Thomas de Cottingham (c. 1300 – 1370) was an English-born cleric and judge who held the office of Master of the Rolls in Ireland.
The Master of the Rolls in Ireland was a senior judicial office in the Irish Chancery under English and British rule, equivalent to the Master of the Rolls in the English Chancery. Originally called the Keeper of the Rolls, he was responsible for the safekeeping of the Chancery records such as close rolls and patent rolls. The office was created by letters patent in 1333, the first holder of the Mastership being Edmund de Grimsby. As the Irish bureaucracy expanded, the duties of the Master of the Rolls came to be performed by subordinates and the position became a sinecure which was awarded to political allies of the Dublin Castle administration. In the nineteenth century it became a senior judicial appointment, ranking second within the Chancery behind the Lord Chancellor of Ireland. The post was abolished by the Courts of Justice Act 1924, passed by the Irish Free State established in 1922.
He took his name from his birthplace, Cottingham, in the East Riding of Yorkshire.He served as a clerk in the English Chancery for more than 30 years, and was Keeper of the Great Seal in 1349. He held the livings of several parishes, of which the names of three are known for certain: these are St. Mary the Great, Cambridge, St. Andrew, Holborn (1343), and Ashby St Mary, Norfolk.
Cottingham is a large village and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England with average affluence. It lies just north-west of the city of Kingston upon Hull, and 3.5 miles (5.6 km) from the city centre, and is part of the Hull urban area. Cottingham lies on the eastern edge of the Yorkshire Wolds with a parish population of over 17,000 in 2011. Cottingham is one of the villages claiming to be the largest village in England.
The East Riding of Yorkshire, or simply East Riding or East Yorkshire, is an area in Northern England and can refer either to the administrative county of the East Riding of Yorkshire which is a unitary authority, to the ceremonial county (Lieutenancy) of the East Riding of Yorkshire or to the easternmost of the three subdivisions (ridings) of the traditional county of Yorkshire.
The Court of Chancery was a court of equity in England and Wales that followed a set of loose rules to avoid the slow pace of change and possible harshness of the common law. The Chancery had jurisdiction over all matters of equity, including trusts, land law, the estates of lunatics and the guardianship of infants. Its initial role was somewhat different: as an extension of the Lord Chancellor's role as Keeper of the King's Conscience, the Court was an administrative body primarily concerned with conscientious law. Thus the Court of Chancery had a far greater remit than the common law courts, whose decisions it had the jurisdiction to overrule for much of its existence, and was far more flexible. Until the 19th century, the Court of Chancery could apply a far wider range of remedies than common law courts, such as specific performance and injunctions, and had some power to grant damages in special circumstances. With the shift of the Exchequer of Pleas towards a common law court and loss of its equitable jurisdiction by the Administration of Justice Act 1841, the Chancery became the only national equitable body in the English legal system.
In 1356 he became Master of the Rolls in Ireland. He was clearly expected by his superiors to find it a thankless task, since he was promised preferment both for his past services and "the labours which he would have to endure".He was promoted to the rank of clerk of the first degree in Chancery, and subsequently became a Master in Chancery, but it does not seem that he ever received any substantial reward for his services in Ireland.
He did not lack friends in the Dublin Government, and in 1356, during a period of confusion about clerical promotions, he was appointed joint prebendary of Kilmolran and Desart, in the Diocese of Lismore. However his opponents objected to the appointment as irregular and in 1357 King Edward III cancelled it.
A prebendary is a member of the Anglican or Roman Catholic clergy, a form of canon with a role in the administration of a cathedral or collegiate church. When attending services, prebendaries sit in particular seats, usually at the back of the choir stalls, known as prebendal stalls.
The Bishop of Lismore was a separate episcopal title which took its name after the town of Lismore in County Waterford, Republic of Ireland.
He was at Westminster, in attendance on the King, in February 1369: the Gascon Rolls note briefly that he "received the attorneys"He died in 1370.
Westminster is a government district and former capital of the Kingdom of England in Central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames. Westminster's concentration of visitor attractions and historic landmarks, one of the highest in London, includes the Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Cathedral.
