Thon and rammana

Last updated
Thon and rammana
A thon (left) and rammana (right)

Percussion (Membranophone)

The thon and rammana (Thai : โทนรำมะนา , pronounced  [tʰoːnː] ) are hand drums played as a pair in Thai classical music. It consists of two drums: the thon (โทน), a goblet drum with a ceramic or wooden body and the rammana (รำมะนา), a small rebana-typed frame drum or tambourine. They are used usually in the khruang sai ensemble. The thon gives a low pitch and the rammana gives a high pitch. Earlier in the 20th century, the thon and rammana were sometimes played separately.

Thai language language spoken in Thailand

Thai, Central Thai or Ayutthaya or Siamese, is the sole official and national language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority of Thai of Chinese origin. It is a member of the Tai group of the Kra–Dai language family. Over half of Thai vocabulary is derived from or borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon and Old Khmer. It is a tonal and analytic language.

A hand drum is any type of drum that is typically played with the bare hand rather than a stick, mallet, hammer, or other type of beater.

Goblet drum specific type of generic goblet drum

The goblet drum is a single head membranophone with a goblet shaped body used mostly in Egypt, the Middle East, North Africa, the Levant, South Asia, and Eastern Europe. The African djembe-wassolou is also a goblet membranophone. This article focuses on the Eastern and North-African goblet drum.

The instruments are also used in Cambodian music in the mohori ensemble. [1] [2]

See also

Skor daey A Cambodian goblet-drum; similar drums (or the same drum with different names) include skor touch (small drum) and skor arak, skor kar, skor ayai.

The skor daey is a short goblet drum from Cambodia, approximately 40 centimeters tall and 15 centimeters wide at the top. There are two common goblet drums there, the skor chhaiyam, a very long goblet drum, resembling some from Burma, and the skor daey.

Traditional Thai musical instruments are the musical instruments used in the traditional and classical music of Thailand. They comprise a wide range of wind, string, and percussion instruments played by both the Thai majority as well as the nation's ethnic minorities.

  1. Khean, Yun; Dorivan, Keo; Lina, Y; Lenna, Mao. Traditional Musical Instruments of Cambodia (PDF). Kingdom of Cambodia: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. pp. 248–253.
  2. "The Flute Player". Retrieved 10 October 2018. Thaun, a goblet drum, is similar to the skor arakk, except it has a shallower head and a slimmer body...used as part of a two-piece drum set in the mohori ensemble... [From a Public Broadcasting Service webpage about the 2003 movie by Jocelyn Glatzer called the Flute Player, about a man who returns to Cambodia to teach the Cambodian flute.]

Related Research Articles

The music of Cambodia is derived from a mesh of cultural traditions dating back to the ancient Khmer Empire, India, China and the original indigenous tribes living in the area before the arrival of Indian and Chinese travelers. With the rapid Westernization of popular music, Cambodian music has incorporated elements from music around the world through globalization.

The music of Thailand reflects its geographic position at the intersection of China and India, and reflects trade routes that have historically included Persia, Africa, Greece and Rome. Traditional Thai musical instruments are varied and reflect ancient influence from far afield - including the klong thap and khim, the jakhe, the klong jin, and the klong kaek . Though Thailand was never colonized by colonial powers, pop music and other forms of modern Asian, European and American music have become extremely influential. The two most popular styles of traditional Thai music are luk thung and mor lam; the latter in particular has close affinities with the music of Laos.

Samphor small barrel drum indigenous to Cambodia

The samphor is a small, 2-headed barrel drum indigenous to Cambodia, approximately .35 meter wide by .5 meter long. It has two heads, with one drumhead being larger than the other and is played with both hands. Depending on the ability of the musician, the samphor can make as many as 8 different pitches. The player of the sampho leads the pinpeat, setting the tempo and beat. It is also played at freestyle boxing evens, accompanying the sralai. The samphor is analogous to the taphon used in Thailand.

The pinpeat orchestra or musical ensemble performs the ceremonial music of the royal courts and temples of Cambodia. The orchestra consists of approximately nine or ten instruments, mainly wind and percussion. It accompanies court dances, masked plays, shadow plays, and religious ceremonies. The pinpeat is analogous to the piphat ensemble of Thailand.

