Thomas de Everdon (c.1320–1413) was an English-born cleric and judge, who was a trusted Crown official in Ireland for several decades.
In a career which spanned almost fifty years, he served as Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Master of the Rolls in Ireland and Deputy to the Lord Chancellor of Ireland.In addition he was an exceptionally hard-working civil servant who was entrusted with a wide variety of civil, military and administrative tasks: in 1386 the King referred to Everdon's "labours on royal business throughout Ireland". There are so many references over a period of almost 60 years to him in his official capacity that some historians have questioned whether all of them can have been to the same man.
The Master of the Rolls in Ireland was a senior judicial office in the Irish Chancery under English and British rule, equivalent to the Master of the Rolls in the English Chancery. Originally called the Keeper of the Rolls, he was responsible for the safekeeping of the Chancery records such as close rolls and patent rolls. The office was created by letters patent in 1333, the first holder of the Mastership being Edmund de Grimsby. As the Irish bureaucracy expanded, the duties of the Master of the Rolls came to be performed by subordinates and the position became a sinecure which was awarded to political allies of the Dublin Castle administration. In the nineteenth century it became a senior judicial appointment, ranking second within the Chancery behind the Lord Chancellor of Ireland. The post was abolished by the Courts of Justice Act 1924, passed by the Irish Free State established in 1922.
The office of Lord High Chancellor of Ireland was the highest judicial office in Ireland until the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922. From 1721 to 1801, it was also the highest political office of the Irish Parliament: the Chancellor was Speaker of the Irish House of Lords. The Lord Chancellor was also Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of Ireland. In all three respects, the office mirrored the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain.
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth.
His surname suggests that he came from Everdon in Northamptonshire. He is thought to have been the Thomas de Everdon who first appears in the official Irish records in 1343, and was presented with the living of Ardkeen, County Down in 1345, although he must then have been a very young man, since he had almost seventy years still to live.He was a Canon of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, in 1374 and became its Dean in 1396. His tenure saw a dispute between the Pope and the Crown as to who had the right to appoint the Dean; eventually it was agreed that the Cathedral chapter would choose the Dean. Thomas resigned in 1401 and became prebendary of Clonmethan, County Dublin. He also held the living of St. Mary's, Kildalkey, County Meath, from which he resigned in 1411.
Everdon is a village in the Daventry district of the county of Northamptonshire in England, some 3 miles (4.8 km) south of Daventry. The population of the civil parish at the 2011 census was 356.
Northamptonshire, archaically known as the County of Northampton, is a county in the East Midlands of England. In 2015 it had a population of 723,000. The county is administered by Northamptonshire County Council and by seven non-metropolitan district councils. It is known as "The Rose of the Shires".
County Down is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland, in the northeast of the island of Ireland. It covers an area of 2,448 km2 and has a population of 531,665. It is also one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland and is within the province of Ulster. It borders County Antrim to the north, the Irish Sea to the east, County Armagh to the west, and County Louth across Carlingford Lough to the southwest.
He was Chief Clerk in Chancery in 1373, jointly with Robert Sutton; an order in Council states that the annual fee of £20 should be divided between them. He was joint Master of the Rolls in 1374 and sole Master 1386–1395.He acted briefly as Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer. He was Keeper of the Great Seal of Ireland in 1374 and acted regularly as Deputy to the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, particularly during the tenure of Thomas Cranley who was frequently unable to perform his duties as Chancellor through a combination of age, ill health and pressure of business. Ball states that Everdon was spoken of as a possible Treasurer of Ireland in 1406.
Chancery or chancellery is a general term for a medieval writing office, responsible for the production of official documents. The title of chancellor, for the head of the office, came to be held by important ministers in a number of states, and remains the title of the heads of government in modern Germany and Austria. Chancery hand is a term for various types of handwriting associated with chanceries.
The Great Seal of the Realm or Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a seal that is used to symbolise the Sovereign's approval of important state documents.
In addition he was employed by the Crown to carry out numerous administrative tasks: Mason states that they seem to have mainly involved keeping of accounts for the Army, and the hiring of troops.He was appointed, by King Richard II, Royal Commissioner with John Lambard to collect the King's debts in Munster. In 1386 the King authorised him to appoint attorneys to act for him in Meath and Louth, on the ground that he was so heavily employed on royal business throughout Ireland that he could not properly attend to his business in these two counties.
Munster is one of the provinces of Ireland, in the south west of Ireland. In early Ireland, the Kingdom of Munster was one of the kingdoms of Gaelic Ireland ruled by a "king of over-kings". Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into counties for administrative and judicial purposes. In later centuries, local government legislation has seen further sub-division of the historic counties.
