Thonburi

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The village of Thonburi, on the right (west) bank of the Chao Phraya (here in the lower left corner of the map), facing the fortress of Bangkok, during the 1688 Siege of Bangkok. Siege of Bangkok.JPG
The village of Thonburi, on the right (west) bank of the Chao Phraya (here in the lower left corner of the map), facing the fortress of Bangkok, during the 1688 Siege of Bangkok.
Historical map of Thonburi on Chao Phraya River Thonburi-history-map.svg
Historical map of Thonburi on Chao Phraya River

Thonburi (Thai : ธนบุรี) is an area of modern Bangkok. During the era of the kingdom of Ayutthaya, its location on the right (west) bank at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River had made it an important garrison town, which is reflected in its name: thon (ธน) a loanword from Pali dhána wealth and buri (บุรี), from púra fortress. [2] The full formal name was Thon Buri Si Mahasamut (กรุงธนบุรีศรีมหาสมุทร 'City of Treasures Gracing the Ocean'). For the informal name, see the history of Bangkok under Ayutthaya.

Thai language language spoken in Thailand

Thai, Central Thai, is the sole official and national language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority of Thai Chinese. It is a member of the Tai group of the Kra–Dai language family. Over half of Thai vocabulary is derived from or borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon and Old Khmer. It is a tonal and analytic language, similar to Chinese and Vietnamese.

Bangkok Special administrative area in Thailand

Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep. The city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres (605.7 sq mi) in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand, and has a population of over eight million, or 12.6 percent of the country's population. Over fourteen million people lived within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region at the 2010 census, making Bangkok the nation's primate city, significantly dwarfing Thailand's other urban centres in terms of importance.

Ayutthaya Kingdom former country

The Ayutthaya Kingdom was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767. Ayutthaya was friendly towards foreign traders, including the Chinese, Vietnamese, Portuguese, Indians, Japanese, Koreans, Persians, and later Spaniards, Dutch, English, and French, permitting them to set up villages outside the walls of the capital, also called Ayutthaya.

Contents

In 1768, a year after the sack of Ayutthaya by the Burmese, General Taksin took back Thonburi and, by right of conquest, made it the capital of the Thonburi Kingdom with himself king until 6 April 1782. Rama I, the newly enthroned king, moved the capital across the river, where stakes driven into the soil of Bangkok for the City Pillar at 06:45 on 21 April 1782, marking the official founding of the new capital. [3] :p.14 Thonburi remained an independent town and province, until it was merged with Bangkok in 1971. [4] Thonburi stayed less developed than the other side of the river. Many of the traditional small waterways, khlongs , still exist there, while they are nearly gone from the other side of the river.

Taksin King of Siam

Taksin the Great or the King of Thonburi was the only King of the Thonburi Kingdom. He had been an Ekatat servant and then was a leader in the liberation of Siam from Burmese occupation after the Second Fall of Ayutthaya in 1767, and the subsequent unification of Siam after it fell under various warlords. He established the city of Thonburi as the new capital, as the city of Ayutthaya had been almost completely destroyed by the invaders. His reign was characterized by numerous wars; he fought to repel new Burmese invasions and to subjugate the northern Thai kingdom of Lanna, the Laotian principalities, and a threatening Cambodia.

The Right of Conquest is a historically legitimate right of ownership to land after immediate possession via force of arms. It was recognised as a principle of international law that gradually deteriorated in significance until its proscription in the aftermath of World War II following criminalisation of a war of aggression as first codified in the Nuremberg Principles. Further definition of aggression was recommended by the United Nations General Assembly to the Security Council via the non-binding United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3314.

Thonburi Kingdom former country

Kingdom of Thonburi was a Siamese kingdom after the downfall of the Ayutthaya Kingdom by the Konbaung Burmese invader. The kingdom was founded by King Taksin the Great, who relocated the capital to Thonburi. The kingdom of Thonburi existed from 1767 to 1782. In 1782, King Rama I founded the Rattanakosin Kingdom and relocated the capital to Bangkok on the other side of the Chao Phraya River, thus bringing the Thonburi kingdom to an end. The city of Thonburi remained an independent town and province until it was merged into Bangkok in 1971.

