Thomas Zebrowski (Lithuanian : Tomas Žebrauskas, Polish : Tomasz Żebrowski; November 24, 1714 in Samogitia – March 18, 1758 in Vilnius) was a Jesuit architect, mathematician, and astronomer. He was instrumental in establishing and funding the Observatory of Vilnius University. Marcin Odlanicki Poczobutt was among his students.
Lithuanian is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region. It is the language of Lithuanians and the official language of Lithuania as well as one of the official languages of the European Union. There are about 2.9 million native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania and about 200,000 abroad.
Polish is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group. It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million Polish language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.
Samogitia or Žemaitija is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. Žemaitija is located in northwestern Lithuania. Its largest city is Šiauliai. Žemaitija has a long and distinct cultural history, reflected in the existence of the Samogitian dialect.
Zebrowski studied philosophy and theology at Vilnius University.He briefly taught at Jesuit schools in Kražiai, Ilūkste, and Babruysk and prepared construction projects for churches in these towns. They displayed features of Baroque churches in Vilnius. He also designed the Jesuit school in Zhodishki (Жодишки in Belarus), houses for nobles, and other buildings. Though documentary evidence is lacking, it is suspected that Zebrowski was also involved in construction of churches in Minsk and Płock, Oginski residence in Ručyca (Hanuta) village.
The Kražiai College was a Jesuit college in Kražiai, Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later Russian Empire. Established in 1616 in hopes to educate new generations of anti-Protestants, the college was one of the major cultural and educational centers in Samogitia. In 1620–1742, it shared premises with the Samogitian Priest Seminary. In 1844, the college was transferred to Kaunas.
Ilūkste is a town and a seat of Ilūkste Municipality, southeastern Latvia.
Babruysk, Babrujsk, or Bobruisk is a city in the Mogilev Region of eastern Belarus on the Berezina river. It is a large city in Belarus. As of 2009, its population was 215,092. The name Babruysk probably originates from the Belarusian word babyor, many of which used to inhabit the Berezina. However, beavers in the area had been almost eliminated by the end of the 19th century due to hunting and pollution.
After studying at Charles University in Prague under Joseph Stepling in 1750–52, 13.5-centimetre (5.3 in) and 10-centimetre (3.9 in) diameter reflector telescopes manufactured in Germany. Zebrowski designed the observatory; its construction began in 1753.Zebrowski returned to Vilnius, becoming a popular lecturer of physics and astronomy at Vilnius University. He was also interested in geodesy, horology, mineralogy, geography. However, his major passion was astronomy and he pursued funding for an observatory. The construction was funded by Elżbieta Ogińska-Puzynina, while Mikolaj Radziwill and bishop Józef Sapieha donated
Vilnius University is the oldest university in the Baltic states and one of the oldest in Northern Europe. It is the largest university in Lithuania.
Geodesy, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding the Earth's geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field. The field also incorporates studies of how these properties change over time and equivalent measurements for other planets. Geodynamical phenomena include crustal motion, tides, and polar motion, which can be studied by designing global and national control networks, applying space and terrestrial techniques, and relying on datums and coordinate systems.
Horology is the study of the measurement of time. Clocks, watches, clockwork, sundials, hourglasses, clepsydras, timers, time recorders, marine chronometers and atomic clocks are all examples of instruments used to measure time. In current usage, horology refers mainly to the study of mechanical time-keeping devices, while chronometry more broadly includes electronic devices that have largely supplanted mechanical clocks for the best accuracy and precision in time-keeping.
Marcin Odlanicki Poczobutt was a Polish–Lithuanian jesuit, astronomer and mathematician. He was professor of Vilnius University for over 50 years, serving as its rector from 1780 to 1799. The Poczobutt crater on the Moon is named after him.
Tomas Venclova is a Lithuanian poet, prose writer, scholar, philologist and translator of literature. He is one of the five founding members of the Lithuanian Helsinki Group. In 1977, following his dissident activities, he was forced to emigrate and was deprived of his Soviet citizenship. Since 1980 he has taught Russian and Polish literature at Yale University. Considered a major figure in world literature, he has received many awards, including the Prize of Two Nations, and The Person of Tolerance of the Year Award from the Sugihara Foundation, among other honors.
Antoni Wiwulski (1877–1919) was a Polish-Lithuanian architect and sculptor.
