Thomas de Courtenay, 5th/13th Earl of Devon

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Thomas Courtenay
Courtenay of Devon.svg
Arms of the Courtenay earls of Devon: Or, three torteaux a label azure
Born3 May 1414
Devon, England
Died3 February 1458 (aged 43)
Abingdon Abbey, Oxfordshire, England
Title5th or 13th Earl of Devon [2]
Tenure16 June 1422 – 3 February 1458
Other titles6th Lord Courtenay
Baron of Okehampton
Nationality Kingdom of England
Residence Okehampton Castle
Tiverton Castle
Colcombe Castle
Locality Devon, Cornwall
Net worth£1,516 (1422) [3]
Wars and battles Hundred Years' War
Bonville–Courtenay feud
Battle of Clyst Heath
Wars of the Roses
1st Battle of St Albans  (WIA)
OfficesSteward of the duchy of   Cornwall
Spouse(s) Margaret Beaufort
Issue
more...
Thomas, Earl of Devon
John, Earl of Devon
House Courtenay
Father Hugh de Courtenay, 12th Earl of Devon
MotherAnne Talbot
Ruins of Tiverton Castle, seat of the Earls of Devon Tiverton , Tiverton Castle Ruins - geograph.org.uk - 1272097.jpg
Ruins of Tiverton Castle, seat of the Earls of Devon

Thomas de Courtenay, 5th/13th Earl of Devon (3 May 1414 – 3 February 1458) was a nobleman from South West England. His seat was at Colcombe Castle near Colyton, and later at the principal historic family seat of Tiverton Castle, after his mother's death. The Courtenay family had historically been an important one in the region, and the dominant force in the counties of Devon and Cornwall. However, the rise in power and influence of several gentry families and other political players, in the years leading up to Thomas' accession to the earldom, threatened the traditional dominance of the earls of Devon in the area. Much of his life was spent in armed territorial struggle against his near-neighbour, Sir William Bonville of Shute, at a time when central control over the provinces was weak. This feud forms part of the breakdown in law and order in England that led to the Wars of the Roses.

South West England region of England in United Kingdom

South West England is one of nine official regions of England. It is the largest in area, covering 9,200 square miles (23,800 km2), and consists of the counties of Bristol, Cornwall, Dorset, Devon, Gloucestershire, Somerset, and Wiltshire, as well as the Isles of Scilly. Five million people live in South West England.

Colcombe Castle

Colcombe Castle was a now lost castle or fortified house situated about a half mile north of the village of Colyton in East Devon.

Colyton, Devon town in Devon

Colyton is a town in Devon, England. It is located within the East Devon local authority area. It is 3 miles (4.8 km) from Seaton and 6 miles (9.7 km) from Axminster. Its population in 1991 was 2,783, reducing to 2,105 at the 2011 Census. Colyton is a major part of the Coly Valley electoral ward. The ward population at the above census was 4,493.

Contents

Courtenay was for a time engaged in overseas service during the Hundred Years' War. [4] Increasingly, however, his efforts became directed towards strengthening his position at home. He had been married off as an infant to Margaret Beaufort, placing Courtenay close to the English king's Beaufort kinsmen. Due to this connection, Courtenay started his career as an adherent to the English court's Beaufort party. Upon their demise in the late 1440s, he abandoned it in favour of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York. When York sought the support of Courtenay's arch-enemy Bonville, Courtenay fell out of favour with him. When the Wars of the Roses broke out, he was in the party of the queen, Margaret of Anjou, and was one of the Lancastrian commanders at the First Battle of St Albans, where he was wounded.

Hundred Years War Series of conflicts and wars between England and France during the 14th and 15th-century

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France. Each side drew many allies into the war. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of strong national identities in both countries.

Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Devon English noble

Lady Margaret Beaufort was a great-granddaughter of King Edward III (1327–1377).

House of Beaufort noble family

The House of Beaufort is an English noble family, which originated in the fourteenth century and played an important role in the Wars of the Roses in the fifteenth century. The name Beaufort refers to Montmorency-Beaufort, once the possession of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, third son of King Edward III.

