Thomas de Leu or Leeuw or Le Leup or Deleu (1560–1612)was a French engraver, publisher, and print dealer of Flemish origin.
Flemish (Vlaams) also called Flemish Dutch (Vlaams-Nederlands), Belgian Dutch, or Southern Dutch (Zuid-Nederlands), is a Lower Franconian / Dutch dialect. It is spoken in the whole northern region of Belgium as well as French Flanders and the Dutch Zeelandic Flanders by approximately 6.5 million people. The term is used in at least five ways. These are:
He was the son of a print dealer in Oudenaarde and began his career in Antwerp, where he worked for Jean Ditmar (c. 1538–1603)and was influenced by the Wierix.
Oudenaarde is a Belgian municipality in the Flemish province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the city of Oudenaarde proper and the towns of Bevere, Edelare, Eine, Ename, Heurne, Leupegem, Mater, Melden, Mullem, Nederename, Welden, Volkegem and a part of Ooike.
Antwerp is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders. With a population of 520,504, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium, and with 1,200,000 the second largest metropolitan region after Brussels.
The Wierix family, sometimes seen in alternative spellings such as Wiericx, were a Flemish family of artists who distinguished themselves as printmakers and draughtsmen in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. They were active in Antwerp and Brussels.
Sometime after 1576 and before 1580 he went to Paristo work for the painter and engraver Jean Rabel (1540/50–1603).
In 1583 he married Marie Caron, daughter of Antoine Caron,one of the principal painters of the Second School of Fontainebleau. Although it has been stated that he was thereby the brother-in-law of the engraver Léonard Gaultier, this is probably not the case.
Antoine Caron (1521–1599) was a French master glassmaker, illustrator, Northern Mannerist painter and a product of the School of Fontainebleau.
The Ecole de Fontainebleau (c.1530–c.1610) refers to two periods of artistic production in France during the late Renaissance centered on the royal Palace of Fontainebleau that were crucial in forming the French version of Northern Mannerism.
Léonard Gaultier, or, as he sometimes signs himself, Galter, a French engraver, was born at Mainz about 1561, and died in Paris in 1641. His style of work resembles that of Wierix and Crispyn van de Passe. His prints are executed entirely with the graver, with great precision, but in a stiff, formal manner. He must have been very laborious, as the Abbé de Marolles possessed upwards of eight hundred prints by him, many of which were after his own designs. They consist of portraits, and various subjects, of which the following are the most worthy of notice. They are sometimes signed with his name, and sometimes with a cipher GL.
In the Wars of Religion he managed to switch from the side of the Catholic League to that of Henry IV. As a result, he became enormously wealthy, running a highly productive workshop and publishing numerous prints by other artists. His apprentices included Jacques Honnervogt (fl 1608–1635) and Melchior Tavernier (c. 1564–1641).
The French Wars of Religion were a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598. It is estimated that three million people perished in this period from violence, famine, or disease in what is considered the second deadliest religious war in European history.
The Catholic League of France, sometimes referred to by contemporary Catholics as the Holy League, was a major participant in the French Wars of Religion. Formed by Henry I, Duke of Guise, in 1576, the League intended the eradication of Protestants—mainly Calvinists or Huguenots—out of Catholic France during the Protestant Reformation, as well as the replacement of King Henry III.
Henry IV, also known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.
In 1605 he married Charlotte Bothereau.His daughter Charlotte married Claude Vignon. He died in Paris.
Claude Vignon was a French painter, printmaker and illustrator who worked in a wide range of genres. During a period of study in Italy, he became exposed to many new artistic currents, in particular through the works of Caravaggio and his followers, Guercino, Guido Reni and Annibale Caracci. A prolific artist, his work has remained enigmatic, contradictory and hard to define within a single term or style. His mature works are vibrantly coloured, splendidly lit and often extremely expressive. Vignon worked in a fluent technique, resulting in an almost electric brushwork. He particularly excelled in the rendering of textiles, gold and precious stones.
His first dated engraving is Justice (1579; Linzeler no. 57).He produced more than 300 plates of portraiture, including one of Catherine de' Medici (Linzeler no. 255), and many engravings on religious subjects, such as Christ in Blessing (1598; Linzeler no. 7) and a set of 25 plates depicting The Life of Saint Francis. He also provided illustrations for books.
