Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley

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Arms of Berkeley ("Cornerwise"): Gules, a chevron between ten crosses pattee six in chief and four in base argent Berkeley arms.svg
Arms of Berkeley ("Cornerwise"): Gules, a chevron between ten crosses pattée six in chief and four in base argent

Thomas de Berkeley (c. 1293 or 1296 – 27 October 1361), The Rich, feudal baron of Berkeley, of Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire, England, was a peer. His epithet, and that of each previous and subsequent head of his family, was coined by John Smyth of Nibley (d.1641), steward of the Berkeley estates, the biographer of the family and author of "Lives of the Berkeleys".

English feudal barony Medieval English noble title and type of land tenure

In the kingdom of England, a feudal barony or barony by tenure was the highest degree of feudal land tenure, namely per baroniam, under which the land-holder owed the service of being one of the king's barons. The duties owed by and the privileges granted to feudal barons cannot now be defined exactly, but they involved the duty of providing soldiers to the royal feudal army on demand by the king, and the privilege of attendance at the king's feudal court, the precursor of parliament.

Berkeley Castle castle in the town of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, UK

Berkeley Castle is a castle in the town of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, UK. The castle's origins date back to the 11th century and it has been designated by English Heritage as a grade I listed building.

The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Acts of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain. New peers continued to be created in the Peerage of Ireland until 1898.

Contents

Origins

He was the eldest son and heir of Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley by his wife Eve la Zouche.

Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley English noble and rebel

Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley, The Magnanimous, feudal baron of Berkeley, of Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire, England, was a peer. He rebelled against King Edward II and the Despencers. His epithet, and that of each previous and subsequent head of his family, was coined by John Smyth of Nibley, steward of the Berkeley estates, the biographer of the family and author of Lives of the Berkeleys.

Career

In 1327 he was made joint custodian of the deposed King Edward II, whom he received at Berkeley Castle. He was later commanded to deliver custody of the king to his fellow custodians, namely John Maltravers, 1st Baron Maltravers and Sir Thomas Gournay. He left the king at Berkeley Castle and with heavy cheere perceiving what violence was intended he journeyed to Bradley. The king was murdered at Berkeley Castle during his absence. As an accessory to the murder of the deposed king, he was tried by a jury of 12 knights in 1330 and was honourably acquitted.

Edward II of England 14th-century King of England and Duke of Aquitaine

Edward II, also called Edward of Carnarvon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. The fourth son of Edward I, Edward became the heir apparent to the throne following the death of his elder brother Alphonso. Beginning in 1300, Edward accompanied his father on campaigns to pacify Scotland, and in 1306 was knighted in a grand ceremony at Westminster Abbey. Following his father's death, Edward succeeded to the throne in 1307. He married Isabella, the daughter of the powerful King Philip IV of France, in 1308, as part of a long-running effort to resolve tensions between the English and French crowns.

John Maltravers, 1st Baron Maltravers English nobleman and soldier

John Maltravers, 1st Baron Maltravers (1290?–1364) was an English nobleman and soldier.

Marriages & progeny

He married twice:

Margaret Mortimer, Baroness Berkeley Baroness Berkeley

Margaret Mortimer, Baroness Berkeley was the wife of Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley. She was the eldest daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, the de facto ruler of England from 1327 to 1330, and his wife Joan de Geneville, Baroness Geneville.

Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March English nobleman and rebel

Roger Mortimer, 3rd Baron Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, was an English nobleman and powerful Marcher lord who gained many estates in the Welsh Marches and Ireland following his advantageous marriage to the wealthy heiress Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville. In November 1316, he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1322 for having led the Marcher lords in a revolt against King Edward II in what became known as the Despenser War. He later escaped to France, where he was joined by Edward's queen consort Isabella, whom he may have taken as his mistress. After he and Isabella led a successful invasion and rebellion, Edward was subsequently deposed; Mortimer allegedly arranged his murder at Berkeley Castle. For three years, Mortimer was de facto ruler of England before being himself overthrown by Edward's eldest son, Edward III. Accused of assuming royal power and other crimes, Mortimer was executed by hanging at Tyburn.

Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley 4th Baron Berkeley

Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley, The Valiant, feudal baron of Berkeley, of Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire, was an English peer. His epithet, and that of each previous and subsequent head of his family, was coined by John Smyth of Nibley, steward of the Berkeley estates, the biographer of the family and author of "Lives of the Berkeleys".

Death & succession

He died on 27 October 1361 in Gloucestershire and was succeeded by Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley (born 1320, date of death unknown), eldest son and heir from his first marriage.

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References

  1. Plea rolls of the Court of Common Pleas; National Archives; http://aalt.law.uh.edu/AALT6/R2/CP40no483/483_0892.htm; first entry: mentions Katherine, formerly wife of Thomas de Berkele of Barkele, knight, as complainant; Year: 1381
  2. "BERKELEY, Sir John I (1352-1428), of Beverstone castle, Glos. - History of Parliament Online". www.historyofparliamentonline.org.
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Maurice de Berkeley
Baron Berkeley
1326–1361
Succeeded by
Maurice de Berkeley