Thomas Ypsilantis

Last updated
Thomas Ypsilantis
Thomas Ypsilantis.jpg
BornJune 24, 1928
DiedAugust 16, 2000(2000-08-16) (aged 72)
Nationality United States
Alma mater University of Utah
University of California, Berkeley
Known forCo-discovery of the antiproton
Developing the RICH detector
Scientific career
Fields Particle physics
Institutions CERN
Thesis Experiments on polarization in nucleon-nucleon scattering at 310 MeV  (1955)
Doctoral advisor Emilio Segrè
Influenced Henry Stapp [1]

Thomas John Ypsilantis (Greek : Θωμάς Υψηλάντης; June 24, 1928 August 16, 2000) was an American physicist of Greek descent. Ypsilantis was known for the co-discovery of the antiproton in 1955, along with Owen Chamberlain, Emilio Segrè, and Clyde Wiegand. Following this work, he moved to CERN to develop Cherenkov radiation detectors for use in particle physics.

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

United States federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Physicist scientist who does research in physics

A physicist is a scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe. Physicists generally are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, and usually frame their understanding in mathematical terms. Physicists work across a wide range of research fields, spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic and particle physics, through biological physics, to cosmological length scales encompassing the universe as a whole. The field generally includes two types of physicists: experimental physicists who specialize in the observation of physical phenomena and the analysis of experiments, and theoretical physicists who specialize in mathematical modeling of physical systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena. Physicists can apply their knowledge towards solving practical problems or to developing new technologies.

Contents

Biography

Tom Ypsilantis was born in Salt Lake City in 1928. His father was killed by lightning in 1931. He graduated from South High School in 1945, and attended the University of Utah graduating with a degree in chemistry in 1949. [2] He then attended the University of California, Berkeley where he joined the four person team at the Berkeley Bevatron that observed the first antiproton; this became the subject of his PhD thesis and the two senior members of this team won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959. Ypsilantis was Associate Professor of Physics at the University of California, Berkeley, and was instrumental in the founding of the Demokritos Research Center in Athens, Greece. In 1969, he went to Geneva to work at CERN (Centre European Research Nucleaire), where he met Jacques Séguinot. In 1977, Ypsilantis and Séguinot proposed the technique later called the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counter. Together with Tord Ekelöf, they introduced this technique for high-energy physics: the first large-scale application was for the DELPHI experiment at LEP. They later worked in the framework of the LAAS Project on noble-liquid calorimetry and on a very large water neutrino detector based on the fast-RICH technique. Ypsilantis also made major contributions to the LHCb experiment at CERN. [3] He served as the Senior Research Director in Geneva, Project Director in Bologna, Italy, and Consultant to the French Nuclear Agency in Sauclay, France. [4]

South High School (Salt Lake City) high school in Salt Lake City, Utah

South High School was a high school in Salt Lake City, Utah, which operated from 1931 to 1988. The school was located on the southern end of Salt Lake City proper, at 1575 S. State Street. The school is now a campus of Salt Lake Community College.

University of Utah public coeducational space-grant research university in Salt Lake City, Utah

The University of Utah is a public research university in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. As the state's flagship university, the university offers more than 100 undergraduate majors and more than 92 graduate degree programs. The university is classified among "R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity" with "selective" admissions. Graduate studies include the S.J. Quinney College of Law and the School of Medicine, Utah's first medical school. As of Fall 2015, there are 23,909 undergraduate students and 7,764 graduate students, for an enrollment total of 31,673.

University of California, Berkeley Public university in California, USA

The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in the United States. Located in the city of Berkeley, it was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in approximately 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines.

Related Research Articles

CERN international organization which operates the worlds largest particle physics laboratory

The European Organization for Nuclear Research, known as CERN, is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, the organization is based in a northwest suburb of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border and has 22 member states. Israel is the only non-European country granted full membership. CERN is an official United Nations Observer.

Carlo Rubbia Italian particle physicist

Carlo Rubbia, is an Italian particle physicist and inventor who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.

Antiproton antiparticle of the proton

The antiproton,
p
, is the antiparticle of the proton. Antiprotons are stable, but they are typically short-lived, since any collision with a proton will cause both particles to be annihilated in a burst of energy.

Pavel Cherenkov Soviet physicist

Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov was a Soviet physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in physics in 1958 with Ilya Frank and Igor Tamm for the discovery of Cherenkov radiation, made in 1934.

Owen Chamberlain American physicist

Owen Chamberlain was an American physicist, and Nobel laureate in physics for his discovery, with collaborator Emilio Segrè, of the antiproton, a sub-atomic antiparticle.

Simon van der Meer Dutch physicist

Simon van der Meer was a Dutch particle accelerator physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Carlo Rubbia for contributions to the CERN project which led to the discovery of the W and Z particles, two of the most fundamental constituents of matter.

UA2 experiment CERN experiment leading to the discovery of W and Z bosons

The Underground Area 2 (UA2) experiment was a high-energy physics experiment at the Proton-Antiproton Collider — a modification of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) — at CERN. The experiment ran from 1981 until 1990, and its main objective was to discover the W and Z bosons. UA2, together with the UA1 experiment, succeeded in discovering these particles in 1983, leading to the 1984 Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer. The UA2 experiment also observed the first evidence for jet production in hadron collisions in 1981, and was involved in the searches of the top quark and of supersymmetric particles. Pierre Darriulat was the spokesperson of UA2 from 1981 to 1986, followed by Luigi Di Lella from 1986 to 1990.

