Thopia Zenevisi

Last updated
Thopia Zenevisi
Bornc. 1379[ citation needed ]
Corfu
Died1435
Noble family Zenebishi
Father John Zenevisi
Motherdaughter of Gjin Bua Spata

Depas or Thopia Zenevisi [a] (Albanian : Depë Zenebishi, c. 1379–1435) was an Albanian nobleman. The son of John Zenevisi, he had settled in his father's estate in Corfu after the conquest of Gjirokastër by the Ottoman Empire in 1418. He was called to lead the rebels in the area of Gjirokastër during the Albanian Revolt of 1432-1436 and was defeated by Turahan Bey in early 1433. He was captured and later executed.

Albanian language Indo-European language

Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Oceania. With about 7.5 million speakers, it comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not closely related to any other language in Europe.

John Zenevisi or Sarbissa was an Albanian magnate that held the estates in Epirus, such as Argyrokastro (Gjirokastër) and Vagenetia.

Corfu Place in Greece

Corfu or Kerkyra is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea. It is the second largest of the Ionian Islands, and, including its small satellite islands, forms the margin of the northwestern frontier of Greece. The island is part of the Corfu regional unit, and is administered as a single municipality, which also includes the smaller islands of Ereikoussa, Mathraki and Othonoi. The municipality has an area of 610,9 km2, the island proper 592,8 km2. The principal city of the island and seat of the municipality is also named Corfu. Corfu is home to the Ionian University.

Contents

Life

The son of John Zenevisi he had settled in his father's estate in Corfu after the conquest of Gjirokastër by the Ottoman Empire in 1418. [1] He was called to lead the rebels in the area of Gjirokastër during the Albanian Revolt of 1432-1436 and was defeated by Turahan Bey in early 1433. [1] He was captured and later executed. [1]

Turahan Bey or Turakhan Beg was a prominent Ottoman military commander and governor of Thessaly from 1423 until his death in 1456. He participated in many Ottoman campaigns of the second quarter of the 15th century, fighting against the Byzantines as well as against the Crusade of Varna. His repeated raids into the Morea transformed the local Byzantine despotate into an Ottoman dependency and opened the way for its conquest. At the same time, his administration of Thessaly, where he settled new peoples, founded the town of Tyrnavos and revitalized the economy, set the groundwork for Ottoman rule in the area for centuries to come.

Ancestry

See also

Annotations

  1. ^ Chalkokondyles calls him "Depas". [1] In historiography, his name is mostly spelled Thopia Zenevisi. A common Albanian neologism[ citation needed ] is "Depë Zenebishi".

Related Research Articles

The Middle Ages in Albania geographically refers to the region that is now Albania in the Byzantine Empire, until their incorporation in the Ottoman Empire.

Albania was ruled by the Ottoman Empire in different periods from 1415 to 1912. The Ottomans first entered Albania in 1385 at the invitation of Karl Thopia to suppress the forces of Balsha II at the Battle of Savra. The Sanjak of Albania was established in 1415 while Ottoman rule became more consolidated in 1479, after the fall of Shkodra. The Albanians revolted again in 1481 but the Ottomans finally controlled Albania by 1488. The Ottomans had previously ruled some Albanian regions after the Battle of Savra in 1385. The Ottomans placed garrisons throughout southern Albania by 1418 and established formal jurisdiction in central Albania by 1431. Even though The Ottomans claimed rule of all Albanian lands, most Albanian ethnic territories were still governed by Albanian Princes who were free of Ottoman rule. In 1431 Many Albanian Princes including Gjergj Arianiti, Zenevisi family and Gjon Kastrioti started a war against the Ottoman Empire which resulted in defeat of Gjon Kastrioti but victory in 5 battles for Gjergj Arianiti. These Albanian victories opened the way for the coming of Skanderbeg in 1443 in Kruja. Independence for most of the Albanian regions was maintained during 1443-1479, with the uprising under the lead of Skanderbeg. The Albanian resistance and war against Ottomans continued for 37 years. The last towns captured by the Ottomans were Shkodër in 1479 and Durrës in 1501. A period of the semi independence started in 1750s with the Independent Albanian Pashas. In 1754 the autonomous Albanian Pashalik of Bushati dynasty would be established with center the city of Shkodra called Pashalik of Shkodra. Later on the same autonomous Pashalik of Berat would be established and culminating with the Albanian Pashalik of Ali Pashe Tepelena in 1787. Albanian Pashaliks would end in 1831 with the last one being the Bushati Pashalik. Albanians would enter later on in the 16th and 17th centuries a period of Islamization. The territory which today belongs to the Republic of Albania remained part of the Ottoman Empire until it declared independence in 1912, during the Balkan Wars.

Krujë Municipality in Durrës, Albania

Krujë is a town and a municipality in north central Albania. Located between Mount Krujë and the Ishëm River, the city is only 20 km north from the capital of Albania, Tirana.

Gjergj Arianiti Albanian nobleman

Gjergj Arianiti or George Aryaniti (1383–1462) was an Albanian lord who led several campaigns against the Ottoman Empire. He was father of Donika, the ally of Scanderbeg, as well as great uncle of Moisi Arianit Golemi. Gjergj Arianiti is enumerated in Albanian folk tellings. Gjergj Arianiti was Skanderbeg's ally within League of Lezhë only for a short period of time because he abandoned their alliance after the defeat in Berat in 1450. Robert Elsie emphasizes that Arianiti was often Skanderbeg's rival who allied with the Kingdom of Naples in 1446, left his alliance with Skanderbeg by 1449 and allied with Venice in 1456.

