Thomsen–Friedenreich antigen

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Thomsen–Friedenreich antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr) is a disaccharide that serves as a core 1 structure in O-linked glycosylation. [1] First described by Thomsen as a red blood cell's antigen, later research have determined it to be an oncofetal antigen. [2] it is present in the body as a part of membrane transport proteins where it is normally masked from the immune system. [3] It is commonly demasked in cancer cells, with it being expressed in up to 90% of carcinomas, making it a potential target for immunotherapy. [2]

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CA-125

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Carcinoembryonic antigen

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally produced in gastrointestinal tissue during fetal development, but the production stops before birth. Consequently, CEA is usually present at very low levels in the blood of healthy adults. However, the serum levels are raised in some types of cancer, which means that it can be used as a tumor marker in clinical tests. Serum levels can also be elevated in heavy smokers.

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CD44 Cell–cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration.

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Brachyury

Brachyury is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the TBXT gene. Brachyury functions as a transcription factor within the T-box family of genes. Brachyury homologs have been found in all bilaterian animals that have been screened, as well as the freshwater cnidarian Hydra.

Fas receptor

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CD133

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MUC1

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CEACAM1

Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) also known as CD66a, is a human glycoprotein, and a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family.

Epithelial cell adhesion molecule

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Glypican 3

Glypican-3 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the GPC3 gene. The GPC3 gene is located on human X chromosome (Xq26) where the most common gene encodes a 70-kDa core protein with 580 amino acids. Three variants have been detected that encode alternatively spliced forms termed Isoforms 1 (NP_001158089), Isoform 3 (NP_001158090) and Isoform 4 (NP_001158091).

SERPINB4

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TPBG

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Tumor microenvironment

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References

  1. Yu, Lu-Gang (2007). "The oncofetal Thomsen–Friedenreich carbohydrate antigen in cancer progression". Glycoconjugate Journal. 24 (8): 411–20. doi:10.1007/s10719-007-9034-3. PMID   17457671. S2CID   9264538.
  2. 1 2 Kurtenkov, Oleg (2020-03-24). "Profiling of Naturally Occurring Antibodies to the Thomsen-Friedenreich Antigen in Health and Cancer: The Diversity and Clinical Potential". BioMed Research International. 2020: 1–12. doi: 10.1155/2020/9747040 . ISSN   2314-6133. PMC   7128052 . PMID   32280709.
  3. Karsten, U.; Goletz, S. (July 2015). "What controls the expression of the core-1 (Thomsen—Friedenreich) glycotope on tumor cells?". Biochemistry (Moscow). 80 (7): 801–807. doi:10.1134/S0006297915070019. ISSN   0006-2979. PMID   26541995. S2CID   17278587.