Courtenay was said to have promoted a reconciliation between the Lancastrian and Yorkist parties, but he died suddenly in 1458. The Wars of the Roses later led to the deaths and executions of all three of Courtenay's sons, Thomas, Henry, and John, and to the eventual attainder of his titles and forfeiture of his lands. The Earldom was however revived in 1485 for his distant cousin, Sir Edward Courtenay, third in descent from his great-uncle.

John Courtenay, 15th Earl of Devon English noble

Sir John Courtenay was the third son of Thomas Courtenay, 13th Earl of Devon, and Margaret Beaufort, and was styled Earl of Devon by Lancastrians in exile, following the execution of his brother the 14th earl in 1461.

In English criminal law, attainder or attinctura was the metaphorical "stain" or "corruption of blood" which arose from being condemned for a serious capital crime. It entailed losing not only one's life, property and hereditary titles, but typically also the right to pass them on to one's heirs. Both men and women condemned of capital crimes could be attainted.

Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon (1485 creation) English peer (d. 1509)

Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon, KG was an English nobleman. He was a member of the ancient Courtenay family.

Youth

Courtenay was born on 3 May 1414, [5] the only surviving son of Hugh Courtenay, 4th/12th Earl of Devon (1389 16 June 1422) and Anne Talbot [4] (c.1393–1441), sister of the renowned warrior John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury. He succeeded as Earl of Devon in 1422, at the age of eight. He may at some time before have become a ward of the all-powerful Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter. [6]

John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury English Earl

Sir John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, 1st Earl of Waterford, 7th Baron Talbot, KG, known as "Old Talbot", was an English nobleman and a noted military commander during the Hundred Years' War. He was the most renowned in England and most feared in France of the English captains in the last stages of the conflict. Known as a tough, cruel, and quarrelsome man, Talbot distinguished himself militarily in a time of decline for the English. Called the "English Achilles" and the "Terror of the French", he is lavishly praised in the plays of Shakespeare. The manner of his death, leading a charge against artillery, has come to symbolize the passing of the age of chivalry. He also held the subsidiary titles of 10th Baron Strange of Blackmere and 6th Baron Furnivalljure uxoris.

Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter English military commander

Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter was an English military commander during the Hundred Years' War, and briefly Chancellor of England. He was the third of the four children born to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and his mistress Katherine Swynford. To overcome their problematic parentage, his parents were married in 1396, and he and his siblings were legitimated on two separate occasions, in 1390 and again in 1397. He married the daughter of Sir Thomas Neville of Hornby, Margaret Neville, who bore him one son, Henry Beaufort. However, the child died young.

According to Cokayne, Courtenay was knighted on 19 May 1426 by King Henry VI of England, [4] and on 16 December 1431, Courtenay was among an entourage of 300 who attended King Henry VI's second coronation [7] at Notre Dame in Paris. [6]

Henry VI of England King of England

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months upon his father's death, and succeeded to the French throne on the death of his maternal grandfather Charles VI shortly afterwards.

Majority

It appears that no inquisition of proof of age, customary for a tenant in chief, was taken for his father. Based on his family's history and standing and on his own position as the leading landowner of the county, probably expected to take his place as the leader of Devon society. However, his mother's longevity meant that her dower portion, including Tiverton Castle, and the other Courtenay estates which had been alienated under his father's will were not in his hands and the young Courtenay was forced to live at Colcombe Castle, near Colyton, very close to his enemy William Bonville, 1st Baron Bonville, at Shute. [8] His income of £1500 p.a. was lower than that of most nobles of comparable rank.

William Bonville, 1st Baron Bonville English noble

William Bonville, 1st Baron Bonville was an English nobleman and an important, powerful landowner in the southwest of England during the late middle ages. Bonville's father died before Bonville reached adulthood. As a result, he grew up in the household of his grandfather and namesake, who was a prominent member of the Devon gentry. Both Bonville's father and grandfather had been successful in politics and land acquisition, and when Bonville came of age, he gained control of a large estate. He augmented this further by a series of lawsuits against his mother's second husband. Bonville undertook royal service, which then meant fighting in France in the later years of the Hundred Years' War. In 1415 he joined King Henry V's uncle on the King's campaign, and fought at the Battle of Agincourt. Throughout his life Bonville was despatched on further operations in France, but increasingly events in the southwest of England took up more of his time and energy, as he became involved in a feud with his powerful neighbour Thomas Courtenay, Earl of Devon.