Khrueang sai

Wong khrueang sai is a musical ensemble in Thai classical music which consists primarily of string instruments. A typical khrueang sai ensemble features two two-string fiddles, one high and one low, a three-string zither called jakhe, a vertical duct flute called khlui, hand drums, and various cymbals. Depending on the size of the ensemble, instruments may be doubled or left out. A three-string spike fiddle called saw sam sai may be added as well. The khim has become popular and is also used in this ensemble. In the 20th century, Western instruments such as the violin or organ have also occasionally been integrated into khrueang sai ensembles.

Yike is a prominent form Cambodian musical theater, along with Bassac theater and Niyeai. "Lakhon Yike" incorporates singing and dancing and "an ensemble of both traditional and modern instruments."

Ching (instrument) finger cymbals played in Cambodian and Thai theater and dance ensembles

Ching are finger cymbals played in Cambodian and Thai theater and dance ensembles.

Traditional Cambodian musical instruments

Traditional Cambodian musical instruments are the musical instruments used in the traditional and classical musics of Cambodia. They comprise a wide range of wind, string, and percussion instruments, used by both the Khmer majority as well as the nation's ethnic minorities.

Chakhe Crocodile-shaped zither used in Khmer and Thai music

The chakhe, or krapeu, is a fretted floor zither or lute with three strings used in Thai and Khmer music. The Thai and the Khmer instrument are virtually identical.

Klong that are large barrel drums used in the classical music of Thailand. They are played with large wooden sticks. They are usually played in a pair and used in the piphat ensemble. Drums of this kind have also been called klong chatri (กลองชาตรี) and klong túk (กลองตุ๊ก).

Roneat ek A Cambodian xylophone made from bamboo. It is stylized to have sharp endboards.

The roneat ek is a xylophone used in the Khmer classical music of Cambodia. It is built in the shape of a curved, rectangular shaped boat. It has twenty-one thick bamboo or hard wood bars that are suspended from strings attached to the two walls. They are cut into pieces of the same width, but of different lengths and thickness. Originally these instruments were highly decorated with inlay and carvings on the sides of the sound box. Now they are simpler. It is one of the instruments used in the pinpeat ensemble. In that ensemble, it is placed to the right of the roneat thung, a lower-pitched xylophone. The roneat ek is the analogous equivalent to the Thai xylophone called ranat ek, and the Burmese bamboo xylophone called "pattala".

The roneat thung is a low-pitched xylophone used in the Khmer classical music of Cambodia. It is built in the shape of a curved, rectangular shaped boat. This instrument plays an important part in the pinpeat ensemble. The roneat thung is placed on the left of the roneat ek, a higher-pitched xylophone. The roneat thung is analogous to the ranat thum of Thai.

Skor thom

The Skor thom (ស្គរធំ) are Cambodian 2-headed barrel drums played with a pair of wooden drumsticks. They typically have skin heads made from oxen, cows or buffalos, and are played in pairs. The drums are tuned such that one will give a "tighter and louder" sound when struck, while the other gives a "loose and more flatter tone." The log is hollowed out to form a thin tube, about 1 centimeter thick, and the hide is stretched out on each side to create the drum. Dimensions for the instruments vary, as they are carved from logs; however they can measure 50 centimetres long and be 46 centimetres in across at the center of the drum, with the ends beinng about 40 centimetres wide.

Skor chhaiyam

The skor chhaiyam is a tall Cambodian goblet drum, slung over the shoulder with a string, so it can be played at waist level while walking. Only the top has skin, leaving a sound-hole at the bottom of a narrowed drum body. The instrument is used to "celebrate happy events."

Skor yike

The skor yike is a family of Cambodian frame drums used in Yike theater. There are as many as 13 different sizes, including the largest, the skor mei. In the Yike drama, the skor mei starts and ends the music.

Skor yeam

The skor yeam also known as the skor pheary and skor chey is a Cambodian base drum, similar in shape to the skor samphor, but much larger. The drums are ancient in origin, used originally in war to "beat command signals" or gather soldiers together. Where the samphor is hand-played, the skor yeam is played with a drumstick. The instrument is similar in size and shape to the Thai taphon mon.

Skor sang na

The skor sang na or sko chhneah is a Cambodia drum, similar in shape to the samphor but smaller, measuring 60 centimeters by 20 centimeters. The instrument is small enough to carry. Like the skor chaiyam which has a strap to allow the instrument to be carried in parades, the skor sang also has a strap. However, rather than cheerful parades, it had a more solemn purpose, playing in funeral processions and ceremonies. Used to play "Khlang Chanack" funeral music.