young Centre

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The Thomas Young Centre
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ChairmanProf Alessandro De Vita
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Website www.thomasyoungcentre.org

The Thomas Young Centre (TYC) is an alliance of London research groups working on the theory and simulation of materials (TSM). [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] It is named after the celebrated scientist and polymath Thomas Young (1773–1829), who lived and worked in London and is known in the world of science for a number of important discoveries concerning the wave nature of light, the theory of vision, the elastic properties of solids, and the theory of surface tension. The participating research groups are based mainly at Imperial College London, King's College London, Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) and University College London (UCL), but there are also members at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington. [10] The aims of the TYC are to foster collaboration between TSM research groups in London, to provide a world-class source of graduate education in the field, and to address problems of major importance to industry and society. The current (2009) membership of TYC numbers about 80 research groups, of which six are led by Fellows of the Royal Society.

Thomas Young (scientist) English polymath

Thomas Young FRS was a British polymath and physician. Young made notable scientific contributions to the fields of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, language, musical harmony, and Egyptology. He "made a number of original and insightful innovations" in the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs before Jean-François Champollion eventually expanded on his work. He was mentioned by, among others, William Herschel, Hermann von Helmholtz, James Clerk Maxwell, and Albert Einstein. Young has been described as "The Last Man Who Knew Everything".

Light electromagnetic radiation in or near visible spectrum

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The word usually refers to visible light, which is the portion of the spectrum that can be perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nanometers (nm), or 4.00 × 10−7 to 7.00 × 10−7 m, between the infrared and the ultraviolet. This wavelength means a frequency range of roughly 430–750 terahertz (THz).

Young's modulus, or the Young modulus, is a mechanical property that measures the stiffness of a solid material. It defines the relationship between stress and strain in a material in the linear elasticity regime of a uniaxial deformation.

Contents

Participating academic departments

The breadth of scientific expertise offered by TYC can be inferred from the range of home academic departments of TYC research groups at the three main London Colleges:

Kings College London public research university in London, United Kingdom

King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding college and member institution of the federal University of London. King's was established in 1829 by King George IV and Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when it received its first royal charter, and claims to be the fourth oldest university institution in England. In 1836, King's became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. In the late 20th century, King's grew through a series of mergers, including with Queen Elizabeth College and Chelsea College of Science and Technology, the Institute of Psychiatry, the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals and the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery.

Several TYC groups also belong to the London Centre for Nanotechnology, a joint enterprise between Imperial College and UCL. The range of research work done by TYC groups is correspondingly broad, and includes topics such as the interaction of water with minerals, materials for the nuclear industry, the design of semiconductor materials for device applications, biomaterials, and many others.

London Centre for Nanotechnology Research institution in London, United Kingdom

The London Centre for Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary research centre in physical and biomedical nanotechnology in London, United Kingdom. It brings together three institutions that are world leaders in nanotechnology, University College London, Imperial College London and King's College London. It was conceived from the outset with a management structure allowing for a clear focus on exploitation and commercialisation. Although based at UCL's campus in Bloomsbury, the LCN includes research in departments of Imperial's South Kensington campus and in King's Strand campus.

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Materials science Interdisciplinary field which deals with discovery and design of new materials, primarily of physical and chemical properties of solids

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering, is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids. The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Enlightenment, when researchers began to use analytical thinking from chemistry, physics, and engineering to understand ancient, phenomenological observations in metallurgy and mineralogy. Materials science still incorporates elements of physics, chemistry, and engineering. As such, the field was long considered by academic institutions as a sub-field of these related fields. Beginning in the 1940s, materials science began to be more widely recognized as a specific and distinct field of science and engineering, and major technical universities around the world created dedicated schools of the study, within either the Science or Engineering schools, hence the naming.

Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy. It is the largest branch of condensed matter physics. Solid-state physics studies how the large-scale properties of solid materials result from their atomic-scale properties. Thus, solid-state physics forms a theoretical basis of materials science. It also has direct applications, for example in the technology of transistors and semiconductors.

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Nicholas Harrison British physicist

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References

  1. R. M. Martin (2004). Electronic Structure. Cambridge University Press.
  2. D. G. Pettifor (1995). Bonding and Structure of Molecules and Solids. Oxford University Press.
  3. D. Frenkel and B. Smit (2002). Understanding Molecular Simulation. Academic Press.
  4. C. R. A. Catlow (editor) (1991). Defects and Disorder in Amorphous Solids. Kluwer Academic.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  5. M. W. Finnis (2003). Interatomic Forces in Condensed Matter. Oxford University Press.
  6. L. N. Kantorovich (2004). Quantum Theory of the Solid State. Kluwer Academic.
  7. A. M. Stoneham (2001). Theory of Defects in Solids. Oxford University Press.
  8. A. P. Sutton (1993). Electronic Structure of Materials. Oxford University Press.
  9. A. P. Sutton and R. W. Balluffi (1995). Interfaces in Crystalline Materials. Oxford University Press.
  10. http://www.thomasyoungcentre.org/people/