Thomas de Cantilupe

Last updated
Saint

Thomas de Cantilupe
Bishop of Hereford
Diocese of Hereford arms.svg
"Modern" arms of Thomas de Cantilupe: Gules, three leopard's faces reversed jessant-de-lys or. These arms were subsequently assumed by the See of Hereford
Installed1275
Term ended1282
Predecessor John de Breton
Successor Richard Swinefield
Personal details
Born c. 1218
Hambleden, Buckinghamshire, England
Died25 August 1282 (aged 6364)
Ferento, Montefiascone, Papal States (now Italy)
DenominationCatholic
Sainthood
Feast day25 August, 2 October
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church; Anglican Communion
Title as SaintThomas of Hereford
Canonized17 April 1320
by  Pope John XXII
Attributesdressed as a bishop
Shrines Hereford Cathedral
Lord Chancellor
In office
1264–1265
Monarch Henry III of England
Preceded by John Chishull
Succeeded by Ralph Sandwich

Thomas de Cantilupe (c. 1218 – 25 August 1282) (alias Cantelow, Cantelou, Canteloupe, etc., Latinised to de Cantilupo) [1] was Lord Chancellor of England and Bishop of Hereford and was canonised in 1320 by Pope John XXII.

Circa – frequently abbreviated c., ca., or ca and less frequently circ. or cca. – signifies "approximately" in several European languages and as a loanword in English, usually in reference to a date. Circa is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known.

Bishop of Hereford Diocesan bishop in the Church of England

The Bishop of Hereford is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Hereford in the Province of Canterbury.

Pope John XXII pope from 1316 to his death in 1334

Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze, was Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334.

Contents

Origins

Cantilupe was born at Hambleden in Buckinghamshire, a son of William de Cantilupe (d. 1251), an Anglo-Norman magnate and a minister of King John, and nephew of Walter de Cantilupe (d. 1266), Bishop of Worcester.

Hambleden farm village in the United Kingdom

Hambleden is a small village and civil parish within Wycombe district in the south of Buckinghamshire, England. It is about 4 miles (6.4 km) west of Marlow, and about 3 miles (4.8 km) north east of Henley-on-Thames in Oxfordshire.

Buckinghamshire County of England

Buckinghamshire, abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county in South East England which borders Greater London to the south east, Berkshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the west, Northamptonshire to the north, Bedfordshire to the north east and Hertfordshire to the east.

Walter de Cantilupe 13th-century Bishop of Worcester

Walter de Cantilupe was a medieval Bishop of Worcester.

Career

Cantilupe was educated at Oxford, Paris and Orléans, and was a teacher of canon law at the University of Oxford, where he became Chancellor in 1261. [2]

Oxford City and non-metropolitan district in England

Oxford is a university city in south central England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With a population of approximately 155,000, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, with one of the fastest growing populations in the UK, and it remains the most ethnically diverse area in Oxfordshire county. The city is 51 miles (82 km) from London, 61 miles (98 km) from Bristol, 59 miles (95 km) from Southampton, 57 miles (92 km) from Birmingham and 24 miles (39 km) from Reading.

Orléans Prefecture and commune in Centre-Val de Loire, France

Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres southwest of Paris. It is the capital of the Loiret department and of the Centre-Val de Loire region.

Canon law is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members. It is the internal ecclesiastical law, or operational policy, governing the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, and the individual national churches within the Anglican Communion. The way that such church law is legislated, interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies of churches. In all three traditions, a canon was originally a rule adopted by a church council; these canons formed the foundation of canon law.

During the Second Barons' War, Cantilupe favoured Simon de Montfort and the baronial party. He represented the barons before King Louis IX of France at Amiens in 1264.

Second Barons War 1260s civil war in England

The Second Barons' War (1264–1267) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of barons led by Simon de Montfort against the royalist forces of King Henry III, led initially by the king himself and later by his son, the future King Edward I. The war featured a series of massacres of Jews by Montfort's supporters including his sons Henry and Simon, in attacks aimed at seizing and destroying evidence of Baronial debts. After a rule of just over a year, Montfort was killed by forces loyal to the King in the Battle of Evesham.

Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester 13th-century Anglo-Norman nobleman and rebel

Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from his namesake relatives, was a nobleman of French origin and a member of the English peerage, who led the baronial opposition to the rule of King Henry III of England, culminating in the Second Barons' War. Following his initial victories over royal forces, he became de facto ruler of the country, and played a major role in the constitutional development of England.

Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary. The female equivalent is baroness.

On 25 February 1264, when he was Archdeacon of Stafford, Cantilupe was made Lord Chancellor of England, [3] but was deprived of the office after de Montfort's death at the Battle of Evesham, and lived abroad for a while. Following his return to England, he was again appointed Chancellor of Oxford University, where he lectured on theology and held several ecclesiastical appointments. [2]

Lord Chancellor Highest-ranking regularly-appointed Great Officer of State of the United Kingdom

The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking the Prime Minister. The Lord Chancellor is outranked only by the Lord High Steward, another Great Officer of State, who is appointed only for the day of coronations. The Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. Prior to the Union there were separate Lord Chancellors for England and Wales, for Scotland and for Ireland.

The Battle of Evesham was one of the two main battles of 13th century England's Second Barons' War. It marked the defeat of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and the rebellious barons by the future King Edward I, who led the forces of his father, King Henry III. It took place on 4 August 1265, near the town of Evesham, Worcestershire.

Bishop of Hereford

Seal of Bishop Thomas de Cantilupe. Legend: TOMAS DEI GRATIA HEREFORDENSIS EP(ISCOPU)S (Thomas by the grace of God Bishop of Hereford). The arms of Cantilupe ancient are displayed on each side of the bishop: three fleurs-de-lys. Hereford Cathedral Archives 6460 StThomasDeCantilupeSeal.jpg
Seal of Bishop Thomas de Cantilupe. Legend: TOMAS DEI GRATIA HEREFORDENSIS EP(ISCOPU)S (Thomas by the grace of God Bishop of Hereford). The arms of Cantilupe ancient are displayed on each side of the bishop: three fleurs-de-lys . Hereford Cathedral Archives 6460

In 1274 Cantilupe attended the Second Council of Lyons [4] and on 14 June 1275 he was appointed Bishop of Hereford, being consecrated on 8 September 1275. [5]

Cantilupe was now a trusted adviser of King Edward I and when attending royal councils at Windsor Castle or at Westminster he lived at Earley in Berkshire. Even when differing from the king's opinions, he did not forfeit his favour.

Cantilupe had a "great conflict" in 1290 with the "Red Earl", Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, 6th Earl of Hertford, concerning hunting rights in Malvern, Worcestershire, and a ditch dug by de Clare. The issue was settled by costly litigation. [6]

After the death in 1279 of Robert Kilwardby, Archbishop of Canterbury, a friend of Cantilupe's, and formerly his confessor, a series of disputes arose between him and John Peckham, the new archbishop. [2] The disagreements culminated in Peckham excommunicating Cantilupe, who proceeded to Rome to pursue the matter with the pope. [7]

Death, burial, and canonisation

Remnant of tomb of Thomas de Cantilupe, Hereford Cathedral Hereford cathedral 024.JPG
Remnant of tomb of Thomas de Cantilupe, Hereford Cathedral

Cantilupe died at Ferento, near Orvieto, in Italy, on 25 August 1282 [2] [5] He is buried in Hereford Cathedral. [2] Part of the evidence used in his cause of canonisation was the supposed raising from the dead of William Cragh, a Welsh rebel who was hanged in 1290, eight years after Cantilupe's death. A papal inquiry was convened in London on 20 April 1307 to determine whether or not Cantilupe had died excommunicate, since this would have precluded his being canonised. Forty-four witnesses were called and various letters produced, before the commissioners of the inquiry concluded that Cantilupe had been absolved in Rome before his death. [7] It was difficult for his cause of death to be determined as much of his body had disintegrated.

After a papal investigation lasting almost 13 years, Cantilupe was canonised by Pope John XXII on 17 April 1320. [8] His feast day was fixed on 2 October. [9] His shrine became a popular place of pilgrimage, but only its base survived the Reformation until a new upper section (a feretory) was recently recreated under the guidance of architect Robert Chitham. The new section is in vivid colours with a painted scene of the Virgin & Child holding the Mappa Mundi. A reliquary containing his skull has been held at Downside Abbey in Somerset since 1881.

