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In mathematics, the **Thompson groups** (also called **Thompson's groups**, **vagabond groups** or **chameleon groups**) are three groups, commonly denoted , which were introduced by Richard Thompson in some unpublished handwritten notes in 1965 as a possible counterexample to the von Neumann conjecture. Of the three, *F* is the most widely studied, and is sometimes referred to as **the Thompson group** or **Thompson's group**.

**Mathematics** includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and change. It has no generally accepted definition.

In mathematics, a **group** is a set equipped with a binary operation that combines any two elements to form a third element in such a way that four conditions called group axioms are satisfied, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility. One of the most familiar examples of a group is the set of integers together with the addition operation, but groups are encountered in numerous areas within and outside mathematics, and help focusing on essential structural aspects, by detaching them from the concrete nature of the subject of the study.

In mathematics, the **von Neumann conjecture** stated that a group *G* is non-amenable if and only if *G* contains a subgroup that is a free group on two generators. The conjecture was disproved in 1980.

The Thompson groups, and *F* in particular, have a collection of unusual properties which have made them counterexamples to many general conjectures in group theory. All three Thompson groups are infinite but finitely presented. The groups *T* and *V* are (rare) examples of infinite but finitely-presented simple groups. The group *F* is not simple but its derived subgroup [*F*,*F*] is and the quotient of *F* by its derived subgroup is the free abelian group of rank 2. *F* is totally ordered, has exponential growth, and does not contain a subgroup isomorphic to the free group of rank 2.

In mathematics, a **simple group** is a nontrivial group whose only normal subgroups are the trivial group and the group itself. A group that is not simple can be broken into two smaller groups, namely a nontrivial normal subgroup and the corresponding quotient group. This process can be repeated, and for finite groups one eventually arrives at uniquely determined simple groups, by the Jordan–Hölder theorem.

In mathematics, the **growth rate** of a group with respect to a symmetric generating set describes how fast a group grows. Every element in the group can be written as a product of generators, and the growth rate counts the number of elements that can be written as a product of length *n*.

In group theory, a branch of mathematics, given a group *G* under a binary operation ∗, a subset *H* of *G* is called a **subgroup** of *G* if *H* also forms a group under the operation ∗. More precisely, *H* is a subgroup of *G* if the restriction of ∗ to *H* × *H* is a group operation on *H*. This is usually denoted *H* ≤ *G*, read as "*H* is a subgroup of *G*".

It is conjectured that *F* is not amenable and hence a further counterexample to the long-standing but recently disproved von Neumann conjecture for finitely-presented groups: it is known that *F* is not elementary amenable.

In mathematics, an **amenable group** is a locally compact topological group *G* carrying a kind of averaging operation on bounded functions that is invariant under translation by group elements. The original definition, in terms of a finitely additive invariant measure on subsets of *G*, was introduced by John von Neumann in 1929 under the German name "messbar" in response to the Banach–Tarski paradox. In 1949 Mahlon M. Day introduced the English translation "amenable", apparently as a pun on "*mean*".

Higman (1974) introduced an infinite family of finitely presented simple groups, including Thompson's group *V* as a special case.

A finite presentation of *F* is given by the following expression:

where [*x*,*y*] is the usual group theory commutator, *[{text|xyx}}*^{−1}*y*^{−1}.

Although *F* has a finite presentation with 2 generators and 2 relations, it is most easily and intuitively described by the infinite presentation:

The two presentations are related by *x*_{0}=*A*, *x*_{n} = *A*^{1−n}*BA*^{n−1} for *n*>0.

The group *F* also has realizations in terms of operations on ordered rooted binary trees, and as a subgroup of the piecewise linear homeomorphisms of the unit interval that preserve orientation and whose non-differentiable points are dyadic rationals and whose slopes are all powers of 2.