In 1950, Bangkok had around 1.3 m people, and the municipality of Thonburi around 400,000. In 1970 Thonburi was Thailand's second largest city proper with around 600,000 residents.

Wongwian Yai is a landmark of Thonburi District.

Administration

Three Thai-style pavilions adjacent to each other beside Wat Prayurawongsawat rim Chao Phraya River (opposite Yodpiman River Walk), which is now head office of City Law Enforcement Department, BMA, formerly the Thonburi City Hall) Thetsaban Sai 1, Wat kanlaya, Thon buri, bangkok, Thailand - panoramio.jpg
Three Thai-style pavilions adjacent to each other beside Wat Prayurawongsawat rim Chao Phraya River (opposite Yodpiman River Walk), which is now head office of City Law Enforcement Department, BMA, formerly the Thonburi City Hall)

At the time of the merger, Thonburi province consisted of nine districts ( amphoe ).

Amphoe Second level administrative subdivision of Thailand

An amphoe is the second level administrative subdivision of Thailand. Usually translated as "district". Amphoe make up the provinces, and are analogous to counties. The chief district officer is Nai Amphoe (นายอำเภอ). Amphoe are divided into tambons,, or sub-districts.

  1. Thonburi District (Thai : อำเภอธนบุรี)
  2. Bangkok Yai District (Thai : อำเภอบางกอกใหญ่)
  3. Khlong San District (Thai : อำเภอคลองสาน)
  4. Taling Chan District (Thai : อำเภอตลิ่งชัน)
  5. Bangkok Noi District (Thai : อำเภอบางกอกน้อย)
  6. Bang Khun Thian District (Thai : อำเภอบางขุนเทียน)
  7. Phasi Charoen District (Thai : อำเภอภาษีเจริญ)
  8. Nong Khaem District (Thai : อำเภอหนองแขม)
  9. Rat Burana District (Thai : อำเภอราษฎร์บูรณะ)

As of 2012, these have been reorganized into 15 districts.

Related Research Articles

Wat Arun Buddhist temple in central Bangkok, Thailand

Wat Arun Ratchawararam Ratchawaramahawihan or Wat Arun is a Buddhist temple (wat) in Bangkok Yai district of Bangkok, Thailand, on the Thonburi west bank of the Chao Phraya River. The temple derives its name from the Hindu god Aruna, often personified as the radiations of the rising sun. Wat Arun is among the best known of Thailand's landmark. The first light of the morning reflects off the surface of the temple with pearly iridescence. Although the temple had existed since at least the seventeenth century, its distinctive prang (spires) were built in the early nineteenth century during the reign of King Rama II.

Khlong San District Khet in Bangkok, Thailand

Khlong San is one of the 50 districts (khet) of Bangkok, Thailand. On the west bank of Chao Phraya River, its neighboring districts across the river are Phra Nakhon, Samphanthawong, Bang Rak, Sathon, and Bang Kho Laem. On the west side of the river, the only land neighbor is Thon Buri District.

Bangkok Yai District Khet in Bangkok

Bangkok Yai is one of the 50 districts (khet) of Bangkok, Thailand. Neighbouring districts are Bangkok Noi, Phra Nakhon, Thon Buri, Phasi Charoen, and Taling Chan.

Thon Buri District District in Bangkok, Thailand

Thon Buri is one of the 50 districts (khet) of Bangkok, Thailand. On the west bank of Chao Phraya River, it was once part of Thon Buri Province. Neighboring districts are Bangkok Yai, Phra Nakhon, Khlong San, Bang Kho Laem, Rat Burana, Chom Thong, and Phasi Charoen.