In the current Latin edition of the Roman Martyrology (2004 edition), Cantilupe is listed under 25 August as follows: "At Montefiascone in Tuscia, the passing of Saint Thomas Cantelupe, Bishop of Hereford in England, who, resplendent with learning, severe toward himself, to the poor however showed himself a generous benefactor". [10]

Legacy

Cantilupe appears to have been an exemplary bishop in both spiritual and secular affairs. His charities were large and his private life blameless. He was constantly visiting his diocese, correcting offenders and discharging other episcopal duties, and he compelled neighbouring landholders to restore estates which rightly belonged to the see of Hereford. Cantilupe has been lauded as the "Father of Modern Charity," and is cited as an inspiration by Mother Teresa and Melinda Gates. [11]

The Cantilupe Society was founded in 1905 to publish the episcopal registers of the See of Hereford, of which Cantilupe's is the first in existence. [12]

Citations

  1. The commonly accepted modern spelling appears to be "Cantilupe", as used by the Dictionary of National Biography for all members of this family
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Walsh 2007 , p. 598
  3. Fryde et al. 1996 , p. 85
  4. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  5. 1 2 Fryde et al. 1996 , p. 250
  6. Nott, James (1885). Some of the Antiquities of Moche Malvern (Great Malvern). Malvern: John Thompson. p. 14. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
  7. 1 2 Bartlett 2004 , p. 23
  8. Bartlett 2004 , p. 123
  9. Pilgrimage page at Hereford Cathedral official website Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine accessed 8 February 2012.
  10. Unofficial translation. Cf. Martyrologium Romanum, ex decreto sacrosancti oecumenici Concilii Vaticani II instauratum auctoritate Ioannis Pauli Pp. II promulgatum, editio [typica] altera, Typis Vaticanis, A.D. MMIV (2004), p. 475.
  11. "Parish and Community Magazine November 2017" (PDF). The Parishes of BROSELEY with BENTHALL and JACKFIELD & LINLEY with WILLEY and BARROW. 19 November 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  12. "Cantilupe Society | The Online Books Page". onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu. Retrieved 26 December 2017.

Related Research Articles

Boniface of Savoy (bishop) 13th-century Archbishop of Canterbury and saint

Boniface of Savoy was a medieval Bishop of Belley in France and Archbishop of Canterbury in England. He was the son of Thomas, Count of Savoy, and owed his initial ecclesiastical posts to his father. Other members of his family were also clergymen, and a brother succeeded his father as count. One niece was married to King Henry III of England and another was married to King Louis IX of France. It was Henry who secured Boniface's election as Archbishop, and throughout his tenure of that office he spent much time on the continent. He clashed with his bishops, with his nephew-by-marriage, and with the papacy, but managed to eliminate the archiepiscopal debt which he had inherited on taking office. During Simon de Montfort's struggle with King Henry, Boniface initially helped Montfort's cause, but later supported the king. After his death in Savoy, his tomb became the object of a cult, and he was eventually beatified in 1839.

John Peckham 13th-century Archbishop of Canterbury and writer

John Peckham was Archbishop of Canterbury in the years 1279–1292. He was a native of Sussex who was educated at Lewes Priory and became a Friar Minor about 1250. He studied at the University of Paris under Bonaventure, where he would later teach theology. From his teaching, he came into conflict with Thomas Aquinas, with whom he debated on two occasions. Known as a conservative theologian, he opposed Aquinas' views on the nature of the soul. Peckham also studied optics and astronomy, and his studies in those subjects were influenced by Roger Bacon.

Robert Burnell was an English bishop who served as Lord Chancellor of England from 1274 to 1292. A native of Shropshire, he served as a minor royal official before entering into the service of Prince Edward, the future King Edward I of England. When Edward went on the Eighth Crusade in 1270, Burnell stayed in England to secure the prince's interests. He served as regent after the death of King Henry III of England while Edward was still on crusade. He was twice elected Archbishop of Canterbury, but his personal life—which included a long-term mistress who was rumoured to have borne him four sons—prevented his confirmation by the papacy. In 1275 Burnell was elected Bishop of Bath and Wells, after Edward had appointed him Lord Chancellor in 1274.

Walter de Merton 13th-century Bishop of Rochester and Chancellor of England

Walter de Merton was Lord Chancellor of England, Archdeacon of Bath, founder of Merton College, Oxford, and Bishop of Rochester. For the first two years of the reign of Edward I he was in all but name regent of England during the King's absence abroad. He died in 1277 after falling from his horse, and is buried in Rochester Cathedral.

Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester 13th-century English nobleman

Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester, 3rd Lord of Glamorgan, 9th Lord of Clare was a powerful English noble. He was also known as "Red" Gilbert de Clare or "The Red Earl", probably because of his hair colour or fiery temper in battle. He held the Lordship of Glamorgan which was one of the most powerful and wealthy of the Welsh Marcher Lordships as well as over 200 English manors.

Wulfstan was Bishop of Worcester from 1062 to 1095. He was the last surviving pre-Conquest bishop and the only English-born bishop after 1075. Wulfstan is a Christian saint.

William de Vere was Bishop of Hereford and an Augustinian canon.

Godfrey Giffard 13th-century Bishop of Worcester and Chancellor of England

Godfrey Giffard was Chancellor of the Exchequer of England, Lord Chancellor of England and Bishop of Worcester.

Hereford Cathedral Church in Herefordshire, England

Hereford Cathedral is the cathedral church of the Anglican Diocese of Hereford in Hereford, England. Its most famous treasure is Mappa Mundi, a medieval map of the world created around 1300 by Richard of Holdingham. The map is listed on the UNESCO Memory of the World Register. The cathedral is a Grade I listed building. The site of the cathedral became a place of worship in the 8th century or earlier although the oldest part of the current building, the bishop's chapel, dates to the 11th century.

John de Halton, also called John de Halghton, was an English priest and Bishop of Carlisle from 1292 to 1324.

Nicholas of Ely was Lord Chancellor of England, Bishop of Worcester, Bishop of Winchester, and Lord High Treasurer in the 13th century.

Peter de Montfort of Beaudesert Castle was an English magnate, soldier and diplomat. He is the first person recorded as having presided over Parliament as a parlour or prolocutor, an office now known as Speaker of the House of Commons. He was one of those elected by the barons to represent them during the constitutional crisis with Henry III in 1258. He was later a leading supporter of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, against the King. Both he and Simon de Montfort were slain at the Battle of Evesham on 4 August 1265.

William de Wickwane was Archbishop of York, between the years 1279 and 1285.

William Cragh, was a medieval Welsh warrior and supporter of Rhys ap Maredudd, lord of the lands of Ystrad Tywi, in his rebellion against King Edward I of England. Captured in 1290 by the son of William de Briouze, the Cambro-Norman Lord of Gower, he was tried and found guilty of having killed thirteen men. Cragh was executed just outside Swansea within sight of de Briouze's Swansea Castle, twice, as the gallows collapsed during his first hanging. Lady Mary de Briouze decided for reasons unknown to intercede on Cragh's behalf, and prayed to the deceased Bishop of Hereford, Thomas de Cantilupe, requesting him to ask God to bring Cragh back from the dead. Cragh began to show signs of life the day after his execution, and over the subsequent few weeks made a full recovery, living for at least another eighteen years.

Adam Orleton was an English churchman and royal administrator.

Hilary of Chichester 12th century Bishop of Chichester

Hilary (c. 1110–1169) was a medieval Bishop of Chichester in England. English by birth, he studied canon law and worked in Rome as a papal clerk. During his time there, he became acquainted with a number of ecclesiastics, including the future Pope Adrian IV, and the writer John of Salisbury. In England, he served as a clerk for Henry of Blois, who was the Bishop of Winchester and brother of King Stephen of England. After Hilary's unsuccessful nomination to become Archbishop of York, Pope Eugene III compensated him by promoting him to the bishopric of Chichester in 1147.

Richard Swinefield 13th and 14th-century English Bishop of Hereford

Richard Swinefield was a medieval Bishop of Hereford, England. He graduated doctor of divinity before holding a number of ecclesiastical offices, including that of Archdeacon of London. As a bishop, he dedicated consideravle efforts to securing the canonisation of Thomas de Cantilupe, his predecessor, for whom he had worked during his lifetime. Active in his diocese, he devoted little time to politics. He was buried in Hereford Cathedral where a memorial to his memory still stands.

William de Montfort was an English medieval Canon law jurist, singer, dean, and university chancellor. He was apparently the son of Peter de Montfort.

References

Political offices
Preceded by
John Chishull
Lord Chancellor
1264–1265
Succeeded by
Ralph Sandwich
(Keeper of the Great Seal)
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
John de Breton
Bishop of Hereford
1275–1282
Succeeded by
Richard Swinefield
Academic offices
Preceded by
Richard de S. Agatha
Chancellor of the University of Oxford
1262–1264
Succeeded by
Henry de Cicestre?
or Nicholas de Ewelme