Thomas de Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk

Last updated

Thomas de Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk, 2nd Earl of Nottingham, 8th Baron Segrave, 7th Baron Mowbray (17 September 1385 [1] 8 June 1405), English nobleman and rebel, was the son of Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk and Lady Elizabeth FitzAlan.

Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk 14th-century English peer

Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 3rd Earl of Norfolk, 6th Baron Mowbray, 7th Baron Segrave, KG, Earl Marshal was an English peer. As a result of his involvement in the power struggles which led up to the fall of Richard II, he was banished and died in exile in Venice.

Arms of Thomas Mowbray, Surrey Roll, ca.1395 Blason Thomas Mowbray.svg
Arms of Thomas Mowbray, Surrey Roll, ca.1395

Upon the death of his father in Venice, he succeeded him as Earl of Norfolk and Nottingham, but not as Duke of Norfolk. He also received his father's title of Earl Marshal, but on a strictly honorary basis, the military rank being held by Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland as the Marshal of England. He was betrothed to Constance Holland, daughter of John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter, then a child, but the marriage was never consummated.

Venice city in northeastern Italy

Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges. The islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area (PATREVE), which is considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million.

Earl of Norfolk is a title which has been created several times in the Peerage of England. Created in 1070, the first major dynasty to hold the title was the 12th and 13th century Bigod family, and it then was later held by the Mowbrays, who were also made Dukes of Norfolk. Due to the Bigods' descent in the female line from William Marshal, they inherited the hereditary office of Earl Marshal, still held by the Dukes of Norfolk today. The present title was created in 1644 for Thomas Howard, 18th Earl of Arundel, the heir of the Howard Dukedom of Norfolk which had been forfeit in 1572. Arundel's grandson, the 20th Earl of Arundel and 3rd Earl of Norfolk, was restored to the Dukedom as 5th Duke upon the Restoration in 1660, and the title continues to be borne by the Dukes of Norfolk.

Earl of Nottingham Title in the Peerage of England

Earl of Nottingham is a title that has been created seven times in the Peerage of England. It was first created for John de Mowbray in 1377, at the coronation of Richard II. As this creation could only pass to his legitimate heirs, it went extinct on his death in 1383. It was re-created for his elder brother Thomas de Mowbray in the same year, however. This branch of the family became Dukes of Norfolk, and the title would descend with them until John de Mowbray died without male heirs in 1476.

He became involved with the latest rebellion of the Percies in the north, and raised an army with Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York. Deserted by the Earl of Northumberland, Norfolk and Scrope were brought to book on Shipton Moor by a large royal army under John of Lancaster and the Earl of Westmorland. Seeking a parley, they were arrested as soon as they disbanded their followers. When Chief Justice Sir William Gascoigne refused to pass sentence upon them before they were tried by their peers, Henry had both Norfolk and Scrope summarily beheaded in York on 8 June 1405. This conspiracy is the main historical context for Shakespeare's Henry IV, Part 2 , and the execution is described with the words "Some guard these traitors to the block of death, / Treason's true bed and yielder up of breath."

Richard le Scrope, Bishop of Lichfield and Archbishop of York, was executed in 1405 for his participation in the Northern Rising against King Henry IV.

Archbishop of York second most senior bishop of the Church of England

The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The archbishop is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of York and the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, which covers the northern regions of England as well as the Isle of Man. The Archbishop of York is an ex officio member of the House of Lords and is styled Primate of England.

Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland 14th-century English noble

Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, 4th Baron Percy, titular King of Mann, KG, Lord Marshal was the son of Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy, and a descendant of Henry III of England. His mother was Mary of Lancaster, daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, son of Edmund, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster, who was the son of Henry III.

Upon his death, Thomas de Mowbray was succeeded by his younger brother, John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk.

John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk English noble

John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, 8th Baron Mowbray, 9th Baron Segrave KG, Earl Marshal was an English nobleman and soldier. He was a younger son of the first Duke of Norfolk, but inherited his father's earldom of Norfolk when his elder brother rebelled against King Henry IV and was executed before reaching the age of inheritance. This and the fact that his mother lived to an old age and held a third of his estates in dower, meant that until the last few years of his life he was, although an important political figure, poorly-off financially.

He was buried in the Church of the Greyfrairs in York. His head was displayed for two months on a pike at Boothham Bar before it was taken down and reunited with the body. Legend had it that the head retained the freshness of life. [2]

Related Research Articles

Year 1405 (MCDV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

Duke of Norfolk Dukedom in the Peerage of England

The Duke of Norfolk is the premier duke in the peerage of England, and also, as Earl of Arundel, the premier earl. The Duke of Norfolk is, moreover, the Earl Marshal and Hereditary Marshal of England. The seat of the Duke of Norfolk is Arundel Castle in Sussex, although the title refers to the county of Norfolk. The current duke is Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk. The dukes have historically been Catholic, a state of affairs known as recusancy in England.

Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey 16th-century English nobleman

Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, KG,, was an English nobleman, politician, and poet. He was one of the founders of English Renaissance poetry and the last known execution by King Henry VIII. He was a first cousin of both Queen Anne Boleyn and Queen Catherine Howard, second and fifth wives of King Henry VIII. His name is usually associated in literature with that of Wyatt, was the younger poet of the two. He was the son of Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey and when his father became Duke of Norfolk (1524) the son adopted the courtesy title of Earl of Surrey. Owing largely to the powerful position of his father, Surrey took the prominent part in the Court life of the time, and served as a soldier both in France and Scotland. He was a man of reckless temper, which involved him in many quarrels, and finally brought upon him the wrath of aging and embittered Henry VIII. He was arrested, tried for treason and beheaded on Tower Hill.

Earl Marshal hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom

Earl Marshal is a hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom used in England. He is the eighth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord High Constable and above the Lord High Admiral.

Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland 14th/15th-century English nobleman

Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of WestmorlandEarl Marshal, was an English nobleman of the House of Neville.

Baron Mowbray

Baron Mowbray is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created by writ for Roger de Mowbray in 1283. It was held for a long time by the Mowbray and Howard Dukes of Norfolk. The title was united with the Barony of Segrave in 1368, when John Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham and 5th Baron Mowbray succeeded to that title. Then, it became united with the Dukedom of Norfolk. The two titles were frequently separated due to the attainders of the dukes of Norfolk, and were later reunited upon the dukes' restorations. The final separation occurred with the death of the ninth duke, when the barony of Mowbray fell into abeyance. Thereafter, it was united with the Barony of Stourton after it, and the barony of Segrave, were brought out of abeyance in the nineteenth century in favour of the twentieth Baron Stourton. The baronies of Mowbray and Segrave were shortly separated, as the barony of Segrave was called out of abeyance about two weeks after the barony of Mowbray. The Mowbray barons become premier barons of England when the only older title, that of the Barony of de Ros, is held by a woman.

Earl of Westmorland Title in the peerage of England

Earl of Westmorland is a title that has been created twice in the Peerage of England. The title was first created in 1397 for Ralph Neville. It was forfeited in 1571 by Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland for leading the Rising of the North. It was revived in 1624 in favour of Sir Francis Fane, whose mother, Mary Neville, was a descendant of a younger son of the first Earl. The first Earl of the first creation had already become Baron Neville de Raby, and that was a subsidiary title for his successors. The current Earl holds the subsidiary title Baron Burghersh (1624).

Baron Segrave

Baron Segrave (Seagrave) is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created by writ in 1295 for Nicholas de Segrave, and the title is drawn from a village in Leicestershire now spelled Seagrave.

Earl of Effingham

Earl of Effingham, in the County of Surrey, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Its United Kingdom version was created in 1837 for Kenneth Howard, 11th Baron Howard of Effingham, named after the village of Effingham where they held the manor.

House of Howard Dukes of Norfolk family tree

The House of Howard is an English noble house founded by John Howard, who was created Duke of Norfolk by King Richard III of England in 1483. However, John was also the eldest grandson of the 1st Duke of the first creation. The Howards have been part of the peerage since the 15th century and remain both the Premier Dukes and Earls of the Realm in the Peerage of England, acting as Earl Marshal of England. After the English Reformation, many Howards remained steadfast in their Catholic faith as the most high-profile recusant family; two members, Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel, and William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, are regarded as martyrs: a saint and a blessed respectively.

House of Mowbray

The House of Mowbray is an Anglo-Norman noble house, derived from Montbray in Normandy and founded by Roger de Mowbray, son of Nigel d'Aubigny.

Thomas Grey (conspirator) Conspirator in the Southampton Plot

Sir Thomas Grey, of Heaton Castle in the parish of Norham, Northumberland, was one of the three conspirators in the Southampton Plot against King Henry V in 1415.

John Grey (knight) English nobleman and soldier

Sir John GreyKG, English nobleman and soldier, of Ruthin, Denbighshire, Wales, Badmondisfield, Suffolk, Great Gaddesden, Hertfordshire, etc., second but eldest surviving son and heir apparent of Sir Reginald Grey, 3rd Baron Grey de Ruthyn by his 1st wife, Margaret Roos. He was also Captain of Gournay.

John (II) de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray was the only son of John de Mowbray, 2nd Baron Mowbray, by his first wife, Aline de Brewes, daughter of William de Braose, 2nd Baron Braose. He was born Hovingham, Yorkshire.

John de Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham English peer

John (IV) de Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 5th Baron Mowbray, 6th Baron Segrave, was an English peer.

Thomas Bardolf, 5th Baron Bardolf was a baron in the Peerage of England, Lord of Wormegay, Norfolk, of Shelford and Stoke Bardolph in Nottinghamshire, Hallaton (Hallughton), Leicestershire, and others, and was "a person of especial eminence in his time".

References

  1. Archer, Rowena E. "Thomas Mowbray, second earl of Nottingham (1385–1405)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 31 December 2006.
  2. Tait, James (1894). "Thomas Mowbray (1386-1405)". In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography (volume 39 ed.). Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 236–237.
Political offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Surrey
Earl Marshal
1399–1405
Succeeded by
The Earl of Westmorland
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Thomas Mowbray I
Earl of Norfolk
Earl of Nottingham

1399–1405
Succeeded by
John Mowbray V