|Thomas van der Hammen Natural Reserve|
|Thomas van der Hammen Forest Reserve|
Outline Van der Hammen Reserve in red
|Location|| Suba and Usaquén |
|Nearest town||Chía, Cota|
|Area||1,395 ha (5.39 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2,552 metres (8,373 ft)|
|Named for||Thomas van der Hammen|
The Thomas van der Hammen Natural Reserve or Thomas van der Hammen Forest Reserve is an area of the Bogotá savanna that is under environmental protection. The natural reserve was declared as such in year 2000 by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable development. 1,395 hectares (3,450 acres) and it is located in the north of Bogotá.It takes its name from the Dutch-Colombian geologist Thomas van der Hammen who devoted his life to the research of the region. The surface area of the protected reserve is approximately
The Bogotá savanna is a montane savanna, located in the southwestern part of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense in the center of Colombia. The Bogotá savanna has an extent of 4,251.6 square kilometres (1,641.6 sq mi) and an average altitude of 2,550 metres (8,370 ft). The savanna is situated in the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes.
Thomas van der Hammen was a Dutch palaeontologist, botanist and geologist. He has published more than 160 works in five languages.
The protection area has the purpose of creating an urban forest that connects the Bogotá River and the Eastern Hills of Bogotá, to preserve the underground water sources, improve the quality of the air and protect the diversity and activities of the animal species that exist there.
The Bogotá River is a major river of the Cundinamarca department of Colombia, crossing the region from the northeast to the southwest and passing along the western limits of Bogotá. The large population and major industrial base in its watershed have resulted in extremely severe pollution problems for the river.
The Eastern Hills are a chain of hills forming the eastern natural boundary of the Colombian capital Bogotá. They are part of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, the high plateau of the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes. The Eastern Hills are bordered by the Chingaza National Natural Park to the east, the Bogotá savanna to the west and north, and the Sumapaz Páramo to the south. The north-northeast to south-southwest trending mountain chain is 52 kilometres (32 mi) long and its width varies from 0.4 to 8 kilometres. The highest hilltops rise to 3,550 metres (11,650 ft) over the western flatlands at 2,600 metres (8,500 ft). The Torca River at the border with Chía in the north, the boquerón Chipaque to the south and the valley of the Teusacá River to the east are the hydrographic limits of the Eastern Hills.
Mayor of Bogotá Enrique Peñalosa has proposed construction in the Reserve that could host 1.5 million people.
Enrique Peñalosa Londoño is a Colombian politician. He was mayor of Bogotá from 1998 until 2001, and was re-elected in 2015 for the 2016–2019 term. He has also worked as a journalist and consultant on urban and transportation policy. In 2009, Peñalosa was elected president of the board of directors of the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP), a non-profit organization headquartered in New York. Peñalosa resigned from the ITDP board in 2015 upon his election.
The Thomas van der Hammen Natural Reserve is a rich natural area important for the biodiversity of the Bogotá savanna. Several endemic species have been registered, and two newly described species of butterflies were discovered in the Reserve.
Colombia is the country with the second-highest biodiversity in the world, behind Brazil. As of 2016, 56,343 species are registered in Colombia, of which 9,153 are endemic. The country occupies the first position worldwide in number of orchids and birds, second position in plants, amphibians, butterflies and fresh water fish, third place in species of palm trees and reptiles and globally holds the fourth position in biodiversity of mammals.
In the area of the reserve 187 species of birds have been registered, some of which are endangered.Two species, registered in the past; Cistothorus apolinari and Polystictus pectoralis have not been reported recently.
|Bogotá rail||Rallus semiplumbeus|
|bronze-tailed thornbill||Chalcostigma heteropogon|
|rufous-browed conebill||Conirostrum rufum|
|spot-flanked gallinule||Gallinula melanops|
|cerulean warbler||Setophaga cerulea|
|olive-sided flycatcher||Contopus cooperi|
|snowy egret||Egretta thula|
|noble snipe||Gallinago nobilis|
|blue-throated starfrontlet||Coeligena helianthea|
|coppery-bellied puffleg||Eriocnemis cupreoventris|
|subtropical doradito||Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis|
|pale-bellied tapaculo||Scytalopus griseicollis|
|silvery-throated spinetail||Synallaxis subpudica|
Registered mammals are among others guinea pigs, Andean white-eared opossum (Didelphis pernigra),tigrillo (Leopardus tigrinus), long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata), and eleven species of bats.