Paul A. McNally was an American astronomer, scientist, and Jesuit priest. He was also a Dean of the Georgetown University School of Medicine.
The Molėtai Astronomical Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Vilnius University Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy. It is located on the Kaldiniai Hill next to Kulionys, Lithuania, 10 km from the town of Molėtai.
George V. Coyne, S.J. is a Jesuit priest, astronomer, and former director of the Vatican Observatory and head of the observatory's research group which is based at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona. Since January 2012, he has served as McDevitt Chair of Religious Philosophy at Le Moyne College in Syracuse, NY.
Laurynas Gucevičius was an 18th-century Lithuanian architect from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and most of his designs were built there.
Konstantinas Sirvydas 1579 – 8 August 1631) was a Lithuanian religious preacher, lexicographer and one of the pioneers of Lithuanian literature from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, at the time a confederal part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was a Jesuit priest, a professor at the Academia Vilnensis and the author of, among other works, the first grammar of the Lithuanian language and the first tri-lingual dictionary in Lithuanian, Latin and Polish (1619). Famous for his eloquence, Sirvydas spent 10 years of his life preaching sermons at St. John's church in Vilnius.
Vytautas Straižys is a Lithuanian astronomer. In 1963–65 he and his collaborators created and developed the Vilnius photometric system, a seven-color intermediate band system, optimized for photometric stellar classification. In 1996 he was elected a Corresponding Member of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences. Straižys is an editor of the journal Baltic Astronomy. He is currently working at the Molėtai Astronomical Observatory. Asteroid 68730 Straizys in 2002 was named after him.
Marcin Knackfus was a Polish–Lithuanian Neoclassical architect of German descent. Born near Warsaw, he worked in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and particularly in its capital Vilnius. He was a tutor of Laurynas Gucevičius.
The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Vilnius is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Lithuania. Established as the Diocese of Vilnius in the 14th century, it was elevated to the rank of a metropolitan archdiocese by Pope Pius XI on October 28, 1925. It has two suffragan sees of Kaišiadorys and Panevėžys.
The Roman College was a school established by St. Ignatius of Loyola in 1551, just 17 years after he founded the Society of Jesus (1534). It quickly grew to include classes from elementary school through university level. It moved to several different locations to accommodate its growing student population. With the patronage of Pope Gregory XIII, from 1582 to 1584 the final seat of the Roman College was built near the center of Rome's most historic Pigna district, on what today is called Piazza del Collegio Romano. The college, renamed Gregorian University in 1584 after its benefactor, remained at this location for 286 years until the Capture of Rome in 1870.
Walerian Protasewicz was bishop of Lutsk (1549–1555) and Vilnius (1555–1579). To combat Reformation he invited Jesuits to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. He funded the Jesuit college in Vilnius and obtained Papal and Royal privileges to convert the college into Vilnius University in 1579. The university soon became spiritual and cultural center of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Vilnius University Library or VU Library is the oldest and one of the largest academic libraries of Lithuania. It was founded in 1570 by the Jesuits and as such is nine years older than Vilnius University. VU Library holds 5.4 million documents on shelves measuring 166 kilometres (103 mi) in length. The holdings, accessible to members of the university and wider public, include some of the oldest manuscripts, incunabula and engravings in Lithuania and Eastern Europe. As of 2010, the library has 28,420 users.
Church of St. Casimir is a Roman Catholic church in Vilnius' Old Town, close to the Vilnius' Town Hall. It is the first and the oldest baroque church in Vilnius, built in 1618.
Kolainiai is a village in Kelmė District Municipality, Lithuania. It is located about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) southwest from Užventis. According to the 2011 census, it had population of 261.
Vilnius University Astronomical Observatory is an astronomical observatory of Vilnius University. It was founded on 1753 by initiative of Thomas Zebrowski. The observatory is the fourth oldest observatory in the Europe. While the observatory is no longer able to make astronomical observations due to light pollution in Vilnius, it continues scientific research.
John of the Lithuanian Dukes was Bishop of Wilno (1519–36) and of Bishop of Poznań (1536–38). He was the bishop when Protestantism was making the first inroads into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and took the first steps in combating it. John was an illegitimate son of Sigismund I the Old, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his mistress Katarzyna Telniczenka.
Andrius Rudamina, S.J. was the first Lithuanian Jesuit missionary in China.