In computer science, a **binary tree** is a tree data structure in which each node has at most two children, which are referred to as the *left child* and the *right child*. A recursive definition using just set theory notions is that a (non-empty) binary tree is a tuple, where *L* and *R* are binary trees or the empty set and *S* is a singleton set. Some authors allow the binary tree to be the empty set as well.

In the mathematical field of topology, a **homeomorphism**, **topological isomorphism**, or **bicontinuous function** is a continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function. Homeomorphisms are the isomorphisms in the category of topological spaces—that is, they are the mappings that preserve all the topological properties of a given space. Two spaces with a homeomorphism between them are called **homeomorphic**, and from a topological viewpoint they are the same. The word *homeomorphism* comes from the Greek words *ὅμοιος* (*homoios*) = similar or same and *μορφή* (*morphē*) = shape, form, introduced to mathematics by Henri Poincaré in 1895.

In mathematics, the **unit interval** is the closed interval [0,1], that is, the set of all real numbers that are greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 1. It is often denoted *I* . In addition to its role in real analysis, the unit interval is used to study homotopy theory in the field of topology.

The group *F* can also be considered as acting on the unit circle by identifying the two endpoints of the unit interval, and the group *T* is then the group of automorphisms of the unit circle obtained by adding the homeomorphism *x*→*x*+1/2 mod 1 to *F*. On binary trees this corresponds to exchanging the two trees below the root. The group *V* is obtained from *T* by adding the discontinuous map that fixes the points of the half-open interval [0,1/2) and exchanges [1/2,3/4) and [3/4,1) in the obvious way. On binary trees this corresponds to exchanging the two trees below the right-hand descendant of the root (if it exists).

The Thompson group *F* is the group of order-preserving automorphisms of the free Jónsson–Tarski algebra on one generator.

The conjecture of Thompson that *F* is not amenable was further popularized by R. Geoghegan --- see also the Cannon-Floyd-Parry article cited in the references below. Its current status is open: E. Shavgulidze^{ [1] } published a paper in 2009 in which he claimed to prove that *F* is amenable, but an error was found, as is explained in the MR review.

It is known that *F* is not elementary amenable, see Theorem 4.10 in Cannon-Floyd-Parry. If *F* is **not** amenable, then it would be another counterexample to the long-standing but recently disproved von Neumann conjecture for finitely-presented groups, which suggested that a finitely-presented group is amenable if and only if it does not contain a copy of the free group of rank 2.

The group *F* was rediscovered at least twice by topologists during the 1970s. In a paper which was only published much later but was in circulation as a preprint at that time, P. Freyd and A. Heller ^{ [2] } showed that the *shift map* on *F* induces an unsplittable homotopy idempotent on the Eilenberg-MacLane space *K(F,1)* and that this is universal in an interesting sense. This is explained in detail in Geoghegan's book (see references below). Independently, J. Dydak and P. Minc ^{ [3] } created a less well-known model of *F* in connection with a problem in shape theory.

In 1979, R. Geoghegan made four conjectures about *F*: (1) *F* has type **FP**_{∞}; (2) All homotopy groups of *F* at infinity are trivial; (3) *F* has no non-abelian free subgroups; (4) *F* is non-amenable. (1) was proved by K. S. Brown and R. Geoghegan in a strong form: there is a K(F,1) with two cells in each positive dimension.^{ [4] } (2) was also proved by Brown and Geoghegan ^{ [5] } in the sense that the cohomology H*(F,ZF) was shown to be trivial; since a previous theorem of M. Mihalik ^{ [6] } implies that *F* is simply connected at infinity, and the stated result implies that all homology at infinity vanishes, the claim about homotopy groups follows. (3) was proved by M. Brin and C. Squier.^{ [7] } The status of (4) is discussed above.

It is unknown if *F* satisfies the Farrell–Jones conjecture. It is even unknown if the Whitehead group of *F* (see Whitehead torsion) or the projective class group of *F* (see Wall's finiteness obstruction) is trivial, though it easily shown that *F* satisfies the Strong Bass Conjecture.