County Louth is a county in the Republic of Ireland. It is in the province of Leinster and is part of the Mid-East Region. It is named after the village of Louth. Louth County Council is the local authority for the county. According to the 2016 census, the population of the county was 128,884.
He died in 1413, when he must have been well over ninety.Mason wondered if there were in fact two officials of the same name: he doubted when one man could have performed so many varied duties and, given the life expectancy at the time, could have had a career lasting so many decades. On the other hand, Robert Sutton, another contemporary Master of the Rolls, had an equally long and varied career and did not die until 1430.
Robert Sutton was an Irish judge and Crown official. During a career which lasted almost 60 years he served the English Crown in a variety of offices, notably as Deputy to the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer, Master of the Rolls in Ireland, and Deputy Treasurer of Ireland. A warrant dated 1423 praised him for his "long and laudable" service to the Crown.
Adam Loftus was Archbishop of Armagh, and later Dublin, and Lord Chancellor of Ireland from 1581. He was also the first Provost of Trinity College Dublin.
The Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral is the senior cleric of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, elected by the chapter of the cathedral. The office was created in 1219 or 1220, by one of several charters granted to the cathedral by Archbishop Henry de Loundres between 1218 and 1220.
Thomas Jones was Archbishop of Dublin and Lord Chancellor of Ireland. He was also Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral and Bishop of Meath. He was the patrilineal ancestor of the Viscounts Ranelagh.
Richard de Ferings, was the archbishop of Dublin.
Thomas Cranley DD a.k.a. Thomas Craule ( c.1337–1417) was a leading statesman, judge and cleric in early fifteenth-century Ireland, who held the offices of Chancellor of Oxford University, Archbishop of Dublin and Lord Chancellor of Ireland.
Robert Wikeford or de Wikeford was an English-born diplomat, lawyer and judge, who became Lord Chancellor of Ireland and Archbishop of Dublin.
Thomas Rochfort (c.1450-1522) was a distinguished Irish judge and cleric who held the offices of Solicitor General for Ireland, Master of the Rolls in Ireland, and Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral.
John Payne, Bishop of Meath, held that office from 1483 until his death in 1507; he was also Master of the Rolls in Ireland. He is best remembered for his part in the coronation of Lambert Simnel, the pretender to the Crown of England, in 1487.
John de St Paul, also known as John de Owston and John de Ouston, was an English-born cleric and judge of the fourteenth century. He was Archbishop of Dublin 1349–62 and Lord Chancellor of Ireland 1350–56. He had previously been Master of the Rolls in England 1337–40. Apart from a brief period of disgrace in 1340, he enjoyed the confidence of King Edward III. He was described as a zealous advocate of English policy in Ireland, but also as a pragmatic statesman, who was willing to conciliate the Anglo-Irish ruling class. He did much to enlarge and beautify Christ Church, Dublin, although virtually no trace of his work survives, having been destroyed by the Victorian rebuilding of the Cathedral.
Thomas de Montpellier was a fourteenth-century Anglo-French judge and Crown official, much of whose career was spent in Ireland. He held a number of important lay and clerical offices including Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Chancellor of the Exchequer of Ireland and, briefly, Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer.
Nicholas de Balscote was an English-born official and judge in fourteenth-century Ireland. He achieved high judicial office, but his career was later ruined by a quarrel with King Edward II.
Thomas de Thelwall was an English judge and Crown official who spent part of his career in Ireland, where he held office as Master of the Rolls in Ireland and clerk to the Privy Council of Ireland. He was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 1377-78.
William de Karlell was an English-born judge, administrator and cleric in fourteenth-century Ireland. He held numerous benefices including Archdeacon of Meath and Rector of Youghal, and sat in the Irish House of Commons. After many years as a Baron of the Court of Exchequer (Ireland) served briefly as Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer. He is buried in St Canice's Cathedral, Kilkenny.
John Rycardes, or Rychard was an English-born cleric and judge in sixteenth-century Ireland. He held the offices of Master of the Rolls in Ireland and Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.
Thomas Darcy was an Irish cleric and judge: he was Master of the Rolls in Ireland and Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral 1528-9.
Sir John de Shriggeley, whose family name is also spelled Shirggeley and Shryggeley was an Irish judge who held several important judicial offices, including Chief Justice of the Irish Common Pleas. Despite committing two murders, he was a valued servant of the English Crown.
Thomas Archbold was an Irish Crown official, lawyer and judge of the late fifteenth century.
Robert Dyke was an English-born cleric and judge who held high office in fifteenth-century Ireland. He was appointed to the offices of Archdeacon of Dublin, Chancellor of the Exchequer of Ireland and Master of the Rolls in Ireland.