Rat Burana District Khet in Bangkok, Thailand

Rat Burana is one of the 50 districts (khet) of Bangkok, Thailand. The district is bounded by Amphoe Phra Pradaeng of Samut Prakan Province, Thung Khru, Chom Thong and Thon Buri districts of Bangkok while its north to east is Chao Phraya River with (clockwise) Bang Kho Laem and Yan Nawa districts across the river.

History of Bangkok

The history of the city of Bangkok, in Thailand, dates at least to the early–15th century, when it was under the rule of Ayutthaya. Due to its strategic location near the mouth of the Chao Phraya River, the town gradually increased in importance, and after the fall of Ayutthaya King Taksin established his new capital of Thonburi there, on the river's west bank. King Phutthayotfa Chulalok, who succeeded Taksin, moved the capital to the eastern bank in 1782, to which the city dates its foundation under its current Thai name, "Krung Thep Maha Nakhon". Bangkok has since undergone tremendous changes, growing rapidly, especially in the second half of the 20th century, to become the primate city of Thailand. It was the centre of Siam's modernization in the late–19th century, subjected to Allied bombing during the Second World War, and has long been the modern nation's central political stage, with numerous uprisings and coups d'état having taken place on its streets throughout the years.

Siri Rat Subdistrict subdistrict in Bangkok Noi district, Bangkok, Thailand

Siri Rat is one of the 180 sub-districts (khwaeng) of Bangkok, Thailand, covering the area around Siriraj Hospital, located on the southern rim of Khlong (canal) Bangkok Noi mouth to the western bank of the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok Noi District. It is also named for the road intersection of Thanon (Road) Arun Ammarin and Thanon Wang Lang at the front of the hospital.

Wongwian Yai rounabout in Bangkok, Thailand

Wongwian Yai, also spelled "Wong Wian Yai" or "Wongwien Yai", is a large roundabout in Thonburi, on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok, Thailand, where the statue of King Taksin is situated. It is in Thon Buri District in the centre of Bangkok, at the intersection of Prajadhipok/Intharaphithak/Lat Ya/Somdet Phra Chao Taksin Roads. Nearby is Wongwian Yai Station, a historical commuter railway terminal to Maha Chai and Mae Khlong, a southwestern suburb of Bangkok.

Wongwian Yai station

Wongwian Yai station is a BTS skytrain station, on the Silom Line in Khlong San District, Bangkok, Thailand. The station is on Krung Thon Buri Road to the west of Taksin intersection.

Thonburi Palace

Thonburi Palace, also known in Thai as Phra Racha Wang Derm, is the former royal palace of King Taksin, who ruled the Siamese (Thai) kingdom of Thonburi following the fall of Ayutthaya in 1767 and up until the establishment of Rattanakosin in 1782. It later served as the residence of several high-ranking members of the Chakri Dynasty until 1900 when the palace became the site of the Royal Thai Naval Academy. The palace is now within the grounds of the Royal Thai Navy headquarters in Bangkok, and is open for group visits pending advance appointment.

Ton Son Mosque

Ton Son Mosque is a historic mosque in Sunni sect in Islam. Located on left bank of Khlong Bangkok Yai, Wat Arun Subdistrict, Bangkok Yai District, Bangkok's Thonburi side, opposite Bang Luang Mosque and Wat Moli Lokayaram.

Sinn Sathorn Tower

Sinn Sathorn Tower is a skyscraper in Thonburi side, Bangkok. The total height of 195 metres (640 ft) is 44 floors, located at 77/8 Krung Thon Buri Road, Khlong Ton Sai Subdistrict, Khlong San District near the foot of Taksin Bridge, with total area of 120,000 square meters. Construction started in 1989. Completed in 1993, there were 255 units, each with a living area of 170. The square meter is 352 square meters, the cost is 2,000 million baht by Sinn Estate Property Co., Ltd. together with many other companies. It was once the tallest building in Thailand, and the tallest on the Thonburi side until taken over by The River in 2011.