Career

Struggle with Bonville

Arms of Bonville: Sable, six mullets argent pierced gules BonvilleArms.png
Arms of Bonville: Sable, six mullets argent pierced gules

The new earl found the political situation in Devonshire increasingly stacked against his own interests as a coalition of the greater gentry, led by William Bonville, 1st Baron Bonville, and the earl's cousin, Sir Philip Courtenay of Powderham, threatened the Courtenays’ traditional dominance of the county. The relationship was complicated by Bonville's second marriage in 1430 to Elizabeth Courtenay (d. 1471), Courtenay's aunt. Despite links via his wife, Margaret Beaufort, to the ascendant "court party" led by Cardinal Beaufort and John Beaufort, 1st earl of Somerset and Marquess of Dorset, and by Margaret Holland, daughter of the Earl of Kent, Courtenay failed to rectify his situation and instead resorted to violence, beginning in 1439. With the decline of Beaufort power, Courtenay became increasingly associated with Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York. Courtenay had been attacking Bonville's estates in the summer of 1439 and the king despatched a Privy Councillor, Sir John Stourton, 1st Baron Stourton, to extract a promise of good behavior from Courtenay, who was thereafter reluctant to attend the court in London. [10] [11] In 1441, Courtenay was appointed as Steward of the Duchy of Cornwall, a nearly identical post to Royal Steward for Cornwall which had been granted to Sir William Bonville in 1437, for life. [12] A week later in May 1441, the warrant was retracted. Disputes arose between the two which contemporary records portray as reaching the status of a private war. Two men wearing Courtenay livery attacked Sir Philip Chetwynd, a friend of Bonville, on the road to London, apparent evidence that the Council's arbitration of November 1440 had failed. [13] Courtenay and Bonville were summoned before the King in December 1441, and were publicly reconciled. [14] Tensions remained however and this may have been a factor in the crown's requests to both Courtenay, who initially refused, and Bonville to serve in France, Bonville as seneschal of Gascony from 1442–46 and Courtenay at Pont-l'Évêque in Normandy in 1446. [15] This is one of the few times that Courtenay served abroad, for he had refused in March 1443, seemingly preferring to spend his time bolstering his position in Devon or at court. While Bonville was abroad, the King released Devon from his debts, including the recognisance for good behaviour, probably remitted by the influence of father-in-law, John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset. [16]

Royal appointments

Commissions

His advantageous marriage to Margaret Beaufort brought him links to the "court party", and Courtenay began to be selected by the king to serve on Westcountry commissions and was granted an annuity of £100 for his services. [17]

Other

1445 marked a fleeting high point in Courtenay's fortunes, with his appointment as High Steward of England at Queen Margaret's coronation on 25 May. [18] Only the year before, March 1444, Bonville had identified himself with Suffolk, at Margaret's betrothal in Rouen.

Abandonment of Beauforts

The deaths of his brother-in-law John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, in 1444, and of the leader of the party Cardinal Beaufort, 2nd son of John of Gaunt, in 1447, removed Beaufort leadership of the 'court' party, leaving William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, as the most influential figure in national politics. [19] While there is no evidence of direct antagonism between Courtenay and the Duke of Suffolk, the latter appeared to favour the Bonvilles. Sir William Bonville enjoyed links with Suffolk and married his daughter to William Tailboys, one of the Duke's closest associates. Perhaps the most dramatic illustration of this favour was Bonville's elevation to the peerage, presumably at the direction of Suffolk, as Baron Bonville of Chewton Mendip in 1449. [20]