Fejzi Alizoti Politician, Interim Prime Minister of Albania

Fejzi Alizoti, also referred to as Fejzi Bey Alizotti, was an Ottoman and later Albanian politician who served as the Chairman of the Central Administration of Albania from January to March 1914. He never held the title "prime minister" as is commonly misconceived.

Muriki or Maurice Spata was the ruler of Arta from late 1399/early 1400 until his death in 1414 or 1415. Maurice's reign was dominated by his wars with Carlo I Tocco. Maurice was able to defend his capital of Arta, but despite some victories failed to prevent the fall of Ioannina to Tocco. As a result, his brother Yaqub Spata who succeeded him was defeated in October 1416, ending the Despotate of Arta.

The term Albanian principalities refers to a number of principalities created in the Middle Ages in Albania and the surrounding regions in the western Balkans that were ruled by Albanian nobility. The 12th century marked the first Albanian principality, the Principality of Arbanon. It was later, however, in the 14th century and the beginning of the 15th century that these principalities became stronger, especially with the fall of the Serbian Empire. Some of these principalities were notably united in 1444 under the military alliance called League of Lezhë.

Sanjak of Albania

The Sanjak of Albania was a second-level administrative unit (sanjak) of the Ottoman Empire, located in what is today central and southern Albania. Its territory stretched between Krujë in the north and Kalamas river in the south. It was established in 1415–17, and was disestablished in 1466 with the establishment of the Sanjak of Elbasan.

Ali Bey Evrenosoğlu or Evrenosoğlu Ali Bey, known simply as Ali Bey, was an Ottoman military commander in the 15th century. He was one of the sons of Evrenos, an Ottoman general. During the 1430s he was sanjak-bey of the Sanjak of Albania who, after initial defeats, suppressed the Albanian Revolt of 1432–1436 with help of the forces commanded by Turahan Bey. In 1440 he participated in the unsuccessful Ottoman Siege of Belgrade.

Turahanoğlu Ömer Bey was an Ottoman general and governor. The son of the famed Turahan Bey, he was active chiefly in southern Greece: he fought in the Morea against both the Byzantines in the 1440s and 1450s and against the Venetians in the 1460s, while in 1456, he conquered the Latin Duchy of Athens. He also fought in Albania, north-east Italy, Wallachia and Anatolia.

Progonat Village in Gjirokastër, Albania

Progonat is a village in the former Kurvelesh municipality, Gjirokastër County, Albania. It is the largest village of upper Kurvelesh and until 1992 was the administrative center of the commune. At the 2015 local government reform it became part of the municipality Tepelenë.

Albanian revolt of 1432–1436

The Albanian revolt of 1432–36 was a series of conflicts between Albanian rebels and the Ottoman Empire during the early period of Ottoman rule in the region. Prompted by the replacement of large parts of the local nobility with Ottoman landowners, centralized governance and the Ottoman taxation system, the population and the nobles, led principally by Gjergj Arianiti, revolted against the Ottomans.

Andrea Thopia or Andrew Thopia was 15th century noble man from Albania whose domains included the territory of Scuria. He was a member of the Thopia family and one of the founders of the League of Lezhë.

The Zenevisi or Zenebishi was a medieval noble family in southern Albania that served the Angevins, Venetians and Ottomans, and at times was also independent. They governed territories in Epirus, centered in Gjirokastër.

Hamza Zenevisi or Amos Sarbissa, was an Ottoman official who served as the sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Mezistre.

Skanderbegs rebellion

Skanderbeg's rebellion was an almost 25-years long anti-Ottoman rebellion led by renegade Ottoman sanjakbey Skanderbeg on the territory which belonged to the Ottoman sanjaks of Albania, Dibra and Ohrid. This rebellion was result of initial Christian victories in the Crusade of Varna in 1443. After Ottoman defeat in the Battle of Niš Skanderbeg, then sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Debar, mistakenly believed that Christians would succeed in pushing the Ottomans out of Europe. Like many other regional Ottoman officials, he deserted the Ottoman army to raise rebellion in his sanjak of Dibra and the surrounding region. Initially, his plan was successful and soon large parts of the Sanjak of Dibra and north-east parts of the Sanjak of Albania were captured by the rebels who also fought against regular Ottoman forces in the Sanjak of Ohrid. According to Oliver Schmitt, Castrioti was allowed to leave the ottoman army thanks to the intervention of his aunt Mara Branković, who was his mother's sister and one of the wives of sultan Murat II.

Emmanuel or Manolis Mormoris was a 16th-century Greek noble, rebel and military leader of the Republic of Venice. He was the military commander of a Greek revolt in Ottoman-ruled Epirus during the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1570-1573.

Albanian-Turkish Wars (1432–1479)

The Albanian-Turkish Wars (1432–1479) was an almost 47-years long anti-Ottoman war led by renegade Ottoman sanjakbey Skanderbeg and his father Gjon Kastrioti on the territory which belonged to the Ottoman sanjaks of Albania, Dibra and Ohrid and also included the Serbian Despotate and Lordship of Zeta.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Imber, Colin (1990). The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1481. Isis Press. pp. 114–5. ISBN   9789754280159 . Retrieved 31 July 2012. Arianit's easy victory encouraged the Albanians of Gjirokaster to call on a lord whom Chalkokondylas calls "Depas", whose father the ...