The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig, also known as cavy or domestic cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia. Despite their common name, guinea pigs are not native to Guinea, nor are they biologically related to pigs, and the origin of the name is still unclear. They originated in the Andes of South America, and studies based on biochemistry and hybridization suggest they are domesticated descendants of a closely related species of cavy such as C. tschudii, and therefore do not exist naturally in the wild. They were originally domesticated as livestock, as a source of food, and continue to be.
The Andean white-eared opossum is an opossum species from South America. It is found in the Andes Mountains, ranging from Venezuela to Bolivia.
The long-tailed weasel, also known as the bridled weasel or big stoat, is a species of mustelid distributed from southern Canada throughout all the United States and Mexico, southward through all of Central America and into northern South America. It is distinct from the short-tailed weasel, also known as a "stoat", a close relation which originated in Eurasia and crossed into North America some half million years ago.
|big brown bat||Eptesicus fuscus|
|hoary bat||Lasiurus cinereus|
|Mexican free-tailed bat||Tadarida brasiliensis|
|Seba's short-tailed bat||Carollia perspicillata|
|Geoffroy's tailless bat||Anoura geoffroyi|
|Peale's free-tailed bat||Nyctinomops aurispinosus|
|Wagner's bonneted bat||Eumops glaucinus|
|small big-eared brown bat||Histiotus montanus|
|black myotis||Myotis nigricans|
|Bogotá yellow-shouldered bat||Sturnira bogotensis|
|highland yellow-shouldered bat||Sturnira ludovici|
With 350 endemic species, Colombia occupies the first position worldwide in diversity of butterflies and after Peru, the second place in total number of registered butterfly species (3274).The Thomas van der Hammen Natural Reserve contains 23 (new studies report more than 26 with two new species in the genus Satyrinae discovered) species of butterflies. Other species of butterflies have been registered:
|American painted lady||Vanessa virginiensis|
|dimera sulphur||Colias dimera|
|Enyo satyr||Corades enyo|
|Julia butterfly||Dryas iulia|
|Lasiophila circe circe|
|Catasticta semiramis semiramis|
|Leptophobia eleone eleone|
El Burro is a wetland, part of the Wetlands of Bogotá, in the locality Kennedy, Bogotá, Colombia. The wetland on the Bogotá savanna covers about 19 hectares and is crossed by the Avenida Ciudad de Cali.
El Abra is the name given to an extensive archeological site, located in the valley of the same name. El Abra is situated in the east of the municipality Zipaquirá extending to the westernmost part of Tocancipá in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. The several hundred metres long series of rock shelters is in the north of the Bogotá savanna on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes at an altitude of 2,570 metres (8,430 ft). The rock shelter and cave system is one of the first evidences of human settlement in the Americas, dated at 12,400 ± 160 years BP. The site was used by the hunter-gatherers of the Late Pleistocene epoch.
Capellanía is a wetland situated in the locality of Fontibón as one of the Wetlands of Bogotá, Colombia. It forms part of the Fucha River basin on the Bogotá savanna. Since 1995, it has been split into two due to the construction of the Avenida La Esperanza. This has caused rapid deterioration and the wetland is likely to disappear because of the industries that surround it, the current transportation projects of the area, and future developments approved by the district. The wetland covers 27 hectares.
Córdoba is a wetland, part of the Wetlands of Bogotá in Bogotá, Colombia. It is situated on the Bogotá savanna in the locality Suba between the Avenida Boyacá and Avenida Córdoba and the streets Calle 127 and Calle 116, close to the TransMilenio stations Av. Suba Calle 116 and namesake station Humedal Córdoba. The wetland covers about 40 hectares.