Switch to Yorkist party

This promotion of his enemy Bonville may have prompted Devon to oppose the 'Court party' and to serve with his friend Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York during Jack Cade's Rebellion. Courtenay switched allegiance to York, who with the Duke of Norfolk took control briefly of London. He remained loyal to York during the Parliament of November 1450, when they invoked the support of the Commons to raise taxation. Having rescued the Duke of Somerset from an angry London mob, York himself had to flee, taking refuge on the Earl of Devon's barge rowing down the Thames. It is hardly surprising that Devon began to become associated with York, who had assumed the leadership of the "opposition" party. The parlous state of national politics (whether the king was a vindictive factionalist or an inane non-entity is largely irrelevant in this context) combined with what seems like a reckless and violent element in Courtenay's own character, led to a further campaign of violence against Bonville and the Suffolk-aligned James Butler, 5th Earl of Ormond and Earl of Wiltshire. Courtenay and his troops attempted to capture Butler near Bath in Wiltshire before returning to besiege Bonville in Taunton Castle. The arrival of York (whether to suppress or aid the disturbances is uncertain) caused the two sides to make peace which, unsurprisingly, had no real meaning. [21] York then embarked on his abortive attempt to take control of royal government by force, his only allies being Courtenay and his sometime-associate, Edward Brooke, 6th Baron Cobham.

In the West Country Courtenay hounded Bonville without mercy, and pursued him to Taunton Castle and laid siege to it. [22] York arrived to lift the siege, and imprisoned Bonville, who was nevertheless quickly released. This exploit ended with the disgrace of all three 'Yorkists' and their submission to royal mercy in March. The King had issued an arrest warrant on 24 September 1451, drafted by Somerset, to be enforced by Butler and Bonville. The Yorkist rebellions prompted royal commissions for Buckingham and Bonville on 14 February 1452. A direct summons without delay was ordered by Royal Proclamation on 17 February to bring Courtenay and Lord Cobham to London. [23]

Treason charge

Courtenay was charged with treason and briefly imprisoned in Wallingford Castle, [24] before appearing on trial before the House of Lords. His disgrace and political isolation allowed his Devonshire rivals to consolidate their positions, further undermining his decreased standing in the county. [25] Bonville acquired all royal commissions in the south-west.

Resurgence of York

King Henry VI's madness and York's appointment as Protector in 1453/4 resulted in a partial rally in Courtenay's fortunes, including his re-appointment to commissions of the peace in the south-western counties, the key barometer of the local balance of power. [26] He was a member of the Royal Council until April 1454. [27] Courtenay was bound over to keep the peace with a fine of 1000 marks, but ignored its restrictions. Threatened by the Council on 3 June, he was forced on 24 July to make a new bond. [28]

Abandonment by York

This was, however, the end of Courtenay's links with York, whose increasingly tight links with the Neville earls of Salisbury and Warwick led to an alignment with Bonville away from Courtenay. This culminated in the marriage of William Bonville, 6th Baron Harington, Bonville's grandson, to Salisbury's daughter, Katherine. Courtenay did not endear himself to Somerset either, as he and his sons repeatedly disrupted the sessions of the commissioners of the peace in Exeter during 1454/5, which did not assist Protector Somerset in promoting his role as the guardian of law and order. Courtenay was present at the First Battle of St Albans, and was wounded. [28] York however still considered him at least neutral as the Duke's letters addressed to the King on the eve of battle were delivered to the king via the apparently still trusted hands of Courtenay. [29]

Final assault on Bonville

Perhaps inspired by the way the Nevilles and York had forcefully ended their respective feuds with the Percies and the Duke of Somerset in the battle, Courtenay returned to Devon and commenced a further campaign of violence against Bonville and his allies, who were now attached to Warwick's party. The violence began in October 1455 with the horrific murder by Courtenay allies of Nicholas Radford, an eminent Westcountry lawyer, [30] Recorder of Exeter and one of Bonville's councilors. Several contemporary accounts, including the Paston Letters, record this event with the ensuing mock-funeral and coronary inquest accompanied by the singing of highly inappropriate songs, in tones of shock and horror unusual during the blunted sensitivities of the fifteenth century. [31] Among the murderers was Thomas Courtenay, the earl's son and later successor. [32] Parliament, meeting in November 1455, reported 800 horsemen and 4,000 infantry running amok across Devon. On 3 November 1455 Courtenay with his sons, Thomas Carrew of Ashwater and a considerable force of 1,000 men occupied the city of Exeter, nominally controlled by Bonville as castellan of the royal castle of Exeter, which they continued to control until 23 December 1455. [33] Courtenay had before warned the populace that Bonville was approaching with a 'great multitude' to sack the city. On 3 November 1455 Bonville's men setting out from his seat at Shute had looted the Earl's nearby house at Colcombe Castle, Colyton, and Bonville promised his support to the Earl's distant cousin, Sir Philip Courtenay of Powderham. Dozens of men violated consecrated ground and Radford's valuables were extracted from the cathedral and his house in Exeter was also robbed. Village-dwellers with Bonville connections were assaulted by Devon's men. Powderham Castle, home to the earl's estranged cousin, Sir Philip Courtenay (d. 1463), an ally of Bonville, was besieged on 15 November 1455, the earl's weaponry now including a serpentine cannon. Bonville attempted to relieve the castle but was repulsed as the Earl threatened to batter down its walls. [34] Finally battle was joined directly between Bonville and Courtenay at the Battle of Clyst Heath, at Clyst Bridge, just south east of Exeter on 15 December 1455. While it seems that Bonville was put to flight, the number of dead or wounded is entirely unknown. Two days later Thomas Carrew with 500 of Courtenay's retainers pillaged Shute, seizing a bounty of looted goods. Courtenay and his men left Exeter on 21 December 1455 and shortly afterwards submitted to York at Shaftesbury in Dorset. Early in December 1455 the King had dismissed Devon from the Commission of Peace, and citizens of Exeter had been instructed not to help his army of "misrule" in any way. [35]

