Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk

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Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk
Complete Guide to Heraldry Fig618.png
Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham, from a drawing of his seal, 1389
Born22 March 1366
Epworth, Lincolnshire, England.
Died22 September 1399 (aged 33)
Venice, Republic of Venice, Italy.
BuriedVenice, Italy.
Spouse(s)Elizabeth le Strange
Lady Elizabeth FitzAlan
Issue
Thomas de Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk
John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk
Elizabeth de Mowbray, Countess of Suffolk
Isabel de Mowbray, Baroness Berkeley
Margaret de Mowbray, Lady Howard
Father John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray
MotherElizabeth de Segrave
Arms of Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk Thomas de Mowbray Ist Duke of Norfolk.svg
Arms of Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk

Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 3rd Earl of Norfolk, 6th Baron Mowbray, 7th Baron Segrave, KG , Earl Marshal (22 March 1366 22 September 1399) was an English peer. As a result of his involvement in the power struggles which led up to the fall of Richard II, he was banished and died in exile in Venice.

Order of the Garter Order of chivalry in England

The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry founded by King Edward III of England in 1348. It is the most senior order of knighthood in the British honours system, outranked in precedence only by the Victoria Cross and the George Cross. The Order of the Garter is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George, England's patron saint.

Earl Marshal hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom

Earl Marshal is a hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom used in England. He is the eighth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord High Constable and above the Lord High Admiral.

Richard II of England 14th-century King of England and Duke of Aquitaine

Richard II, also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Richard's father, Edward the Black Prince, died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent to King Edward III. Upon the death of his grandfather Edward III, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.

Contents

Origins

Mowbray was the second son of John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray, and Elizabeth de Segrave, suo jure Lady Segrave, daughter and heiress of John de Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave, by Margaret, daughter and heiress of Thomas of Brotherton, son of Edward I. [1] He had an elder brother, John de Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham, and three sisters, Eleanor, Margaret and Joan (for details concerning his siblings see the article on his father, John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray).

John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray English Baron

John (III) de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray was an English peer. He was slain near Constantinople while en route to the Holy Land.

Margaret of Norfolk or Margaret of Brotherton, in her own right Countess of Norfolk, was the daughter and eventual sole heir of Thomas of Brotherton, eldest son of King Edward I of England, by his second marriage. In 1338, she succeeded to the earldom of Norfolk and the office of Earl Marshal.

Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk 14th-century English prince and nobleman

Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, was the fifth son of King Edward I of England (1272–1307), and the eldest child by his second wife, Margaret of France, the daughter of King Philip III of France. He was, therefore, a younger half-brother of King Edward II (1307–1327) and a full brother of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent. He occupied the office of Earl Marshal of England.

Career

Depiction of Mowbray, Arundel, Gloucester, Derby and Warwick demanding of Richard II that he let them prove by arms the justice of their rebellion. From the left of the painting, Mowbray is the third man standing. A Chronicle of England - Page 328 - Arundel, Gloucester, Nottingham, Derby, and Warwick, Before the King.jpg
Depiction of Mowbray, Arundel, Gloucester, Derby and Warwick demanding of Richard II that he let them prove by arms the justice of their rebellion. From the left of the painting, Mowbray is the third man standing.

In April 1372, custody of both Thomas and his elder brother, John, was granted to Blanche Wake, a sister of their grandmother, Joan of Lancaster. [2]

John de Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham English peer

John (IV) de Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 5th Baron Mowbray, 6th Baron Segrave, was an English peer.

Blanche of Lancaster, Baroness Wake of Liddell was an English noblewoman. She was the eldest daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth. Blanche was named after her grandmother, Blanche of Artois, who had ruled Navarre as regent.

Joan of Lancaster English noble

Joan of Lancaster sometimes called Joan Plantagenet after her dynasty's name, was the third daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth.

On 10 February 1383, he succeeded his elder brother, John Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham, as Baron Mowbray and Baron Segrave , and was created Earl of Nottingham on 12 February 1383. [3] On 30 June 1385 he was created Earl Marshal for life, and on 12 January 1386 he was granted the office in tail male. [4] [lower-alpha 1] He fought against the Scots and then against the French. He was appointed Warden of the East March towards Scotland in 1389, a position he held until his death.