D. Farley ^{ [8] } has shown that *F* acts as deck transformations on a locally finite CAT(0) cubical complex (necessarily of infinite dimension). A consequence is that *F* satisfies the Baum-Connes conjecture.

In mathematics, a **conjecture** is a conclusion or proposition based on incomplete information, for which no proof or disproof has yet been found. Conjectures such as the Riemann hypothesis or Fermat's Last Theorem have shaped much of mathematical history as new areas of mathematics are developed in order to prove them.

In mathematics, a **diffeomorphism** is an isomorphism of smooth manifolds. It is an invertible function that maps one differentiable manifold to another such that both the function and its inverse are smooth.

In mathematics, a **topological group** is a group *G* together with a topology on *G* such that both the group's binary operation and the function mapping group elements to their respective inverses are continuous functions with respect to the topology. A topological group is a mathematical object with both an algebraic structure and a topological structure. Thus, one may perform algebraic operations, because of the group structure, and one may talk about continuous functions, because of the topology.

In group theory, a topic in abstract algebra, the **Mathieu groups** are the five sporadic simple groups *M*_{11}, *M*_{12}, *M*_{22}, *M*_{23} and *M*_{24} introduced by Mathieu. They are multiply transitive permutation groups on 11, 12, 22, 23 or 24 objects. They were the first sporadic groups to be discovered.

In geometric topology, a field within mathematics, the obstruction to a homotopy equivalence of finite CW-complexes being a simple homotopy equivalence is its **Whitehead torsion** which is an element in the **Whitehead group** . These concepts are named after the mathematician J. H. C. Whitehead.

In mathematics, in the sub-field of geometric topology, the **mapping class group** is an important algebraic invariant of a topological space. Briefly, the mapping class group is a certain discrete group corresponding to symmetries of the space.

In differential topology, an **exotic sphere** is a differentiable manifold *M* that is homeomorphic but not diffeomorphic to the standard Euclidean *n*-sphere. That is, *M* is a sphere from the point of view of all its topological properties, but carrying a smooth structure that is not the familiar one.

In mathematics, a **matrix group** is a group *G* consisting of invertible matrices over a specified field *K*, with the operation of matrix multiplication, and a **linear group** is an abstract group that is isomorphic to a matrix group over a field *K*, in other words, admitting a faithful, finite-dimensional representation over *K*.

**Segal's Burnside ring conjecture**, or, more briefly, the **Segal conjecture**, is a theorem in homotopy theory, a branch of mathematics. The theorem relates the Burnside ring of a finite group *G* to the stable cohomotopy of the classifying space *BG*. The conjecture was made in the mid 1970s by Graeme Segal and proved in 1984 by Gunnar Carlsson. As of 2016, this statement is still commonly referred to as the Segal conjecture, even though it now has the status of a theorem.

In model theory, a **stable group** is a group that is stable in the sense of stability theory. An important class of examples is provided by **groups of finite Morley rank**.

The **Whitehead conjecture** is a claim in algebraic topology. It was formulated by J. H. C. Whitehead in 1941. It states that every connected subcomplex of a two-dimensional aspherical CW complex is aspherical.

In the mathematical subject of group theory, the **Hanna Neumann conjecture** is a statement about the rank of the intersection of two finitely generated subgroups of a free group. The conjecture was posed by Hanna Neumann in 1957. In 2011, a strengthened version of the conjecture was proved independently by Joel Friedman and by Igor Mineyev.

In abstract algebra, the **focal subgroup theorem** describes the fusion of elements in a Sylow subgroup of a finite group. The focal subgroup theorem was introduced in and is the "first major application of the transfer" according to. The focal subgroup theorem relates the ideas of transfer and fusion such as described in. Various applications of these ideas include local criteria for *p*-nilpotence and various non-simplicity criterion focussing on showing that a finite group has a normal subgroup of index *p*.

