Thong Lan

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King Thong Lan
สมเด็จพระเจ้าทองลัน
King of Ayutthaya
King of Siam
ReignSeven days in 750 LE
(1388/89 CE)
Predecessor Borommarachathirat I
Successor Ramesuan
Born ca 735 LE (1373/74 CE)
Died750 LE (1388/89 CE)
Wat Khok Phraya (in present-day Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province, Thailand)
House Suphannaphum Dynasty
Father Borommarachathirat I

King Thong Lan (Thai : สมเด็จพระเจ้าทองลัน) was a king of Ayutthaya, an ancient kingdom in Thailand.

Thai language language spoken in Thailand

Thai, Central Thai, is the sole official and national language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people. It is a member of the Tai group of the Kra–Dai language family. Over half of Thai vocabulary is derived from or borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon and Old Khmer. It is a tonal and analytic language, similar to Chinese and Vietnamese.

Ayutthaya Kingdom former country

The Ayutthaya Kingdom was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767. Ayutthaya was friendly towards foreign traders, including the Chinese, Vietnamese, Portuguese, Indians, Japanese, Koreans, Persians, and later Spaniards, Dutch, English, and French, permitting them to set up villages outside the walls of the capital, also called Ayutthaya.

Thailand Constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia

Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th-largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. It is a unitary state. Although nominally the country is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup, in 2014, established a de facto military dictatorship under a junta.

Contents

A son of Borommarachathirat I and member of the House of Suphannaphum, Thong Lan succeeded his father to the throne of Ayutthaya in 750 LE (1931 BE, 1388/89 CE) at the age of 15. Having reigned for only seven days, he was deposed and executed in a coup by Ramesuan, his relative from the House of Uthong. [1]

King Borommarachathirat I or King Borom Rachathirat I, also known as Khunluang Pha Ngua ; 1370–1388), was the third king of Ayutthaya Kingdom.

Somdet Phra Ramesuan, son of king Ramathibodi I, reigned as the second and fifth king of the kingdom of Ayutthaya. When King Ramathibodi ascended to the throne of Ayuthaya, he sent King Ramesuan to reign in Lavo. Upon King Ramathibodi's death in 1369, King Ramesuan traveled to Ayutthaya to assume the throne, but held it for less than a year before being deposed by his uncle, King Borommaracha I, the ruler of Suphanburi. Sources differ over the nature of their conflict; official chronicles state that the older Boromaracha ruled with the willing consent of his nephew, while Jeremias van Vliet's Short History of Thailand indicated that Boromaracha's ascension came only after a bloody conflict bordering on civil war.

Thong Lan was the first monarch of Ayutthaya to be executed. [2]

Name

List of abbreviations in this article
AbbreviationFor
BE Thai Buddhist Era
CE Common Era
LE Lesser Era

The child king is known as Thong Lan (Thai : ทองลัน; IPA:  [tʰɔ̃ːŋ˧.lä̃n˧] ) in most historical sources, including the British Museum Chronicle , [3] the Luang Prasoet Chronicle , [4] and the Phan Channumat Chronicle . [5]

Thong (Thai : ทอง ) means "gold". Lan (Thai : ลัน) is an archaic word whose meaning is not known. [6]

Historian Suchit Wongthet (Thai : สุจิตต์ วงษ์เทศ) expressed the opinion that lan here is an old ThaiLao term which encyclopediae say refers to "eel trap made of bamboo". The historian stated that naming a person after an animal trapping device was an ancient practice, citing the personal name of King Rama I, Thong Duang (Thai : ทอง ด้วง ), which means "golden snare". [7]

Lao language Tai–Kadai language official in Laos

Lao, sometimes referred to as Laotian, is a Kra–Dai language and the language of the ethnic Lao people. It is spoken in Laos, where it is the official language, as well as northeast Thailand, where it is usually referred to as Isan. Lao serves as a lingua franca among all citizens of Laos, who speak approximately 90 other languages, many of which are unrelated to Lao. Modern Lao (language) is heavily influenced by the Thai language. A vast number of technical terms as well as common usage are adopted directly from Thai.

Eel order of fishes

An eel is any ray-finned fish belonging to the order Anguilliformes, which consists of four suborders, 20 families, 111 genera, and about 800 species. Eels undergo considerable development from the early larval stage to the eventual adult stage, and most are predators.

Fish trap trap used for fishing

A fish trap is a trap used for fishing. Fish traps can have the form of a fishing weir or a lobster trap. Some fishing nets are also called fish traps, for example fyke nets.