Sir John Alan was a leading English-born statesman in sixteenth century Ireland. He was a member of the Irish House of Commons, and held the offices of Master of the Rolls in Ireland, Chancellor of the Exchequer of Ireland and Lord Chancellor of Ireland. Though he was childless himself, one of his brothers, William, founded a prominent landowning dynasty in County Kildare. The family's holdings included the manor of Kilteel, as well as substantial lands in County Dublin. They also acquired a baronetcy.
Thomas Rochfort (c.1450-1522) was a distinguished Irish judge and cleric who held the offices of Solicitor General for Ireland, Master of the Rolls in Ireland, and Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral.
John de St Paul, also known as John de Owston and John de Ouston, was an English-born cleric and judge of the fourteenth century. He was Archbishop of Dublin 1349–62 and Lord Chancellor of Ireland 1350–56. He had previously been Master of the Rolls in England 1337–40. Apart from a brief period of disgrace in 1340, he enjoyed the confidence of King Edward III. He was described as a zealous advocate of English policy in Ireland, but also as a pragmatic statesman, who was willing to conciliate the Anglo-Irish ruling class. He did much to enlarge and beautify Christ Church, Dublin, although virtually no trace of his work survives, having been destroyed by the Victorian rebuilding of the Cathedral.
Nicholas de Balscote was an English-born official and judge in fourteenth-century Ireland. He achieved high judicial office, but his career was later ruined by a quarrel with King Edward II.
Thomas de Thelwall was an English judge and Crown official who spent part of his career in Ireland, where he held office as Master of the Rolls in Ireland and clerk to the Privy Council of Ireland. He was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 1377-78.
Robert Sutton was an Irish judge and Crown official. During a career which lasted almost 60 years he served the English Crown in a variety of offices, notably as Deputy to the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer, Master of the Rolls in Ireland, and Deputy Treasurer of Ireland. A warrant dated 1423 praised him for his "long and laudable" service to the Crown.
Thomas de Everdon (c.1320–1413) was an English-born cleric and judge, who was a trusted Crown official in Ireland for several decades.
Edmund de Grimsby was an English cleric, Crown official and judge. While his career in Ireland lasted only about a year, he is notable as having been the first Master of the Rolls in Ireland.
Thomas Minot was an English-born judge and cleric in fourteenth century Ireland. He was Archbishop of Dublin from 1363 to 1375. He is chiefly remembered for his extensive restoration works to St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. In particular he built the cathedral's tower, which is still called Minot's Tower.
Robert de Holywood was an Irish judge and landowner who held the office of Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer. He was the ancestor of the Holywood family of Artane Castle, and of the Earls of Howth.
Robert de Hemmingburgh was an English born judge and priest, who held office as Master of the Rolls in Ireland.
John de Rednesse was an English born judge who served four times as Lord Chief Justice of Ireland.
Richard de Wirkeley was an English born cleric who was Prior of the Order of Hospitallers in Ireland and held office very briefly as Lord Chief Justice of Ireland.
William de Whithurst was an English Crown official, who held office as a judge in Ireland.
Sir Nicholas de Loveyne was a major English property owner and courtier, who held a number of senior positions in the service of King Edward III.
Robert de Leycestre was an English cleric, judge and Crown official, who held office as Master of the Rolls in Ireland.
Robert Dyke was an English-born cleric and judge who held high office in fifteenth-century Ireland, being appointed to the offices of Archdeacon of Dublin, Chancellor of the Exchequer of Ireland and Master of the Rolls in Ireland.
John de Kirkby was an English scholar, cleric and Crown official who held high judicial office in Ireland, and ended his career as Archdeacon of Carlisle.
Patrick Cogley was an Irish Crown official, landowner and judge of the fifteenth century.
Robert de Faryngton, or de Farrington was an English-born cleric, judge and statesman who became Lord High Treasurer of Ireland. As a cleric he was notorious for pluralism, but he enjoyed the trust of three successive English monarchs.
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