Thomas de Hartmann
Thomas Alexandrovich de Hartmann
September 21, 1885
|Died||March 28, 1956 70) (aged|
|Alma mater||Saint Petersburg Conservatory|
|Known for||Setting Gurdjieff's writing to music|
|Spouse(s)||Olga Arkadievna de Schumacher (1885-1979)|
Thomas Alexandrovich de Hartmann (Russian : Фома́ Алекса́ндрович Га́ртман; September 21, 1885 –March 28, 1956) was a Russian composer and prominent student and collaborator of George Gurdjieff.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.
George Ivanovich Gurdjieff was a mystic, philosopher, spiritual teacher, and composer of Armenian and Greek descent, born in Alexandrapol, Armenia. Gurdjieff taught that most humans do not possess a unified consciousness and thus live their lives in a state of hypnotic "waking sleep", but that it is possible to awaken to a higher state of consciousness and achieve full human potential. Gurdjieff described a method attempting to do so, calling the discipline "The Work" or "the Method". According to his principles and instructions, Gurdjieff's method for awakening one's consciousness unites the methods of the fakir, monk and yogi, and thus he referred to it as the "Fourth Way".
Thomas de Hartmann was born in Khoruzhivka, Poltava Governorate, Russian Empire, now Sumy Oblast, Ukraine. At the age of 18 he received his diploma from the Saint Petersburg Conservatory. He studied conducting in Munich with Felix Mottl before World War I.
Khoruzhivka is a village located in Sumy Oblast in northern Ukraine. It lies 111 meters (367 ft) above sea level. Viktor Yushchenko, the third President of Ukraine and opposition candidate in the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, was born there, as was the composer Thomas de Hartmann.
The Poltava Governorate or Government of Poltava was a guberniya in the historical Left-bank Ukraine region of the Russian Empire, which was officially created in 1802 from the disbanded Malorossiya Governorate which was split between the Chernigov Governorate and Poltava Governorate with an administrative center of Poltava.
The Russian Empire, also known as Imperial Russia or simply Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Thomas de Hartmann was a graduate of the Imperial Conservatory of Music. He studied musical composition with three of the greatest Russian composers of the 19th century: Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Anton Arensky and Sergei Taneyev. His piano teacher was Anna Yesipova, the second wife and former student of Theodor Leschetizky. Most of De Hartmann's compositions were for voice and piano. In 1907, his ballet The Pink Flower, produced by Nikolay Legat with Vaslav Nijinsky and Tamara Karsavina in the cast, was presented at the Imperial Opera. The Tsar was so impressed that he himself granted De Hartmann exemption from military duty so that he might study conducting in Munich.
Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov was a Russian composer, and a member of the group of composers known as The Five. He was a master of orchestration. His best-known orchestral compositions—Capriccio Espagnol, the Russian Easter Festival Overture, and the symphonic suite Scheherazade—are staples of the classical music repertoire, along with suites and excerpts from some of his 15 operas. Scheherazade is an example of his frequent use of fairy tale and folk subjects.
Anton Stepanovich Arensky was a Russian composer of Romantic classical music, a pianist and a professor of music.
Sergey Ivanovich Taneyev was a Russian composer, pianist, teacher of composition, music theorist and author.
In Munich, Thomas de Hartmann met the artist, former Sufi student and later stage impresario, Alexander de Salzmann; they were both friends of Rainer Maria Rilke and Wassily Kandinsky. Later, in Russia, after the beginning of World War I, De Hartmann would introduce De Salzmann to George Gurdjieff.
René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke, better known as Rainer Maria Rilke, was a Bohemian-Austrian poet and novelist. He is "widely recognized as one of the most lyrically intense German-language poets". He wrote both verse and highly lyrical prose. Several critics have described Rilke's work as inherently "mystical". His writings include one novel, several collections of poetry and several volumes of correspondence in which he invokes haunting images that focus on the difficulty of communion with the ineffable in an age of disbelief, solitude and profound anxiety. These deeply existential themes tend to position him as a transitional figure between the traditional and the modernist writers.
Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky was a Russian painter and art theorist.
On November 12, 1906 Thomas married Olga Arkadievna (Arkadaevna) de Schumacher (August 28, 1885 - September 12, 1979), a celebrated opera singer. Olga was a daughter of Arkady Alexandrovich von Schumacher (June 7, 1855 - June 8, 1938) and Olga Konstantinovna von Wulffert (1860 - April 3, 1939), who both died in Paris. Arkady was a high official in the tsarist Russian government in St. Petersburg.
Thomas was a great-nephew of Eduard von Hartmann, the author of Philosophy of the Unconscious (3 vols.), vol. 1 of which was published in Germany in 1869. This work later became well-known in America and England.
De Hartmann was already an acclaimed composer in Russia when he first met Gurdjieff in 1916 in St. Petersburg. From 1917 to 1929 he was a pupil and confidant of Gurdjieff. During that time, at Gurdjieff's Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man near Paris, De Hartmann transcribed and co-wrote much of the music that Gurdjieff collected and used for his movements exercises.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.
De Hartmann wrote Our Life with Mr. Gurdjieff together with his wife Olga de Hartmann, who was Gurdjieff's personal secretary for many years.
In 1951 De Hartmann and his wife moved to the United States from France. He died on March 28, 1956, in New York City. After her husband's death, Olga collected many of Gurdjieff's early talks in the book Views from the Real World (1973). She died at her home in Nambé, Santa Fe County, New Mexico on September 12, 1979. Both she and her husband are buried in the Princeton Cemetery, Princeton, New Jersey.
De Hartmann's four-act ballet La Fleurette Rouge (The Red Flower) was performed in 1906. Vaslav Nijinsky, Anna Pavlova, and Michel Fokine danced principal roles in performances at the Imperial opera houses of Moscow and St. Petersburg.