Aftermath of Clyst Heath

Devon was incarcerated in the Tower. Originally, the government planned to bring him to trial for treason but this was abandoned once the King Henry VI returned to sanity in February 1456, and York was removed as Protector. Courtenay was also returned to the commission of the peace for Devonshire, seemingly the work of Queen Margaret of Anjou who had taken personal control of the court. Courtenay had cultivated links with Queen Margaret, and an alliance was sealed by the marriage of his son and heir, Sir Thomas Courtenay, to the Queen's kinswoman, Marie, the daughter of Charles, Count of Maine. Despite having been banned from entering and leading armed men into Exeter and holding assemblies, 500 men under John Courtenay entered the High Street on 8 April 1456. His rivals, Philip Courtenay and Lord Fitzwarin, were prevented from exercising commissions as Justices of the Peace, and were forced to leave the city. Butler, Bonville's patron, and Sir John Fortescue, Chief Justice, arrived with a large entourage to investigate under a commission of oyer et terminer. They rejected Courtenay's petition to have Bonville's sheriffdom of Devon removed. [36] Two years later his sons, Thomas and Henry Courtenay, were absolved of the murder of Nicholas Radford. [37]

Courtenay was restored to the bench of JPs and was made Keeper of the Park of Clarendon in February 1457, [38] and Keeper of Clarendon Forest in Wiltshire on 17 July 1457. [4]

Marriage and issue

Arms of Beaufort family, Earls and Dukes of Somerset: The Royal Arms of England (Quarterly, 1st & 4th: Azure, three fleurs de lis or (France); 2nd & 3rd: Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or (England)) all within a bordure compony argent and azure for difference Arms of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset.svg
Arms of Beaufort family, Earls and Dukes of Somerset: The Royal Arms of England (Quarterly, 1st & 4th: Azure, three fleurs de lis or (France); 2nd & 3rd: Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or (England)) all within a bordure compony argent and azure for difference

At some time after 1421, Thomas de Courtenay married Lady Margaret Beaufort, daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (the first of the four illegitimate children of John of Gaunt (son of King Edward III of England) by his mistress, Katherine Swynford, later his wife) by his wife, Lady Margaret Holland. Margaret was thus sister of Henry Beaufort, 2nd Earl of Somerset, of John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, of Thomas Beaufort, Count of Perche, of Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland, and of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset. Thomas and Margaret had three sons and six daughters: [40]

Monument to Margaret Beaufort

Effigy of an unknown female, possibly Margaret Beaufort, Church of St Andrew, Colyton, Devon MargaretCourtenay ColytonChurch Devon.JPG
Effigy of an unknown female, possibly Margaret Beaufort, Church of St Andrew, Colyton, Devon

An effigy identified by tradition as "little choke-a-bone", Margaret Courtenay (d. 1512), an infant daughter of William Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon (1475–1511) by his wife Princess Catherine of York (d. 1527), the sixth daughter of King Edward IV (1461–1483) [41] exists in Colyton Church in Devon. The Courtenay residence of Colcombe Castle was in the parish of Colyton. However, modern authorities [45] have suggested, on the basis of the monument's heraldry, the effigy to be Margaret Beaufort (c. 1409–1449), the wife of Thomas de Courtenay, 5th Earl of Devon (1414–1458).