Jaboque is a wetland, part of the Wetlands of Bogotá, located in the locality Engativá, Bogotá, Colombia. The wetland, close to the Bogotá River on the Bogotá savanna covers an area of 148 hectares. The wetland is close to El Dorado International Airport in the Juan Amarillo River basin.
La Vaca or Techovita is a small wetland, part of the Wetlands of Bogotá, located in the locality Kennedy, Bogotá, Colombia. The wetland, in the Tunjuelo River basin on the Bogotá savanna covers an area of about 8 hectares. La Vaca is close to the Avenidad Ciudad de Cali.
Techo is a wetland, part of the Wetlands of Bogotá, located in the neighbourhood Techo in the locality Kennedy, Bogotá, Colombia. The wetland on the Bogotá savanna covers an area of about 11.6 hectares. Techo is located in the basins of the Bogotá River and its main tributaries Fucha and Tunjuelo.
La Conejera is a wetland, part of the Wetlands of Bogotá, located in the locality Suba, Bogotá, Colombia. The wetland, in the Juan Amarillo River basin on the Bogotá savanna covers an area of 58.9 hectares.
Santa María del Lago is a wetland, part of the Wetlands of Bogotá, located in the locality Engativá, Bogotá, Colombia. The wetland on the Bogotá savanna covers an area of 12 hectares, of which 4 hectares water.
Tibabuyes or Juan Amarillo Wetland is a wetland, part of the Wetlands of Bogotá, located in the localities Suba and Engativá, Bogotá, Colombia. The wetland, in the Juan Amarillo River basin on the Bogotá savanna is the largest of the wetlands of Bogotá and covers an area of 222 hectares.
The Herrera Period is a phase in the history of Colombia. It is part of the Andean preceramic and ceramic, time equivalent of the North American pre-Columbian formative and classic stages and age dated by various archaeologists. The Herrera Period predates the age of the Muisca, who inhabited the Altiplano Cundiboyacense before the Spanish conquest of the Muisca and postdates the prehistory of the region in Colombia. The Herrera Period is usually defined as ranging from 800 BCE to 800 CE, although some scholars date it as early as 1500 BCE.
Tibanica is a wetland, part of the Wetlands of Bogotá, located on the border of the locality Bosa, Bogotá and Soacha, Cundinamarca, Colombia. The wetland on the Bogotá savanna covers an area of about 28.8 hectares. Tibanica is located in the Tunjuelo River basin.
El Salitre is a small wetland, one of the wetlands of Bogotá. It is located within Salitre Park, close to Salitre Mágico, an amusement park north of Simón Bolívar Park in the locality Barrios Unidos of the Colombian capital Bogotá. The area of El Salitre is 6.4 hectares.
La Isla is a small wetland, part of the wetlands of Bogotá. It is located next to the Tunjuelo River in the locality Bosa, Bogotá, Colombia. The Bogotá River passes 800 metres (2,600 ft) south of the wetland with an area of 7.7 hectares.
Meandro del Say is a wetland, part of the wetlands of Bogotá. It spans the locality Fontibón of Bogotá and the eastern part of Mosquera, Cundinamarca. Meandro del Say is located close to the Bogotá River with a total area of 13.6 hectares. The Avenida Centenario borders the wetland in the northeast. Meandro de Say is situated in the Fucha River basin.
La Florida is a wetland and park known as the Parque Metropolitano La Florida. La Florida is located across the Bogotá River from Jaboque wetland in the municipality Funza, Cundinamarca, close to Cota. La Florida does not belong to the protected wetlands of Bogotá.
Guaymaral y Torca is a combined wetland, part of the Wetlands of Bogotá, located in the north of the Colombian capital in the localities Suba and Usaquén, Bogotá, Colombia. The wetlands on the Bogotá savanna cover an area of about 73 hectares. Guaymaral y Torca, the northernmost wetlands of Bogotá at the foot of the Eastern Hills, is composed of three parts, Guaymaral in the west in Suba, Torca in the east in Usaquén and a small strip along the dividing Autopista Norte between the two main wetlands. The wetlands are located in the Torca River basin. The Autopista Norte was constructed in 1952, dividing the wetlands.