He composed the music for Wassily Kandinsky's The Yellow Sound .
The music he wrote with Gurdjieff was later adapted by Laurence Rosenthal for the 1979 Peter Brook film Meetings with Remarkable Men .
In 1982, the Guggenheim Foundation premiere of Kandinsky's opera Der gelbe Klang was made possible thanks to a complete rearrangement by Gunther Schuller of De Hartmann's hitherto lost work. It is not known whether De Hartmann completed a full score but it is clear[ citation needed ] why Konstantin Stanislavski could not understand the work when de Hartmann proposed it for the Moscow Art Theatre in 1914.
Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev, usually referred to outside Russia as Serge Diaghilev, was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes, from which many famous dancers and choreographers would arise.
Vaslav Nijinsky was a ballet dancer and choreographer cited as the greatest male dancer of the early 20th century. Born in Kiev to Polish parents, Nijinsky grew up in Imperial Russia but considered himself to be Polish. He was celebrated for his virtuosity and for the depth and intensity of his characterizations. He could dance en pointe, a rare skill among male dancers at the time and was admired for his seemingly gravity-defying leaps.
Jeanne de Salzmann born Jeanne-Marie Allemand often addressed as Madame de Salzmann was the daughter of the famous Swiss architect Jules Louis Allemand and of Marie Louise Matignon. She was a French-Swiss dance teacher and a close pupil of the spiritual teacher G. I. Gurdjieff, recognized as his deputy by many of Gurdjieff's other pupils. She was responsible for transmitting the movements and his teaching through the Gurdjieff Institute of Paris, the Gurdjieff Foundation of New York City, the Gurdjieff Society in London and the Fundación Gurdjieff of Caracas, which she founded or helped founding, as well as other formal and informal groups throughout the world.
The Fourth Way is an approach to self-development described by George Gurdjieff which he developed over years of travel in the East. It combines and harmonizes what he saw as three established traditional "ways" or "schools": those of the mind, emotions, and body, or of yogis, monks, and fakirs respectively. Students often refer to the Fourth Way as "The Work", "Work on oneself," or "The System". The exact origins of some of Gurdjieff's teachings are unknown, but people have offered various sources.
Der Blaue Reiter was a group of artists united in rejection of the Neue Künstlervereinigung München in Munich, Germany. The group was founded by a number of Russian emigrants, including Wassily Kandinsky, Alexej von Jawlensky, Marianne von Werefkin, and native German artists, such as Franz Marc, August Macke and Gabriele Münter. They considered that the principles of the Neue Künstlervereinigung München, a group Kandinsky had founded in 1909, had become too strict and traditional.
Bronislava Nijinska ; was a Polish ballet dancer, and an innovative choreographer. She came of age in a family of professional dancers. Her career began in Saint Petersburg. Soon she joined Ballets Russes which ventured to success in Paris. She later met war-time difficulties in 'Petrograd' and in turbulent Kiev. In France again, public acclaim for her works came quickly, cresting in the 1920s. She then enjoyed continuing successes in Europe and the Americas.
Thomas Hartmann or Thomas Hartman may refer to:
Vadym Meller or Vadim Meller, was a Ukrainian-Russian Soviet painter, avant-garde Cubist, Constructivist and Expressionist artist, theatrical designer, book illustrator, and architect. In 1925, he was the first artist to be awarded a gold medal in the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris.
Igor Borisovitch Markevitch was a Russian composer and conductor who studied and worked in Paris, was naturalized Italian in 1947 and French in 1982. He was commissioned in 1929 for a piano concerto by impresario Serge Diaghilev of the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo.
Alexander Sergeyevich Taneyev was a Russian state official and composer of the late Romantic era, specifically of the nationalist school. Among his better-known works were three string quartets, believed to have been composed between 1898–1900.
The Ballets Russes was an itinerant ballet company based in Paris that performed between 1909 and 1929 throughout Europe and on tours to North and South America. The company never performed in Russia, where the Revolution disrupted society. After its initial Paris season, the company had no formal ties there.
Le Spectre de la rose is a short ballet about a young girl who dreams of dancing with the spirit of a souvenir rose from her first ball. The ballet was written by Jean-Louis Vaudoyer who based the story on a verse by Théophile Gautier and used the music of Carl Maria von Weber's piano piece Aufforderung zum Tanz as orchestrated by Hector Berlioz.
Alessandra Celletti is an Italian pianist, vocalist, songwriter and composer, best known as an interpreter of Erik Satie.
Alexander Alexeyevich Shenshin was a Russian composer.
Andrej Ivanovich Hoteev is a Russian classical pianist living in Germany.
The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral is a Russian Orthodox cathedral church located at 12 rue Daru in the 8th arrondissement of Paris. It was established and consecrated in 1861, making it the first Russian Orthodox place of worship in France. It is the see of the Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe, under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. It was built in part through a gift of 200,000 francs from Tsar Alexander II. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral has not been aligned with the Patriarch of Moscow since the Russian Revolution. The Patriarch of Moscow supports Holy Trinity Orthodox Cathedral, under construction on the Quai Branly and financed by Vladimir Putin's government.
Les Orientales is a choreographic divertissement by Michel Fokine. A production of Ballets Russes, it was first premiered on June 25, 1910 at the Theatre National de l'Opera in Paris.
Elan David Sicroff is a concert pianist, recording artist, and educator. He is the foremost interpreter of music composed by Thomas de Hartmann (1885–1956) and the spiritualist George Gurdjieff.
...Thomas de Hartmann had been an established composer in St. Petersburg
Speculative results according to the inductive method of physical science
...to see the obscure stage work performed for the first time ever...