Baron Mowbray

Baron Mowbray is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created by writ for Roger de Mowbray in 1283. It was held for a long time by the Mowbray and Howard Dukes of Norfolk. The title was united with the Barony of Segrave in 1368, when John Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham and 5th Baron Mowbray succeeded to that title. Then, it became united with the Dukedom of Norfolk. The two titles were frequently separated due to the attainders of the dukes of Norfolk, and were later reunited upon the dukes' restorations. The final separation occurred with the death of the ninth duke, when the barony of Mowbray fell into abeyance. Thereafter, it was united with the Barony of Stourton after it, and the barony of Segrave, were brought out of abeyance in the nineteenth century in favour of the twentieth Baron Stourton. The baronies of Mowbray and Segrave were shortly separated, as the barony of Segrave was called out of abeyance about two weeks after the barony of Mowbray. The Mowbray barons become premier barons of England when the only older title, that of the Barony of de Ros, is held by a woman.

Baron Segrave

Baron Segrave (Seagrave) is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created by writ in 1295 for Nicholas de Segrave, and the title is drawn from a village in Leicestershire now spelled Seagrave.

Earl of Nottingham Title in the Peerage of England

Earl of Nottingham is a title that has been created seven times in the Peerage of England. It was first created for John de Mowbray in 1377, at the coronation of Richard II. As this creation could only pass to his legitimate heirs, it went extinct on his death in 1383. It was re-created for his elder brother Thomas de Mowbray in the same year, however. This branch of the family became Dukes of Norfolk, and the title would descend with them until John de Mowbray died without male heirs in 1476.

He was one of the Lords Appellant to King Richard II who deposed some of the King's court favourites in 1387. His party routed the royal favourite Robert de Vere, at the Battle of Radcot Bridge, and Richard was at their mercy. Owing partly to Mowbray's moderate counsels the suggestion to depose him was not carried out, but in the Merciless Parliament of 1388 the king's favourites were tried for treason and were sentenced to death. [6]

Lords Appellant Rebel lords under King Richard II

The Lords Appellant were a group of nobles in the reign of King Richard II, who, in 1388, sought to impeach some five of the King's favourites in order to restrain what was seen as tyrannical and capricious rule. The word appellant simply means '[one who is] appealing [in a legal sense]'. It is the older (Norman) French form of the present participle of the verb appeler, the equivalent of the English 'to appeal'. The group was called the Lords Appellant because its members invoked a procedure under law to start prosecution of the king's unpopular favourites known as 'an appeal': the favourites were charged in a document called an appeal of treason, a device borrowed from civil law which led to some procedural complications.

Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland English duke

Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland, Marquess of Dublin, and 9th Earl of Oxford KG was a favourite and court companion of King Richard II of England. He was the ninth Earl of Oxford and the first and only Duke of Ireland and Marquess of Dublin.

Battle of Radcot Bridge

The Battle of Radcot Bridge was fought on 19 December 1387 in medieval England between troops loyal to Richard II, led by court favourite Robert de Vere, and an army captained by Henry Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby. It took place at Radcot Bridge, a bridge over the River Thames now in Oxfordshire but then the boundary between Oxfordshire and Berkshire.

The king regained his power in 1389 and Mowbray worked his way back into his good graces. Richard detached Mowbray from his colleagues and made him warden of the Eastern March; later he became captain of Calais and the royal lieutenant in the north-east of France. The king took him to Ireland in 1394 and soon afterwards sent him to arrange a peace with France and his marriage with Isabella, daughter of Charles VI. [6] Mowbray was likely instrumental in the murder, in 1397, of the king's uncle (and senior Lord Appellant), Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, who was imprisoned at Calais, where Nottingham was Captain. In gratitude, on 29 September 1397, the king created him Duke of Norfolk , [4] [3] granting him Arundel's lands in Surrey and Sussex. [7]

Lord Warden of the Marches Wikimedia list article

The Lord Warden of the Marches was an office in the governments of Scotland and England. The holders were responsible for the security of the border between the two nations, and often took part in military action. They were also responsible, along with 'Conservators of the truce', for administering the special type of border law known as March law.

Isabella of Valois 14th and 15th-century French princess and queen of England

Isabella of France was Queen consort of England as the second spouse of King Richard II. Her parents were King Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. She married the king at the age of six and was widowed three years later. She later married Charles, Duke of Orléans, dying in childbirth at the age of nineteen.

Charles VI of France 14th/15th-century French king

Charles VI, called the Beloved and the Mad, was King of France for 42 years from 1380, until his death.