Talat Phlu

Talat Phlu or Talad Phlu is a community and marketplace by the Khlong Bangkok Yai in the Talat Phlu and Bang Yi Ruea Subdistricts, Thon Buri District, Thonburi side of Bangkok.

Bang Yi Ruea subdistrict in Thon Buri district, Bangkok, Thailand

Bang Yi Ruea is a khwaeng (sub-district) in Thon Buri district, Thonburi side of Bangkok. It has a total area of 1.523 km2.

Bang Luang Mosque mosque in Bangkok, Thailand

Bang Luang Mosque is a historic mosque in Bangkok located in Soi Arun Amarin 7, New Arun Amarin Road, Wat Kanlaya Subdistrict, Thon Buri District, Thonburi side within Kudi Khao Community by the Khlong Bangkok Yai near mouth of Chao Phraya River, it's also known as Kudi Khao and Kudi To Yi.

Khlong Bangkok Yai canal in Bangkok, Thailand

Khlong Bangkok Yai is a historic khlong of Bangkok. Originally it was part of the Chao Phraya River. In the past, the course of the Chao Phraya was longer than in the present. Those who travel by boat must cruise along the river, which took more than one day, until the reign of King Chairachathirat (1534–46) of the Ayutthaya Kingdom who ordered the construction of a canal bypassing a loop of the Chao Phraya River, known as Khlong Lat Bangkok, thus reducing travel times and changing the course of the Chao Phraya, which now flows along the new canal. The old course became what is known today as Khlong Bangkok Yai and Khlong Bangkok Noi.

Wat Molilokkayaram Buddhist temple in Bangkok, Thailand

Wat Molilokkayaram Ratchawarawihan or simply Wat Molilokkayaram is an ancient Thai temple site between Wat Arun and Wat Kalayanamitr rim Khlong Bangkok Yai near Anuthin Sawat Bridge and close to Tonson Mosque.

Wat Kanlaya Subdistrict in Bangkok, Thailand

Wat Kanlaya is a khwaeng (sub-district) of Thon Buri District, Bangkok's Thonburi side, regarded as the northeast area of the district adjacent to the Chao Phraya River's west side.

Pak Khlong Phasi Charoen

Pak Khlong Phasi Charoen is a khwaeng (sub-district) of Phasi Charoen District, Bangkok's Thonburi side.

References

  1. Jean Vollant des Verquains History of the revolution in Siam in the year 1688, in Smithies 2002, p.95-96
  2. Turner, Sir Ralph Lilley (1985) [London: Oxford University Press, 1962-1966.]. "A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages". Includes three supplements, published 1969-1985. Digital South Asia Library, a project of the Center for Research Libraries and the University of Chicago. pp. 384 and 469. Retrieved 5 August 2013. dhána 6717 ; púra 8278
  3. Barrett, Kenneth (2013). "Introduction". 22 Walks in Bangkok (PDF). Singapore: Tuttle. p. 12. ISBN   9781462913800. Archived from the original (PDF 2.5MB 36 pp. ebook sample) on 2014-08-10. Retrieved 2014-07-27. ....'Thonburi' ... translated loosely as "Money Town" ....in 1557 ... became Thonburi Sri Maha Samut, "City of Treasures Gracing the Ocean".
  4. ประกาศของคณะปฏิวัติ ฉบับที่ ๒๔ (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 88 (144 ก): 816–819. 1971-12-21.
  5. "ล่องนาวีสดุดีมหาราช "พระเจ้าตากสิน" ครบรอบ 250 ปี "กรุงธนบุรี"" [Cruising glorify the Great "King Taksin", the 250th anniversary of "Kingdom of Thonburi"]. AUTOPREVIEW (in Thai).

Further reading

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Coordinates: 13°43′30″N100°29′09″E / 13.725°N 100.485833333°E / 13.725; 100.485833333

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