**Christopher Deninger** is a German mathematician at the University of Münster.

In mathematics, the **Higman group**, introduced by Graham Higman (1951), was the first example of an infinite finitely presented group with no non-trivial finite quotients. The quotient by the maximal proper normal subgroup is a finitely generated infinite simple group. Higman (1974) later found some finitely presented infinite groups *G*_{n,r} that are simple if *n* is even and have a simple subgroup of index 2 if *n* is odd, one of which is one of the Thompson groups.

In metric geometry, **asymptotic dimension** of a metric space is a large-scale analog of Lebesgue covering dimension. The notion of asymptotic dimension was introduced my Mikhail Gromov in his 1993 monograph *Asymptotic invariants of infinite groups* in the context of geometric group theory, as a quasi-isometry invariant of finitely generated groups. As shown by Guoliang Yu, finitely generated groups of finite homotopy type with finite asymptotic dimension satisfy the Novikov conjecture. Asymptotic dimension has important applications in geometric analysis and index theory.

- ↑ Shavgulidze, E. (2009), "The Thompson group F is amenable",
*Infinite Dimensional Analysis, Quantum Probability and Related Topics*,**12**(2): 173–191, doi:10.1142/s0219025709003719, MR 2541392 - ↑ Freyd, Peter; Heller, Alex (1993), "Splitting homotopy idempotents",
*Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra*,**89**(1–2): 93–106, doi:10.1016/0022-4049(93)90088-b, MR 1239554 - ↑ Dydak, Jerzy; Minc, Piotr (1977), "A simple proof that pointed FANR-spaces are regular fundamental retracts of ANR's",
*Bulletin de l'Académie Polonaise des Science, Série des Sciences Mathématiques, Astronomiques et Physiques*,**25**: 55–62, MR 0442918 - ↑ Brown, K.S.; Geoghegan, Ross (1984),
*An infinite-dimensional torsion-free FP_infinity group*,**77**, pp. 367–381, Bibcode:1984InMat..77..367B, doi:10.1007/bf01388451, MR 0752825 - ↑ Brown, K.S.; Geoghegan, Ross (1985), "Cohomology with free coefficients of the fundamental group of a graph of groups",
*Commentarii Mathematici Helvetici*,**60**: 31–45, doi:10.1007/bf02567398, MR 0787660 - ↑ Mihalik, M. (1985), "Ends of groups with the integers as quotient",
*Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra*,**35**: 305–320, doi:10.1016/0022-4049(85)90048-9, MR 0777262 - ↑ Brin, Matthew.; Squier, Craig (1985), "Groups of piecewise linear homeomorphisms of the real line",
*Inventiones Mathematicae*,**79**(3): 485–498, Bibcode:1985InMat..79..485B, doi:10.1007/bf01388519, MR 0782231 - ↑ Farley, D. (2003), "Finiteness and CAT(0) properties of diagram groups",
*Topology*,**42**(5): 1065–1082, doi:10.1016/s0040-9383(02)00029-0, MR 1978047

- Cannon, J. W.; Floyd, W. J.; Parry, W. R. (1996), "Introductory notes on Richard Thompson's groups" (PDF),
*L'Enseignement Mathématique*, IIe Série,**42**(3): 215–256, ISSN 0013-8584, MR 1426438 - Cannon, J.W.; Floyd, W.J. (September 2011). "WHAT IS...Thompson's Group?" (PDF).
*Notices of the American Mathematical Society*.**58**(8): 1112–1113. ISSN 0002-9920 . Retrieved December 27, 2011. - Geoghegan, Ross (2008),
*Topological Methods in Group Theory*, Graduate Texts in Mathematics,**243**, Springer Verlag, arXiv: math/0601683 , doi:10.1142/S0129167X07004072, ISBN 978-0-387-74611-1, MR 2325352 - Higman, Graham (1974),
*Finitely presented infinite simple groups*, Notes on Pure Mathematics,**8**, Department of Pure Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, I.A.S. Australian National University, Canberra, ISBN 978-0-7081-0300-5, MR 0376874

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