In 1398, Norfolk quarrelled with Henry of Bolingbroke, 1st Duke of Hereford (later King Henry IV), apparently due to mutual suspicions stemming from their roles in the conspiracy against the Duke of Gloucester. Before a duel between them could take place, Richard II banished them both. Mowbray left England on 19 October 1398, [8] and was deprived of his offices, but not of his titles. [7] While in exile, he succeeded as Earl of Norfolk when his maternal grandmother, Margaret of Brotherton, Duchess of Norfolk, died on 24 March 1399. [8]

He died of the plague at Venice on 22 September 1399. [3] Bolingbroke returned to England in 1399 and usurped the crown on 30 September 1399; shortly afterward, on 6 October 1399, the creation of Mowbray as Duke of Norfolk was annulled by Parliament, although Mowbray's heir retained his other titles. [8] [3]

Arms of Mowbray

Arms of Thomas de Mowbray as Earl Marshal, c. 1395 Blason famille Mowbray, duc de Norfolk.svg
Arms of Thomas de Mowbray as Earl Marshal, c. 1395

The traditional, and historic arms for the Mowbray family are "Gules, a lion rampant argent". Although it is certain that these arms are differenced by various devices, this primary blazon applies to all the family arms, including their peerages at Norfolk. They are never indicated to bear the arms of Thomas Brotherton, nor any other English Royal Arms.

Sir Bernard Burkes, C.B., LL.D., Ulster King of Arms, in his book 'A General Armory of England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland', 1884, page 713, provides the following detailed listing of the Mowbray/Norfolk arms:

"Mowbray (Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Nottingham, Earl of Warren and Surrey, Earl Marshal of England, and Baron Mowbray: dukedom and earldoms extinct 1475, when the barony fell into abeyance. The Mowbrays descended from Roger de Mowbray, son of Nigel d'Albini, who, possessing the lands of Mowbray [Montbray], assumed that surname by command of Henry I., his descendant, Roger de Mowbray, was summoned to Parliament 1295, the fifth baron was created Earl of Nottingham, 1377, d.s.p., his brother, the sixth Baron, was re-created Earl of Nottingham, 1383, constituted Earl Marshal, and created Duke of Norfolk, 139G, the fourth duke was created Earl of Warren and Surrey, vita patris, and d. without surviving issue, when all his honours became extinct except the barony, which fell into abeyance among the descendants of the daus. of the first Duke, of whom Lady Isabel is represented by the Earl of Berkeley, and Lady Margaret by the Lords Stourton and Pttre, as heirs general, and by the Duke of Norfolk, as heir male).

Gu. a lion ramp. ar.

Crest—A leopard or, ducally gorged ar.; granted by patent to the first duke, 17 Richard II. [1377–1399], which acknowledges his right to bear for his crest "a golden leopard with a white label," the crest of his maternal ancestor, Thomas Plantagenet, of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk, and grants the coronet instead of the label, which would of right belong to the King's son.

Marriages and issue

He married firstly, after 20 February 1383, Elizabeth le Strange (c. 6 December 1373 23 August 1383), suo jure Lady Strange of Blackmere, daughter and heiress of John le Strange, 5th Baron Strange of Blackmere and Lady Isabel de Beauchamp, daughter of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, by whom he had no issue. [3]

He married secondly, Lady Elizabeth FitzAlan (c. 1372 8 July 1425), widow of Sir William Montagu, and daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel and Lady Elizabeth de Bohun, daughter of William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton, by whom he had two sons and three daughters: [3]

Shakespeare

Mowbray's quarrel with Bolingbroke and subsequent banishment are depicted in the opening scene of Shakespeare's Richard II . [10] Thomas Mowbray (as he is called in the play) prophetically replies to King Richard's "Lions make leopards tame" with the retort, "Yea, but not change his spots." Mowbray's death in exile is announced later in the play by the Bishop of Carlisle.

Ancestry

See also

Notes

  1. Cockayne gives the year 1385 as when he was created Earl Marshal. Round, however, provides that he was granted the office of Marshal of England in 1385 but only formally received the title of Earl Marshal in 1386. [5]

Citations

  1. Richardson III 2011, pp. 206–7.
  2. Cokayne 1936, p. 780.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Richardson III 2011, p. 208.
  4. 1 2 Cokayne 1936, p. 385.
  5. Round 1899, pp. 314–315.
  6. 1 2 Chisholm 1911, p. 742.
  7. 1 2 Chisholm 1911, p. 743.
  8. 1 2 3 Cokayne 1936, p. 603.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 Richardson III 2011, p. 2010.
  10. McConnell, Louise (2000). Dictionary of Shakespeare, p. 194. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. ISBN   1-57958-215-X.

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References

Political offices
Preceded by
Lord Maltravers
Lord/Earl Marshal
1383–1398
Succeeded by
The Duke of Surrey
Peerage of England
New title Duke of Norfolk
1397–1399
Forfeit
Title next held by
John Mowbray V
Preceded by
Margaret
Earl of Norfolk
1399
Succeeded by
Thomas Mowbray II
New creation Earl of Nottingham
1383–1399
Preceded by
John Mowbray IV
Baron Mowbray
Baron Segrave

1383–1399