Thomas of Galloway (bastard)

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Tomás mac Ailein, sometimes known as Thomas of Galloway, was an illegitimate son of Alan of Galloway (c. 1175–1234), Constable of Scotland and the last Mac Fearghusa lord of Galloway. After the death of his father, who left no legitimate sons, King Alexander II of Scotland planned to divide the lordship between the husbands of Alan's three daughters.

Alan of Galloway, also known as Alan fitz Roland, was a leading thirteenth-century Scottish magnate. As the hereditary Lord of Galloway and Constable of Scotland, he was one of the most influential men in the Kingdom of Scotland and Irish Sea zone.

Lord of Galloway Wikimedia list article

The lords of Galloway consisted of a dynasty of heirs who were lords and ladies who ruled over Galloway in southwest Scotland, mainly during the High Middle Ages. Many regions of Scotland, including Galloway and Moray, periodically had kings or subkings, similar to those in Ireland during the Middle Ages. The Scottish monarch was seen as being similar to a high king. The lords of Galloway would have either paid tribute to the Scottish monarch, or at other times ignored him. The Lords of Galloway are fairly well recorded in the 12th and 13th centuries, but the records are incomplete or conflicting at other times. Later on, the kings were known as "lords" at the Scottish court, and "kings" at home, finally becoming "lords" in both arenas.

Alexander II of Scotland King of Scotland

Alexander II was King of Scotland from 1214 until his death. He concluded the Treaty of York (1237) which defined the boundary between England and Scotland, virtually unchanged today.

Thomas, along with his associate Gille Ruadh, led an unsuccessful rebellion against the king, with the aim of maintaining Galloway's status as an independent sub-kingdom.

Gille Ruadh was the Galwegian leader who led the revolt against King Alexander II of Scotland. His birth, death date and origins are all unknown.

The Galloway revolt of 1234—35 was an uprising in Galloway during 1234—35, led by Tomás mac Ailein and Gille Ruadh. The uprising was in response to the succession of Alan of Galloway, whereby King Alexander II of Scotland ordered Galloway to be divided the amongst Alan's three heiresses under Norman feudal law. This judgement excluded Alan's illegitimate son Tomás, who believed he was the rightful heir under the Gaelic system of tanistry. Alexander II responded by leading an army into Galloway to crush the rebellion. The Scottish army was almost routed, however was saved by the arrival of Fearchar, Earl of Ross and his forces. Walter Comyn, Lord of Badenoch was left to mop up the revolt, however was forced to abandon the region. Patrick II, Earl of Dunbar led another army in 1235, with Adam, Abbot of Melrose, and Gilbert, Bishop of Galloway and forced the submission of Tomás and Gille.

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