The Bradley Chronicle , however, says the name of the boy king was Thong Lan (Thai : ท้อง ลั่น ; IPA:  [tʰɔ̃ːŋ˦˥.lä̃n˥˩] ; "cry of stomach"). [8]

Thong Lan is known as Thong Chan (Thai : ทอง จันทร์ ; IPA:  [tʰɔ̃ːŋ˧.t͡ɕä̃n˧] ; "golden moon" or "moon gold") in the Phonnarat Chronicle [9] and the Royal Autograph Chronicle . [10]

In the Minor Wars Chronicle , he is referred to in Pali as Suvaṇṇacanda (in Thai script: สุวณฺณจนฺท; "golden moon"). [11]

The Van Vliet Chronicle , a Dutch document written by Jeremias Van Vliet in 1640 CE, refers to him as Thong t'Jan. [12]

Family

All historical documents say Thong Lan was a son of Borommarachathirat I. [1]

Life

Political background

The Kingdom of Ayutthaya was jointly founded by the royal houses of Uthong and Suphannaphum, which were related through marriage. [13] The first monarch of Ayutthaya, Ramathibodi I, was from Uthong. He appointed his son, Ramesuan, the ruler of Lop Buri. [14] He also appointed Boromrachathirat I, his relative from Suphannaphum, the ruler of Suphan Buri. [15]

In 731 LE (1912 BE, 1369/70 CE), Ramathibodi I died. Ramesuan came from Lop Buri and succeeded to the throne of Ayutthaya. [16]

In 732 LE (1913 BE, 1370/71 CE), Borommarachathirat I marched his army from Suphan Buri to Ayutthaya. Ramesuan then "presented" the throne to him and returned to Lop Buri as before. [15]

Reign

In 750 LE (1931 BE, 1388/89 CE), Boromrachathirat I led his army to attack Chakangrao. But he fell ill and died en route. [17] His son, Thong Lan, then succeeded to the throne of Ayutthaya. [12]

Thai chronicles state that Thong Lan was 15 years of age when he ascended the throne in 750 LE (1931 BE, 1388/89 CE). [1] Based on this information, Thong Lan was possibly born in 735 LE (1916 BE, 1373/74 CE). But the Dutch document Van Vliet Chronicle says he was 17 when ascending the throne. [12]

After Thong Lan had reigned for merely seven days, Ramesuan came from Lop Buri with his army and seized the throne. Ramesuan had Thong Lan put to death at a Buddhist temple called Wat Khok Phraya (Thai : วัดโคกพระยา). [10] Thong Lan was killed by hitting his neck with a Sandalwood club, a traditional means for executing a royal person. [18] Ramesuan then became king of Ayutthaya for the second time. [19]

Historian Damrong Rajanubhab introduced a theory that Boromrachathirat I brought his army to Ayutthaya in 732 LE because of certain political problems that Ramesuan was unable to deal with. The two might have agreed that Ramesuan would let Boromrachathirat rule Ayutthaya and the latter would declare the former his successor. Ramesuan thus presented the throne of Ayutthaya to Boromrachathirat and returned to his old base, Lop Buri. But when it appeared that the agreement was breached and Boromrachathirat was instead succeeded by his son, Thong Lan, Ramesuan then seized the throne and killed Thong Lan. [20]

Modern scholars believe otherwise. Suchit Wongthet (Thai : สุจิตต์ วงษ์เทศ) expressed the opinion that Boromrachathirat's arrival in Ayutthaya with troops was apparently to "seize power by means of military force (called coup in our days)" and Ramesuan returned to Lop Buri just to accumulate more power and wait for an opportunity to strike back. [21] Pramin Khrueathong (Thai : ปรามินทร์ เครือทอง) also believed that Boromrachathirat used military strength to force Ramesuan out of the throne, saying this was probably why Ramesuan took revenge on Boromrachathirat's young son, Thong Lan, killing the child violently. [22]

These events were part of a series of conflicts between the houses of Uthong and Suphannaphum that would continue until Suphannaphum achieved decisive victory over Uthong at the end of Ramrachathirat's reign, allowing Suphannaphum to remain in power over the Kingdom of Ayutthaya for almost the next two centuries. [23]

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References

Bibliography

Thong Lan
Born: ca 735 LE (1373/74 CE) Died: 750 LE (1388/89 CE)
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Borommarachathirat I
King of Ayutthaya
Seven days in
750 LE (1388/89 CE)
Succeeded by
Ramesuan