As one of the most important engravers of his time, de Leu's pieces are highly sought. Other famous subjects include Claude de Sainctes, Jacques of Savoy, several plants for Mattias de Lobel's Plantarum Seu Stirpium Icones , Sir Francis Drake, and de Leu himself.[ citation needed ]
Of the engravings from the period, the plate for his self-portrait is by far the most sought-after, as only a few prints of the portrait exist, likely given as gifts to family members and close friends originally, and the existence of the plate has apparently never been acknowledged. Many enthusiasts of sixteenth-century engraving have speculated as to where the plate is, and in such circles questions of its location/ownership can go on for hours, generating wild conspiracy stories and even hypotheses about now-unknown printing methods used by De Leu.[ citation needed ]
Gérard Edelinck was a copper-plate engraver and print publisher of Flemish origin, who worked in Paris from 1666 and became a naturalized French citizen in 1675.
Robert Nanteuil was a French portrait artist : engraver, draughtsman and pastellist to the court of Louis XIV
PhilipGalle was a Dutch publisher, best known for publishing old master prints, which he also produced as designer and engraver. He is especially known for his reproductive engravings of paintings.
Claude Mellan was a French draughtsman, engraver, and painter.
William Miller was a Scottish Quaker line engraver and watercolourist from Edinburgh.
Louise-Magdeleine Horthemels, or Louise-Madeleine Hortemels, also called Magdeleine Horthemels, was a French engraver, the mother of Charles-Nicolas Cochin. She is also sometimes credited under her married name of Louise Madeleine Cochin or Madeleine Cochin.
Charles Audran (1594–1674) was a French engraver
François Joullain (1697–1778) was a French etcher, engraver and art dealer. His career and that of his son, François-Charles Joullain, expanded from their initial roles as engravers and printmakers to merchants of paintings and publishers. He became a noted publisher for producing books of engravings which were of high quality and very popular in the 18th century and a prominent art dealer in Paris.
Jean-François Cars, was a French engraver, printer, publisher and printseller from Lyon.
Jollain was the name of a family of French engravers and engraving publishers who lived and worked in the 17th and 18th centuries, mainly in Paris. Their engravings were often published under the name Chez Jollain. The atelier Jollain was responsible for the first engraving of harpsichord music in France.
Étienne Delaune, Delaulne, or De Laune, was a French goldsmith, medallist, draughtsman and engraver.
Claude Du Bosc (1682–1745?) was a French engraver who spent much of his career in England.
Jacques Lepautre or Le Pautre was a Parisian engraver active during the last quarter of the seventeenth century. Jacques was the son of the prolific printmaker Jean Lepautre (1618–1682) and nephew of architect Antoine Lepautre (1621–1679).
Jean Marot was a French architect and engraver of architectural views. Little has survived of his own architectural work, but his engravings of the works of others, primarily those published in the volumes referred to as the Petit Marot and the Grand Marot (1686), were highly esteemed by his contemporaries and remain, despite numerous inaccuracies and distortions, among the most important sources concerning architecture in France up to the early part of the reign of Louis XIV.
Léon Davent was a French printmaker in the mid 16th century, closely associated with the First School of Fontainebleau. He worked in both engraving and etching and many of his works are based on designs by Francesco Primaticcio, "rendered boldly and freely". Others use designs by Luca Penni and other artists. It is thought that there was a workshop at the Palace of Fontainebleau itself in the 1540s, where he was one of the leading printmakers. Their main purpose seems to have been to record the new style being forged at Fontainebleau, copying both the main subject paintings and the elaborate ornamental stuccos and other decorations.
Jean Le Clerc was a French geographer, copperplate engraver, printer and publisher, mainly active in Paris. He was also known as Jean Le Clerc IV, Jean Le Clerc le fils, Jean Le Clerc le jeune, Joannes Le Clerc, Johannes Le Clerc, Johannes Clericus and Jean Leclerc. He was born into the French Wars of Religion, which only ended when he was thirty-eight, and as a Huguenot he fled Paris in 1588 and spent a year elsewhere in France. He gained royal concessions under Henry IV of France and Louis XIII of France and developed a huge publishing business, collaborating with several engravers and publishing maps, images of contemporary events and other works, including an atlas of France. His wife was Frémine Ricard or Richard.
Claude Chastillon or Chatillon was a French architect, military and civil engineer, and topographical draughtsman, who served under Henry IV of France. His most notable work, Topographie françoise, published posthumously in 1641, is a collection of 500 views of French towns and buildings and constitutes a unique, if partial, historical account of French topography and architecture at the beginning of the 17th century.
Charlotte Vignon was a French still life painter.