Theodora (Thora) Frederikke Marie Daugaard (22 October 1874–28 June 1951) was a Danish women's rights activist, pacifist, editor and translator. In 1915, she attended the International Women's Conference in The Hague, together with Clara Tybjerg. Thereafter she established and later headed the Danske Kvinders Fredskæde or Danish Women's Peace Chain which became the Danish branch of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. She is also remembered for organizing assistance for Jews and their children in Nazi-occupied Denmark during the Second World War.
Born on 22 October 1874 in Store Arden near Hobro, Jutland, Theodora Frederikke Marie Daugaard was the daughter of the hotel keeper Peder Johannes Jensen (1841–1903) and Petrine Daugaard (1848-1925). After receiving an education as a translator in 1903, she was employed by the Danish Women's Society as editorial secretary for their journal Kvinden og Samfundet and as business manager of their new office. Working together with Esther Carstensen, Gyrithe Lemche and Astrid Stampe Feddersen, she joined the organization's electoral committee, becoming its international secretary until 1915 when Danish women won the right to vote.
Thereafter, she devoted her efforts principally to the peace movement,attending the 1915 International Women's Conference in the Hague where she announced: "We want war no longer. We no longer want it explained that we women are protected by war. No, we are raped by war!". The following year, she established the Danish Women's Peace Chain. From 1920 to 1941, she became the association's president, raising membership to 15,000.
In 1918, based on her experiences abroad, she initiated the construction of a home for single, self-employed women with almost 150 apartments, a restaurant and a laundry. When it was completed in 1920 as Clara Raphaels Hus on Copenhagen's Østerbro, Daugaard moved in herself. The following year, she was engaged as editor of a new weekly magazine Tidens Kvinder which until 1923 was published by Danske Kvinders Nationalråd. She also edited the magazine published by Kvindernes Internationale Liga for Fred og Frihed, the new name of Danske Kvinders Fredskæde.From 1930 to 1932, she edited Vore Damer which was similar to Tidens Kvinder.
Invited by the American social worker Jane Addams who was president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, she made a lecture tour of the United States from 1927 to 1929. In 1934, Daugaard represented the WILPF at the League of Nations, becoming the League's international treasurer from 1938 to 1946.
In 1938 to 1939, together with Mélanie Oppenhejm and Kirsten Gloerfelt-Tarp, she was active in saving Jewish children from the Nazi countries, succeeding in having 320 sent to Denmark.During the Nazi occupation of Denmark, most of them were sent to Sweden. Her involvement with the Jews forced her into fleeing to Sweden herself in 1943.
Thora Daugaard died on 28 June 1951 in Holstebro and was buried at Mariager Abbey.
The Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) is a non-profit non-governmental organization working "to bring together women of different political views and philosophical and religious backgrounds determined to study and make known the causes of war and work for a permanent peace" and to unite women worldwide who oppose oppression and exploitation. WILPF has national sections in 37 countries.
Events from the year 1951 in Denmark.
Eline Johanne Frederikke Hansen, was a Danish feminist and peace leader.
The modern-day character and the historical status of women in Denmark has been influenced by their own involvement in women's movements and political participation in the history of Denmark. Their mark can be seen in the fields of politics, women's suffrage, and literature, among others.
Danske Kvinders Fredskæde is the original name of the Danish branch of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. It was founded in 1915 following the International Congress of Women held in The Hague. The organization was aimed at developing national branches of women calling for more active support for peace once the First World War was over. Early activists from Denmark included Thora Daugaard (1874–1851) and Clara Tybjerg (1864–1941).
Clara Sophie Tybjerg née Sarauw (1864–1941) was a Danish women's rights activist, pacifist and educator. In 1915, she attended the International Women's Conference in The Hague, together with Thora Daugaard. Thereafter she helped establish and, from 1916 to 1920, headed the Danske Kvinders Fredskæde or Danish Women's Peace Chain which became the Danish branch of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. She is also remembered for helping to bring hunger-stricken children from Vienna to Denmark after the First World War.
Benny Sophie Caroline Andrea Cederfeld de Simonsen née Treschow (1865–1952) was a Danish peace activist. She is remembered as an effective member of Danske Kvinders Fredskæde, the Danish branch of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), later known as Kvindernes Internationale Liga for Fred og Frihed (KILFF). From 1931 to 1939, she was the organization's vice-president. She was an active participant at the international WILPF conferences from 1926 to 1937 as well as a member of their international committee where she dealt with the rights of minorities.
Eva Elisabeth Moltesen née Hällström (1871–1934) was a Finnish-Danish writer and peace activist. In 1896, she moved to Denmark to continue her education, married a Dane and settled there. She published her literary works in both Finnish and Danish, introduced Danes to her native Finland through a series of lectures and established a Finnish Society in Copenhagen. She also created Finnish-Danish and Danish-Finnish dictionaries. In 1915, Moltensen was one of the founding members of Danske Kvinders Fredskæde, the Danish chapter of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. In 1918, representing Venstre, she was a candidate in the national elections but was not elected.