The effigy is only about 3 ft in length, much smaller than usual for an adult. The face and head was renewed in 1907, [46] and is said to have been based on the sculptor's own infant daughter. A 19th century brass tablet above is inscribed: "Margaret, daughter of William Courtenay Earl of Devon and the Princess Katharine youngest daughter of Edward IVth King of England, died at Colcombe choked by a fish-bone AD MDXII and was buried under the window in the north transept of this church".

Heraldry

CourtenayArms -ColytonChurch -Devon.JPG
CourtenayImpaling RoyalArms ColytonDevon.JPG
RoyalArms CourtenayMonument ColytonDevon.JPG
Arrangement of heraldic escutcheons above female effigy in Colyton Church. left arms of Courtenay (without border [47] ); centre: arms of Courtenay (without border) impaling royal arms of England (with border); right: royal arms of England (with border). The interpretation of the existence or otherwise of a heraldic bordure is significant to the correct identification of the effigy [48]

Three sculpted heraldic shields of arms exist above the effigy, showing the arms of Courtenay, Courtenay impaling the royal arms of England and the royal arms of England. Later authorities [45] have suggested, on the basis of the monument's heraldry, the effigy to be the wife of Thomas de Courtenay, 5th Earl of Devon (1414–1458), namely Lady Margaret Beaufort (c. 1409–1449), daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Marquess of Somerset, 1st Marquess of Dorset (1373–1410), KG, (later only 1st Earl of Somerset), (the first of the four illegitimate children of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (4th son of King Edward III), and his mistress Katherine Swynford, later his wife) by his wife Margaret Holland. The basis of this re-attribution is the supposed fact that the "royal arms" shown are not the arms of King Edward IV, but rather the arms of Beaufort. The arms of Beaufort are the royal arms of England differenced within a bordure compony argent and azure. [49] The relief sculpture does indeed show a border, albeit a thin one and not compony, around the royal arms, with such border omitted from the Courtenay arms.

Death

Courtenay received a summons to appear with York before the King in London at the Loveday Award. He broke his journey at Abingdon Abbey, and died there on 3 February 1458. [50] A contemporary chronicler asserted that he had been poisoned by the Prior on the Queen's orders, which is perhaps unlikely considering the Earl's alliance with the Queen. In his will the Earl requested burial in the Courtenay Chantry Chapel of Exeter Cathedral. The will was proved at Lambeth on 21 February 1458, and an inquisition post mortem was taken in 1467. [44]

The Earl was succeeded by his eldest son, Thomas Courtenay, 14th Earl of Devon, [51] who was beheaded at York on 3 April 1461 after the Battle of Towton, and attainted by Parliament in November 1461, whereby the earldom was forfeited. [50]