The ring-imaging Cherenkov, or RICH, detector is a device for identifying the type of an electrically charged subatomic particle of known momentum, that traverses a transparent refractive medium, by measurement of the presence and characteristics of the Cherenkov radiation emitted during that traversal. RICH detectors were first developed in the 1980s and are used in high energy elementary particle-, nuclear- and astro-physics experiments.

Detection of internally reflected Cherenkov light

In particle detectors a detection of internally reflected Cherenkov light (DIRC) detector measures the velocity of charged particles and is used for particle identification. It is a design of a ring imaging Cherenkov detector where Cherenkov light that is contained by total internal reflection inside the solid radiator has its angular information preserved until it reaches the light sensors at the detector perimeter.

Gerson Goldhaber Particle Physicist and astrophysicist

Gerson Goldhaber was a German-born American particle physicist and astrophysicist. He was one of the discoverers of the J/ψ meson which confirmed the existence of the charm quark. He worked at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the Supernova Cosmology Project, and was a professor of physics emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley as well as a professor at Berkeley's graduate school in astrophysics.

Swapan Chattopadhyay Indian physicist

Swapan Chattopadhyay is a particle accelerator physicist noted for his pioneering contributions of innovative concepts, techniques and developments in high energy particle colliders, coherent and incoherent light sources, ultrafast sciences in the femto- and atto- second regimes, superconducting linear accelerators and various applications of interaction of particle and light beams. He has directly contributed to the development of many accelerators around the world, e.g. the Super Proton-Antiproton Synchrotron at CERN, the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley, the asymmetric-energy electron-positron collider PEP-II at Stanford, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab and the Free-Electron Lasers at Jefferson and Daresbury Laboratories.

Antiproton Decelerator CERN infrastructure

The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is a storage ring at the CERN laboratory near Geneva. It was built as a successor to the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) and started operation in the year 2000. Antiprotons are created by impinging a proton beam from the Proton Synchrotron on a metal target. The AD decelerates the resultant antiprotons to an energy of 5.3 MeV, which are then ejected to one of several connected experiments.

Donald Hill Perkins is a British physicist and an Emeritus Professor at the University of Oxford. He achieved great success in the field of particle physics and is also known for his books.

Antiproton Accumulator Part of the CERN proton-antiproton collider

The Antiproton Accumulator (AA) was an infrastructure connected to the Proton-Antiproton Collider (SppS) — a modification of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) — at CERN. The AA was built in 1979 and 1980, for the production and accumulation of antiprotons. In the SppS the antiprotons were made to collide with protons, achieving collisions at a center of mass energy of app. 540 GeV. Several experiments recorded data from the collisions, most notably the UA1 and UA2 experiment, where the W and Z bosons were discovered in 1983.

Peter Ignaz Paul Kalmus, is a British particle physicist, and emeritus professor of physics at Queen Mary, University of London.

Paolo Giubellino

Paolo Giubellino, is an experimental particle physicist working on High-Energy Nuclear Collisions. Currently he is the joint Scientific Managing Director of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH and the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH. The accelerator facility FAIR, which will be constructed at GSI, is one of the largest research projects worldwide. Until 31 December 2016 Giubellino was the Spokesperson of the ALICE: A Large Ion Collider Experiment Collaboration, an international collaboration of more than 1300 people from 163 scientific institutions from 40 countries. He has carried several responsibility positions in the ALICE Collaboration since its creation in the early nineties, to be eventually elected deputy spokesperson from 2004 to 2010 and spokesperson since 1 January 2011. On July 17, 2013, he was elected with a very large majority for a second term as spokesperson of the Collaboration.

Maria Fidecaro is an Italian experimental physicist with a focus on particle physics. She has spent most of her career at CERN, where she today has the status of honorary member of the personnel.

Super Proton–Antiproton Synchrotron particle accelerator at CERN

The Super Proton–Antiproton Synchrotron was a particle accelerator that operated at CERN from 1981 to 1991. To operate as a proton-antiproton collider the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) underwent substantial modifications, altering it from a one beam synchrotron to a two-beam collider. The main experiments at the accelerator were UA1 and UA2, where the W and Z boson were discovered in 1983. Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer received the 1984 Nobel Prize in Physics for their decisive contribution to the SppS-project, which led to the discovery of the W and Z bosons. Other experiments conducted at the SppS were UA4, UA5 and UA8.

Michel Della Negra, born 1942, is a French experimental particle physicist known for his role in the 2012 discovery of the Higgs Boson.

Johanna Stachel German physicist

Johanna Stachel is a German physicist specializing in particle physics and nuclear physics. She is also a professor in experimental physics at the University of Heidelberg. At the CERN International Research Center in Geneva, she does experiments with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator for her quark-gluon plasma research. From 2012 to 2014, she was the President of the German Physical Society (DPG).

References

  1. Schwartz, Jeffrey M.; Begley, Sharon (2009). The Mind and the Brain. Springer Science & Business. p. 343.
  2. Steiner, Herbert (April 2003). "Thomas Ypsilantis—The early years" (Submitted manuscript). Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 502 (1): 1–8. Bibcode:2003NIMPA.502....1S. doi:10.1016/S0168-9002(02)02148-4.
  3. Weisstein, Eric; Kambouroglou, George. "Ypsilantis, Tom (1928-2000) -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography". World of Biography. Wolfram Research. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  4. "Obituary: Dr. Thomas J. Ypsilantis". Deseret News. 23 August 2000. Retrieved 20 March 2017.