Louise Gustave Dorothea Hildegard Wright née Bauditz (1861–1935) was a Danish philanthropist, feminist and peace activist. From 1913, she headed the philanthropic Præmieselskabet for Plejemødre, an association for foster mothers which supervised over 600 foster children. She was also an active member of Danske Kvinders Nationalråd where she served as vice-president. In 1915, she was one of the founding members of the Danske Kvinders Fredskæde, the Danish chapter of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, serving as a board member (1921–1924).
Estrid Hein was a Danish ophthalmologist, women's rights activist and pacifist. She practised in Copenhagen from 1898, opening her own clinic in 1906. She was also a prominent figure in the women's movement, chairing the Copenhagen chapter of the Danish Women's Society from 1909, later serving on the society's central board. In 1915, she became an active member of Danske Kvinders Fredskæde (DKF), the Danish arm of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. The same year she joined the Scandinavian Family Law Commission where she was effective in furthering progress on women rights as spouses. From 1933 she participated on the executive board of Denmark's Women's Council.
Henriette Dorthea Beenfeldt née Hansen (1878–1949) was a Danish peace activist and feminist who became one of the principal members of the Dansk Fredsforening (DF). After experiencing difficulties with board members of DF, she became an enthusiastic member of Kvindernes Internationale Liga for Fred og Frihed (KILFF), the Danish chapter of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, serving on the board of the Copenhagen branch. She continued to act as a radical pacifist, strongly opposing re-armament, even after Denmark joined NATO in 1949.
Dansk Fredsforening or the Danish Peace Society was founded by Fredrik Bajer in 1882 when it was initially called Foreningen til Danmarks Neutralisering. It called for an international arbitration tribunal to resolve conflicts as a means of avoiding war. As a result of the Conservative's support for defence, it appealed to many Liberals who had campaigned against warfare. The Society underwent significant growth in the 1890s, leading to two petitions with a total of 533,000 signatures and a series of peace demonstrations.
Johanne Elisabeth Münter née Johnson (1844–1921) was a Danish writer and women's rights activist. After travelling to Japan with her husband in 1895, she wrote several books on Japanese women and her own fascination with the country. In the 1890s, she became involved in the women's movement, speaking about culture and religion at the Kvindelig Læseforening. She also joined the Danske Kvinders Forsvarsforening and the women's department of the Red Cross. In 1904, she participated in the founding conference of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (IWSA) in Berlin. In 1906, she founded and headed the women's suffrage organization Kvindevalgretsklubben which was a member of the Danske Kvindeforeningers Valgretsforbund. She was a delegate at the IWSA conferences in Amsterdam (1908) and London (1909).
Marie Thora Frederikke Pedersen (1875–1954) was a Danish teacher, school inspector and women's rights proponent who was active in the Danish Union of Teachers and the Danish Women's Society. As a representative of these organizations on the parliamentary salary commission established in 1917, she was instrumental in achieving progress on civil servants' pay. Her efforts led to the Pay Act (Lønningsloven) of 1919 which introduced equal pay for men and women. She also succeeded in introducing improvements for Danish schools based on her international experience in education.
The Danske Kvindeforeningers Valgsretsudvalg was established in 1898 by Louise Nørlund, with support from Line Luplau, in order to work towards obtaining the vote for women. In 1904, the organization's name was changed to Danske Kvindeforeningers Valgretsforbund (DKV) or the Danish Women's Society's Suffrage Union.
The Danske Kvinders Forsvarsforening (DKF), or Danish Women's Defence Association, was a Danish women's organization established in 1907 to improve the readiness of the Danish armed forces as tensions increased across Europe. With a membership of some 50,000, it was one of the largest Danish women's organizations up to the First World War. Politically neutral, it had chapters throughout the country. With a view to making Denmark's neutrality more convincing, it sensitized politicians to the need for more effective armed forces while encouraging men to take renewed interest in defence. In 1913, a collection from its membership provided funding for ammunition and uniforms for the voluntary shooting corps. After women had obtained voting rights in 1915, it was decided future progress on defence should be based on their political involvement. The organization was therefore dissolved in 1921.
Ernestine Nyrop (1888–1975) was a Danish textile artist and fresco painter who is remembered for decorating churches in Denmark and Sweden. In 1930, she published a series of traditional Danish sewing and weaving patterns in Danske Mønstre til Syning og Vævning I-II. From 1937 to 1959, Nyrop contributed actively to Dansk Paramenthandel, an organization devoted to ensuring high-quality standards for textile art in churches.
Ane Marie Johansen Egeberg (1865–1952) was a Danish schoolteacher and women's rights activist. Based in Vejle, she established the local branch of the Danish Women's Society which she headed for 16 years. On the political front, from 1924 she was a member of the municipal council representing the liberal party Venstre.
Thora Alvilda Knudsen (1861–1950) was a Danish nurse, women's rights activist and philanthropist. She became an active member of the Danish Nurses' Organization from its establishment in 1899 and, campaigning for women's suffrage, was elected to serve as a member of Copenhagen's Borgerrepræsentation in 1909 after women were permitted to participate in municipal elections. A frequent speaker at the meetings of the Danish Women's Society, she served on the board from 1911. As a philanthropist, she supported several relief organizations including the Diakonissestiftelsen and the Danish Red Cross.