Footnotes

  1. Watson, Cokayne 1916, p.  324, footnote c: "This would appear more like a restitution of the old dignity than the creation of a new earldom"; Debrett's Peerage (Debrett 1968, p. 353) however gives the ordinal numbers as if a new earldom had been created.
  2. The ordinal number given to the early Courtenay Earls of Devon depends on whether the earldom is deemed a new creation by the letters patent granted on 22 February 1335, or whether it is deemed a restitution of the old dignity of the de Redvers family. Authorities differ in their opinions, [1] and thus alternative ordinal numbers exist and are given here.
  3. Cherry 2016.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Cokayne 1916, p. 326.
  5. Nathan 1957, p.  152.
  6. 1 2 Griffiths 1981, p. 15.
  7. Griffiths 1981.
  8. Cherry 1981.
  9. Burke 1884, p. 99.
  10. PRO 1907, pp. 314, 448.
  11. The pirate-soldier, Sir Hugh Courtenay, a cousin looted merchant vessels along the coast, and led brigands with Thomas Carminow, after a long dispute with the Earl.
  12. PRO 1907, pp. 133, 532.
  13. The "Arbitration" was published on 1 April 1442.
  14. Nicolas 1835, pp. 165–66, 173–75.
  15. Nicolas 1835, p.  240.
  16. Nicolas 1835, p. 408; Public Record Office 1937, p. 396.
  17. Nicolas 1837, p. 315.
  18. PRO 1908, p. 355.
  19. Watts 1996 and Griffiths 1981 for differing views on the relationship between Suffolk and Henry VI.
  20. PRO 1941, p. 107.
  21. Cherry 1981, p. 281.
  22. Storey 1999, p. 84.
  23. Lord Cobham had been dispossessed by the Earl of Wiltshire, a creation of Henry VI.ibid, 98
  24. Harriss 1965, p. 216.
  25. Cherry 1981, p. 285–86.
  26. Cherry 1981, p. 290.
  27. Storey 1999, p. 165; Nicolas 1837, pp. 189–193.
  28. 1 2 Storey 1999, p. 166.
  29. Cherry 1981, p. 297.
  30. "apprentice of the law" Radford was a well-known local dignitary, an old man at the time; PRO 1909 , pp. 269, 281
  31. Gairdner 1897, p. 351.
  32. Storey 1999, pp. 168–70.
  33. Storey 1999 , p. 167; Estates of the Percy family, 89–96
  34. Cherry 1981, p. 311.
  35. Storey 1999, p. 173.
  36. Rotuli, op cit., 332
  37. PRO 1910, pp. 308, 393, 398.
  38. History of Commons, 1422–1508, vol. II
  39. Debrett 1968, p. 125.
  40. Richardson IV 2011, pp. 38–43.
  41. 1 2 3 Vivian 1895, p. 245.
  42. 1 2 Weir 1999, p. 106.
  43. Debrett 1968 , p. 353, incorrectly named as "Hugh, attainted and beheaded 1466"
  44. 1 2 3 4 Cokayne 1916, p. 327.
  45. 1 2 Barron 1911, p. 325; Pevsner & Cherry 2004, p. 280; Hoskins 1959, p. 373.
  46. Barron 1911, p. 325.
  47. Raised horizontal line on top of shield is part of the label, a differencing charge shown in the Courtenay arms.
  48. Barron 1911.
  49. Barron 1911 , p. 325: "The effigy of this grandaughter of John of Gaunt, with the shields of Courtenay and Beaufort" (...).
  50. 1 2 Cokayne 1916, p. 327; Richardson IV 2011, p. 40.
  51. Richardson I 2011, p. 547.

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Margaret Holland was a medieval English noblewoman. She was a daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, who was the son of Joan "the Fair Maid of Kent". Margaret's mother was Alice FitzAlan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor of Lancaster.

Earl of Devon

The title of Earl of Devon was created several times in the English peerage, and was possessed first by the de Redvers family, and later by the Courtenays. It is not to be confused with the title of Earl of Devonshire, held, together with the title Duke of Devonshire, by the Cavendish family of Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, although the letters patent for the creation of the latter peerages used the same Latin words, Comes Devon(iae). It was a re-invention, if not an actual continuation, of the pre-Conquest office of Ealdorman of Devon.

John Clifford, 9th Baron Clifford, 9th Lord of Skipton was a Lancastrian military leader during the Wars of the Roses in England. The Clifford family was one of the most prominent families among the northern English nobility of the fifteenth century, and by the marriages of his sisters John Clifford had links to some very important families of the time, including the earls of Devon. He was orphaned at twenty years of age when his father was slain by partisans of the House of York at the first battle of the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of St Albans in 1455. It was probably as a result of his father's death there that Clifford became one of the strongest supporters of Queen Margaret of Anjou, consort of King Henry VI, who ended up as effective leader of the Lancastrian faction.

Hugh de Courtenay, 2nd/10th Earl of Devon English noble

Sir Hugh de Courtenay, 2nd/10th Earl of Devon, 2nd Baron Courtenay, feudal baron of Okehampton and feudal baron of Plympton, played an important role in the Hundred Years War in the service of King Edward III. His chief seats were Tiverton Castle and Okehampton Castle in Devon. The ordinal number given to the early Courtenay Earls of Devon depends on whether the earldom is deemed a new creation by the letters patent granted 22 February 1334/5 or whether it is deemed a restitution of the old dignity of the de Redvers family. Authorities differ in their opinions, and thus alternative ordinal numbers exist, given here.

Events from the 1450s in England.

Events from the year 1455 in England.

William Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon nobleman and magnate from Devon, England

William Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon, feudal baron of Okehampton and feudal baron of Plympton, was a member of the leading noble family of Devon. His principal seat was Tiverton Castle, Devon with further residences at Okehampton Castle and Colcombe Castle, also in that county.

The Bonville–Courtenay feud of 1455 engendered a series of raids, sieges, and attacks between two major Devon families, the Courtenays and the Bonvilles, in south west England, in the mid-fifteenth century. One of many such aristocratic feuds of the time, it became entwined with national politics due to the political weight of the protagonists. The Courtenay earls of Devon were the traditional powerbrokers in the region, but by this time a local baronial family, the Bonvilles, had become more powerful and rivalled the Courtenays for royal patronage. Eventually this rivalry spilled over into physical violence, including social disorder, murder and siege.

Margaret Grey was a Cambro-Norman noblewoman, the daughter of Reginald Grey, 3rd Baron Grey de Ruthyn, a powerful Welsh Marcher Lord, who was the implacable enemy of Owain Glyndŵr.

Eleanor Beaufort English noblewoman

Lady Eleanor Beaufort was the daughter of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset (1406-1455), KG, and was a sister of the 3rd and 4th Dukes of Somerset.

Philip Courtenay (died 1463) senior member of a junior branch of the powerful Courtenay family of England

Sir Philip Courtenay of Powderham, Devon, was the senior member of a junior branch of the powerful Courtenay family, Earls of Devon.

Thomas Courtenay, 6th/14th Earl of Devon English noble

Thomas Courtenay, 6th/14th Earl of Devon, was the eldest son of Thomas de Courtenay, 5th/13th Earl of Devon, by his wife Margaret Beaufort, the daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, and Margaret Holland, daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent. Through his mother he was a great great-grandson of King Edward III. The ordinal number given to the early Courtenay Earls of Devon depends on whether the earldom is deemed a new creation by the letters patent granted 22 February 1334/5 or whether it is deemed a restitution of the old dignity of the de Redvers family. Authorities differ in their opinions, and thus alternative ordinal numbers exist, given here.

Powderham is a former manor on the coast of south Devon, England, situated within the historic hundred of Exminster, about 6 miles (9.7 km) south of the city of Exeter and adjacent to the north-east of the village of Kenton. It consists in part of flat, formerly marshy ground on the west bank of the River Exe estuary where it is joined by its tributary the River Kenn, the site of Powderham Castle, originally the fortified manor house of Powderham. On the opposite side of the Exe is the small village of Lympstone and almost opposite is Nutwell Court in the parish of Woodbury, formerly the castle or fortified manor house of the powerful mediaeval Dynham family.

Nicholas Radford Lawyer and Member of the English Parliament

Nicholas Radford of Upcott in the parish of Cheriton Fitzpaine, and of Poughill, Devon, was a prominent lawyer in the Westcountry who served as Member of Parliament for Lyme Regis, Dorset and Devon (1435). During the anarchic times of the Wars of the Roses he was caught up in the dynastic Westcountry rivalry between Thomas de Courtenay, 5th Earl of Devon, of Tiverton Castle, for whom during his minority he had acted as steward, and William Bonville, 1st Baron Bonville, of Shute. His murder in 1455 by the Earl's faction "ranks among the most notorious crimes of the century", and was the precursor of the Battle of Clyst Heath (1455) fought shortly thereafter near Exeter by the private armies of the two magnates. He served as a Justice of the Peace for Devon (1424-1455), as Escheator for Devon and Cornwall (1435-6), Recorder of Exeter (1442-1455) and as Tax Collector for Devon in 1450 and as Apprentice-at-law for the Duchy of Lancaster (1439-1455).

The manor of Modbury was a manor covering the ecclesiastical parish of Modbury in Devon. The manor house, last occupied by the Champernowne family and known as "Court House", was situated on the north side of the parish church of St George, on or near the site of Modbury Priory, founded in the 12th century by the Vautort lords of the manor. It was destroyed during the Civil War (1642–1651) and the remnants were sold for building materials in 1705.

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Preceded by
Hugh de Courtenay
Earl of Devon
1422–1458
Succeeded by
Thomas Courtenay